Abstract

Photon-counting laser ranging has attracted a lot of research interest for its application in the altimeter. In this letter, we report a large scale multi-beam photon-counting laser imaging system by using 100 laser beams in linear array as the light source. Taking advantage of a 100-channel low-noise high-efficiency single-photon detector, the three-dimensional image of remote targets could be constructed rapidly according to the time-of-flight measurement. This system provides a solution for a high-speed, high-resolution, low energy-consumption pushbroom airborne or spaceborne laser altimeter.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (1)

A. Swatantran, H. Tang, T. Barrett, P. DeCola, and R. Dubayah, “Rapid, High-Resolution Forest Structure and Terrain Mapping over Large Areas using Single Photon Lidar,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28277 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

2014 (4)

P. Tarolli, “High-resolution topography for understanding Earth surface processes: opportunities and challenges,” Geomorphology 216, 295–312 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. S. Moussavi, W. Abdalati, T. Scambos, and A. Neuenschwander, “Applicability of an automatic surface detection approach to micro-pulse photon-counting lidar altimetry data: implications for canopy height retrieval from future ICESat-2 data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 35(13), 5263–5279 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Liang, J. Huang, M. Ren, B. Feng, X. Chen, E. Wu, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “1550-nm time-of-flight ranging system employing laser with multiple repetition rates for reducing the range ambiguity,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4662–4670 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Bao, Y. Liang, Z. Wang, Z. Li, E. Wu, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Laser ranging at few-photon level by photon-number-resolving detection,” Appl. Opt. 53(18), 3908–3912 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

A. Yu, M. Krainak, D. Harding, J. Abshire, X. Sun, S. Valett, J. Cavanaugh, and L. Ramos-Izquierdo, “Spaceborne laser instruments for high-resolution mapping,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 757802 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Yu, M. Stephen, S. X. Li, G. B. Shaw, A. Seas, E. Dowdye, E. Troupaki, P. Liiva, D. Poulios, and K. Mascetti, “Space laser transmitter development for ICESat-2 Mission,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 757809 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The lunar orbiter laser altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

A. McCarthy, R. J. Collins, N. J. Krichel, V. Fernández, A. M. Wallace, and G. S. Buller, “Long-range time-of-flight scanning sensor based on high-speed time-correlated single-photon counting,” Appl. Opt. 48(32), 6241–6251 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ping, Q. Huang, J. Yan, J. Cao, G. Tang, and R. Shu, “Lunar topographic model CLTM-s01 from Chang’E-1 laser altimeter,” Sci. China Ser. G. 52(7), 1105–1114 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Araki, S. Tazawa, H. Noda, Y. Ishihara, S. Goossens, S. Sasaki, N. Kawano, I. Kamiya, H. Otake, J. Oberst, and C. Shum, “Lunar global shape and polar topography derived from Kaguya-LALT laser altimetry,” Science 323(5916), 897–900 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

H. Zwally, B. Schutz, W. Abdalati, J. Abshire, C. Bentley, A. Brenner, J. Bufton, J. Dezio, D. Hancock, D. Harding, T. Herring, B. Minster, K. Quinn, S. Palm, J. Spinhirne, and R. Thomas, “ICESat’s laser measurements of polar ice, atmosphere, ocean, and land,” J. Geodyn. 34(3-4), 405–445 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 712–716 (2000).
[Crossref]

Abdalati, W.

M. S. Moussavi, W. Abdalati, T. Scambos, and A. Neuenschwander, “Applicability of an automatic surface detection approach to micro-pulse photon-counting lidar altimetry data: implications for canopy height retrieval from future ICESat-2 data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 35(13), 5263–5279 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zwally, B. Schutz, W. Abdalati, J. Abshire, C. Bentley, A. Brenner, J. Bufton, J. Dezio, D. Hancock, D. Harding, T. Herring, B. Minster, K. Quinn, S. Palm, J. Spinhirne, and R. Thomas, “ICESat’s laser measurements of polar ice, atmosphere, ocean, and land,” J. Geodyn. 34(3-4), 405–445 (2002).
[Crossref]

Abshire, J.

A. Yu, M. Krainak, D. Harding, J. Abshire, X. Sun, S. Valett, J. Cavanaugh, and L. Ramos-Izquierdo, “Spaceborne laser instruments for high-resolution mapping,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 757802 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zwally, B. Schutz, W. Abdalati, J. Abshire, C. Bentley, A. Brenner, J. Bufton, J. Dezio, D. Hancock, D. Harding, T. Herring, B. Minster, K. Quinn, S. Palm, J. Spinhirne, and R. Thomas, “ICESat’s laser measurements of polar ice, atmosphere, ocean, and land,” J. Geodyn. 34(3-4), 405–445 (2002).
[Crossref]

Araki, H.

H. Araki, S. Tazawa, H. Noda, Y. Ishihara, S. Goossens, S. Sasaki, N. Kawano, I. Kamiya, H. Otake, J. Oberst, and C. Shum, “Lunar global shape and polar topography derived from Kaguya-LALT laser altimetry,” Science 323(5916), 897–900 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, Z.

Barrett, T.

A. Swatantran, H. Tang, T. Barrett, P. DeCola, and R. Dubayah, “Rapid, High-Resolution Forest Structure and Terrain Mapping over Large Areas using Single Photon Lidar,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28277 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bellisai, S.

Bentley, C.

H. Zwally, B. Schutz, W. Abdalati, J. Abshire, C. Bentley, A. Brenner, J. Bufton, J. Dezio, D. Hancock, D. Harding, T. Herring, B. Minster, K. Quinn, S. Palm, J. Spinhirne, and R. Thomas, “ICESat’s laser measurements of polar ice, atmosphere, ocean, and land,” J. Geodyn. 34(3-4), 405–445 (2002).
[Crossref]

Brenner, A.

H. Zwally, B. Schutz, W. Abdalati, J. Abshire, C. Bentley, A. Brenner, J. Bufton, J. Dezio, D. Hancock, D. Harding, T. Herring, B. Minster, K. Quinn, S. Palm, J. Spinhirne, and R. Thomas, “ICESat’s laser measurements of polar ice, atmosphere, ocean, and land,” J. Geodyn. 34(3-4), 405–445 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bronzi, D.

Bufton, J.

H. Zwally, B. Schutz, W. Abdalati, J. Abshire, C. Bentley, A. Brenner, J. Bufton, J. Dezio, D. Hancock, D. Harding, T. Herring, B. Minster, K. Quinn, S. Palm, J. Spinhirne, and R. Thomas, “ICESat’s laser measurements of polar ice, atmosphere, ocean, and land,” J. Geodyn. 34(3-4), 405–445 (2002).
[Crossref]

Buller, G. S.

Cao, J.

J. Ping, Q. Huang, J. Yan, J. Cao, G. Tang, and R. Shu, “Lunar topographic model CLTM-s01 from Chang’E-1 laser altimeter,” Sci. China Ser. G. 52(7), 1105–1114 (2009).
[Crossref]

Carter, W. E.

C. L. Glennie, W. E. Carter, R. L. Shrestha, and W. E. Dietrich, “Geodetic imaging with airborne LiDAR: the Earth’s surface revealed,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 76(8), 086801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cavanaugh, J.

A. Yu, M. Krainak, D. Harding, J. Abshire, X. Sun, S. Valett, J. Cavanaugh, and L. Ramos-Izquierdo, “Spaceborne laser instruments for high-resolution mapping,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 757802 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cavanaugh, J. F.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The lunar orbiter laser altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Chen, X.

Collins, R. J.

Coltharp, C.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The lunar orbiter laser altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

Connelly, J.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The lunar orbiter laser altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cova, S.

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 712–716 (2000).
[Crossref]

DeCola, P.

A. Swatantran, H. Tang, T. Barrett, P. DeCola, and R. Dubayah, “Rapid, High-Resolution Forest Structure and Terrain Mapping over Large Areas using Single Photon Lidar,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28277 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deems, J. S.

J. S. Deems, T. H. Painter, and D. C. Finnegan, “Lidar measurement of snow depth: a review,” J. Glaciol. 59(215), 467–479 (2013).
[Crossref]

Della Frera, A.

Dezio, J.

H. Zwally, B. Schutz, W. Abdalati, J. Abshire, C. Bentley, A. Brenner, J. Bufton, J. Dezio, D. Hancock, D. Harding, T. Herring, B. Minster, K. Quinn, S. Palm, J. Spinhirne, and R. Thomas, “ICESat’s laser measurements of polar ice, atmosphere, ocean, and land,” J. Geodyn. 34(3-4), 405–445 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dietrich, W. E.

C. L. Glennie, W. E. Carter, R. L. Shrestha, and W. E. Dietrich, “Geodetic imaging with airborne LiDAR: the Earth’s surface revealed,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 76(8), 086801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dorenbos, S. N.

Dowdye, E.

A. Yu, M. Stephen, S. X. Li, G. B. Shaw, A. Seas, E. Dowdye, E. Troupaki, P. Liiva, D. Poulios, and K. Mascetti, “Space laser transmitter development for ICESat-2 Mission,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 757809 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dubayah, R.

A. Swatantran, H. Tang, T. Barrett, P. DeCola, and R. Dubayah, “Rapid, High-Resolution Forest Structure and Terrain Mapping over Large Areas using Single Photon Lidar,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28277 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, B.

Fernández, V.

Finnegan, D. C.

J. S. Deems, T. H. Painter, and D. C. Finnegan, “Lidar measurement of snow depth: a review,” J. Glaciol. 59(215), 467–479 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gemmell, N. R.

Glennie, C. L.

C. L. Glennie, W. E. Carter, R. L. Shrestha, and W. E. Dietrich, “Geodetic imaging with airborne LiDAR: the Earth’s surface revealed,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 76(8), 086801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goossens, S.

H. Araki, S. Tazawa, H. Noda, Y. Ishihara, S. Goossens, S. Sasaki, N. Kawano, I. Kamiya, H. Otake, J. Oberst, and C. Shum, “Lunar global shape and polar topography derived from Kaguya-LALT laser altimetry,” Science 323(5916), 897–900 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, X.

Hadfield, R. H.

Hancock, D.

H. Zwally, B. Schutz, W. Abdalati, J. Abshire, C. Bentley, A. Brenner, J. Bufton, J. Dezio, D. Hancock, D. Harding, T. Herring, B. Minster, K. Quinn, S. Palm, J. Spinhirne, and R. Thomas, “ICESat’s laser measurements of polar ice, atmosphere, ocean, and land,” J. Geodyn. 34(3-4), 405–445 (2002).
[Crossref]

Harding, D.

A. Yu, M. Krainak, D. Harding, J. Abshire, X. Sun, S. Valett, J. Cavanaugh, and L. Ramos-Izquierdo, “Spaceborne laser instruments for high-resolution mapping,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 757802 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zwally, B. Schutz, W. Abdalati, J. Abshire, C. Bentley, A. Brenner, J. Bufton, J. Dezio, D. Hancock, D. Harding, T. Herring, B. Minster, K. Quinn, S. Palm, J. Spinhirne, and R. Thomas, “ICESat’s laser measurements of polar ice, atmosphere, ocean, and land,” J. Geodyn. 34(3-4), 405–445 (2002).
[Crossref]

He, Y.

Herring, T.

H. Zwally, B. Schutz, W. Abdalati, J. Abshire, C. Bentley, A. Brenner, J. Bufton, J. Dezio, D. Hancock, D. Harding, T. Herring, B. Minster, K. Quinn, S. Palm, J. Spinhirne, and R. Thomas, “ICESat’s laser measurements of polar ice, atmosphere, ocean, and land,” J. Geodyn. 34(3-4), 405–445 (2002).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

Huang, Q.

J. Ping, Q. Huang, J. Yan, J. Cao, G. Tang, and R. Shu, “Lunar topographic model CLTM-s01 from Chang’E-1 laser altimeter,” Sci. China Ser. G. 52(7), 1105–1114 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ishihara, Y.

H. Araki, S. Tazawa, H. Noda, Y. Ishihara, S. Goossens, S. Sasaki, N. Kawano, I. Kamiya, H. Otake, J. Oberst, and C. Shum, “Lunar global shape and polar topography derived from Kaguya-LALT laser altimetry,” Science 323(5916), 897–900 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jackson, G. B.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The lunar orbiter laser altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kamiya, I.

H. Araki, S. Tazawa, H. Noda, Y. Ishihara, S. Goossens, S. Sasaki, N. Kawano, I. Kamiya, H. Otake, J. Oberst, and C. Shum, “Lunar global shape and polar topography derived from Kaguya-LALT laser altimetry,” Science 323(5916), 897–900 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Katz, R. B.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The lunar orbiter laser altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kawano, N.

H. Araki, S. Tazawa, H. Noda, Y. Ishihara, S. Goossens, S. Sasaki, N. Kawano, I. Kamiya, H. Otake, J. Oberst, and C. Shum, “Lunar global shape and polar topography derived from Kaguya-LALT laser altimetry,” Science 323(5916), 897–900 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kleyner, I.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The lunar orbiter laser altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kong, W.

Krainak, M.

A. Yu, M. Krainak, D. Harding, J. Abshire, X. Sun, S. Valett, J. Cavanaugh, and L. Ramos-Izquierdo, “Spaceborne laser instruments for high-resolution mapping,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 757802 (2010).
[Crossref]

Krichel, N. J.

Li, S. X.

A. Yu, M. Stephen, S. X. Li, G. B. Shaw, A. Seas, E. Dowdye, E. Troupaki, P. Liiva, D. Poulios, and K. Mascetti, “Space laser transmitter development for ICESat-2 Mission,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 757809 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

Liang, Y.

Liiva, P.

A. Yu, M. Stephen, S. X. Li, G. B. Shaw, A. Seas, E. Dowdye, E. Troupaki, P. Liiva, D. Poulios, and K. Mascetti, “Space laser transmitter development for ICESat-2 Mission,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 757809 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The lunar orbiter laser altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

Maccarone, A.

Mascetti, K.

A. Yu, M. Stephen, S. X. Li, G. B. Shaw, A. Seas, E. Dowdye, E. Troupaki, P. Liiva, D. Poulios, and K. Mascetti, “Space laser transmitter development for ICESat-2 Mission,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 757809 (2010).
[Crossref]

Matuszeski, A.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The lunar orbiter laser altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mazarico, E. M.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The lunar orbiter laser altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

McCarthy, A.

McGarry, J. F.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The lunar orbiter laser altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

Minster, B.

H. Zwally, B. Schutz, W. Abdalati, J. Abshire, C. Bentley, A. Brenner, J. Bufton, J. Dezio, D. Hancock, D. Harding, T. Herring, B. Minster, K. Quinn, S. Palm, J. Spinhirne, and R. Thomas, “ICESat’s laser measurements of polar ice, atmosphere, ocean, and land,” J. Geodyn. 34(3-4), 405–445 (2002).
[Crossref]

Moffat, J.

Moussavi, M. S.

M. S. Moussavi, W. Abdalati, T. Scambos, and A. Neuenschwander, “Applicability of an automatic surface detection approach to micro-pulse photon-counting lidar altimetry data: implications for canopy height retrieval from future ICESat-2 data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 35(13), 5263–5279 (2014).
[Crossref]

Neuenschwander, A.

M. S. Moussavi, W. Abdalati, T. Scambos, and A. Neuenschwander, “Applicability of an automatic surface detection approach to micro-pulse photon-counting lidar altimetry data: implications for canopy height retrieval from future ICESat-2 data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 35(13), 5263–5279 (2014).
[Crossref]

Neumann, G. A.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The lunar orbiter laser altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

Noda, H.

H. Araki, S. Tazawa, H. Noda, Y. Ishihara, S. Goossens, S. Sasaki, N. Kawano, I. Kamiya, H. Otake, J. Oberst, and C. Shum, “Lunar global shape and polar topography derived from Kaguya-LALT laser altimetry,” Science 323(5916), 897–900 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Novo-Gradac, A.-M.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The lunar orbiter laser altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

Oberst, J.

H. Araki, S. Tazawa, H. Noda, Y. Ishihara, S. Goossens, S. Sasaki, N. Kawano, I. Kamiya, H. Otake, J. Oberst, and C. Shum, “Lunar global shape and polar topography derived from Kaguya-LALT laser altimetry,” Science 323(5916), 897–900 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Otake, H.

H. Araki, S. Tazawa, H. Noda, Y. Ishihara, S. Goossens, S. Sasaki, N. Kawano, I. Kamiya, H. Otake, J. Oberst, and C. Shum, “Lunar global shape and polar topography derived from Kaguya-LALT laser altimetry,” Science 323(5916), 897–900 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ott, M. N.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The lunar orbiter laser altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

Painter, T. H.

J. S. Deems, T. H. Painter, and D. C. Finnegan, “Lidar measurement of snow depth: a review,” J. Glaciol. 59(215), 467–479 (2013).
[Crossref]

Palm, S.

H. Zwally, B. Schutz, W. Abdalati, J. Abshire, C. Bentley, A. Brenner, J. Bufton, J. Dezio, D. Hancock, D. Harding, T. Herring, B. Minster, K. Quinn, S. Palm, J. Spinhirne, and R. Thomas, “ICESat’s laser measurements of polar ice, atmosphere, ocean, and land,” J. Geodyn. 34(3-4), 405–445 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pellegrini, S.

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 712–716 (2000).
[Crossref]

Peters, C.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The lunar orbiter laser altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

Petillot, Y.

Ping, J.

J. Ping, Q. Huang, J. Yan, J. Cao, G. Tang, and R. Shu, “Lunar topographic model CLTM-s01 from Chang’E-1 laser altimeter,” Sci. China Ser. G. 52(7), 1105–1114 (2009).
[Crossref]

Poulios, D.

A. Yu, M. Stephen, S. X. Li, G. B. Shaw, A. Seas, E. Dowdye, E. Troupaki, P. Liiva, D. Poulios, and K. Mascetti, “Space laser transmitter development for ICESat-2 Mission,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 757809 (2010).
[Crossref]

Quinn, K.

H. Zwally, B. Schutz, W. Abdalati, J. Abshire, C. Bentley, A. Brenner, J. Bufton, J. Dezio, D. Hancock, D. Harding, T. Herring, B. Minster, K. Quinn, S. Palm, J. Spinhirne, and R. Thomas, “ICESat’s laser measurements of polar ice, atmosphere, ocean, and land,” J. Geodyn. 34(3-4), 405–445 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ramos-Izquierdo, L.

A. Yu, M. Krainak, D. Harding, J. Abshire, X. Sun, S. Valett, J. Cavanaugh, and L. Ramos-Izquierdo, “Spaceborne laser instruments for high-resolution mapping,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 757802 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ramos-Izquierdo, L. A.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The lunar orbiter laser altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ramsey, L.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The lunar orbiter laser altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ren, M.

Ren, X.

Riris, H.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The lunar orbiter laser altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rowlands, D. D.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The lunar orbiter laser altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ruggeri, A.

Sasaki, S.

H. Araki, S. Tazawa, H. Noda, Y. Ishihara, S. Goossens, S. Sasaki, N. Kawano, I. Kamiya, H. Otake, J. Oberst, and C. Shum, “Lunar global shape and polar topography derived from Kaguya-LALT laser altimetry,” Science 323(5916), 897–900 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scambos, T.

M. S. Moussavi, W. Abdalati, T. Scambos, and A. Neuenschwander, “Applicability of an automatic surface detection approach to micro-pulse photon-counting lidar altimetry data: implications for canopy height retrieval from future ICESat-2 data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 35(13), 5263–5279 (2014).
[Crossref]

Scarcella, C.

Schmidt, S.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The lunar orbiter laser altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schutz, B.

H. Zwally, B. Schutz, W. Abdalati, J. Abshire, C. Bentley, A. Brenner, J. Bufton, J. Dezio, D. Hancock, D. Harding, T. Herring, B. Minster, K. Quinn, S. Palm, J. Spinhirne, and R. Thomas, “ICESat’s laser measurements of polar ice, atmosphere, ocean, and land,” J. Geodyn. 34(3-4), 405–445 (2002).
[Crossref]

Scott, V. S.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The lunar orbiter laser altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

Seas, A.

A. Yu, M. Stephen, S. X. Li, G. B. Shaw, A. Seas, E. Dowdye, E. Troupaki, P. Liiva, D. Poulios, and K. Mascetti, “Space laser transmitter development for ICESat-2 Mission,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 757809 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shaw, G. B.

A. Yu, M. Stephen, S. X. Li, G. B. Shaw, A. Seas, E. Dowdye, E. Troupaki, P. Liiva, D. Poulios, and K. Mascetti, “Space laser transmitter development for ICESat-2 Mission,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 757809 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The lunar orbiter laser altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shrestha, R. L.

C. L. Glennie, W. E. Carter, R. L. Shrestha, and W. E. Dietrich, “Geodetic imaging with airborne LiDAR: the Earth’s surface revealed,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 76(8), 086801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shu, R.

J. Ping, Q. Huang, J. Yan, J. Cao, G. Tang, and R. Shu, “Lunar topographic model CLTM-s01 from Chang’E-1 laser altimeter,” Sci. China Ser. G. 52(7), 1105–1114 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shum, C.

H. Araki, S. Tazawa, H. Noda, Y. Ishihara, S. Goossens, S. Sasaki, N. Kawano, I. Kamiya, H. Otake, J. Oberst, and C. Shum, “Lunar global shape and polar topography derived from Kaguya-LALT laser altimetry,” Science 323(5916), 897–900 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, D. E.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The lunar orbiter laser altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

Smith, J. C.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The lunar orbiter laser altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

Smith, J. M.

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 712–716 (2000).
[Crossref]

Spinhirne, J.

H. Zwally, B. Schutz, W. Abdalati, J. Abshire, C. Bentley, A. Brenner, J. Bufton, J. Dezio, D. Hancock, D. Harding, T. Herring, B. Minster, K. Quinn, S. Palm, J. Spinhirne, and R. Thomas, “ICESat’s laser measurements of polar ice, atmosphere, ocean, and land,” J. Geodyn. 34(3-4), 405–445 (2002).
[Crossref]

Stephen, M.

A. Yu, M. Stephen, S. X. Li, G. B. Shaw, A. Seas, E. Dowdye, E. Troupaki, P. Liiva, D. Poulios, and K. Mascetti, “Space laser transmitter development for ICESat-2 Mission,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 757809 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.

A. Yu, M. Krainak, D. Harding, J. Abshire, X. Sun, S. Valett, J. Cavanaugh, and L. Ramos-Izquierdo, “Spaceborne laser instruments for high-resolution mapping,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 757802 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The lunar orbiter laser altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

Swatantran, A.

A. Swatantran, H. Tang, T. Barrett, P. DeCola, and R. Dubayah, “Rapid, High-Resolution Forest Structure and Terrain Mapping over Large Areas using Single Photon Lidar,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28277 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swinski, J.-P.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The lunar orbiter laser altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tang, G.

J. Ping, Q. Huang, J. Yan, J. Cao, G. Tang, and R. Shu, “Lunar topographic model CLTM-s01 from Chang’E-1 laser altimeter,” Sci. China Ser. G. 52(7), 1105–1114 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tang, H.

A. Swatantran, H. Tang, T. Barrett, P. DeCola, and R. Dubayah, “Rapid, High-Resolution Forest Structure and Terrain Mapping over Large Areas using Single Photon Lidar,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28277 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanner, M. G.

Tarolli, P.

P. Tarolli, “High-resolution topography for understanding Earth surface processes: opportunities and challenges,” Geomorphology 216, 295–312 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tazawa, S.

H. Araki, S. Tazawa, H. Noda, Y. Ishihara, S. Goossens, S. Sasaki, N. Kawano, I. Kamiya, H. Otake, J. Oberst, and C. Shum, “Lunar global shape and polar topography derived from Kaguya-LALT laser altimetry,” Science 323(5916), 897–900 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomas, R.

H. Zwally, B. Schutz, W. Abdalati, J. Abshire, C. Bentley, A. Brenner, J. Bufton, J. Dezio, D. Hancock, D. Harding, T. Herring, B. Minster, K. Quinn, S. Palm, J. Spinhirne, and R. Thomas, “ICESat’s laser measurements of polar ice, atmosphere, ocean, and land,” J. Geodyn. 34(3-4), 405–445 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tisa, S.

Torrence, M. H.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The lunar orbiter laser altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tosi, A.

Troupaki, E.

A. Yu, M. Stephen, S. X. Li, G. B. Shaw, A. Seas, E. Dowdye, E. Troupaki, P. Liiva, D. Poulios, and K. Mascetti, “Space laser transmitter development for ICESat-2 Mission,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 757809 (2010).
[Crossref]

Unger, G.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The lunar orbiter laser altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

Valett, S.

A. Yu, M. Krainak, D. Harding, J. Abshire, X. Sun, S. Valett, J. Cavanaugh, and L. Ramos-Izquierdo, “Spaceborne laser instruments for high-resolution mapping,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 757802 (2010).
[Crossref]

Villa, F. A.

Wallace, A. M.

Wang, Z.

Warburton, R. E.

Wu, E.

Wu, G.

Wu, J.

Xie, X.

Yan, J.

J. Ping, Q. Huang, J. Yan, J. Cao, G. Tang, and R. Shu, “Lunar topographic model CLTM-s01 from Chang’E-1 laser altimeter,” Sci. China Ser. G. 52(7), 1105–1114 (2009).
[Crossref]

You, L.

Yu, A.

A. Yu, M. Stephen, S. X. Li, G. B. Shaw, A. Seas, E. Dowdye, E. Troupaki, P. Liiva, D. Poulios, and K. Mascetti, “Space laser transmitter development for ICESat-2 Mission,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 757809 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Yu, M. Krainak, D. Harding, J. Abshire, X. Sun, S. Valett, J. Cavanaugh, and L. Ramos-Izquierdo, “Spaceborne laser instruments for high-resolution mapping,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 757802 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, A. W.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The lunar orbiter laser altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zagwodzki, T. W.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The lunar orbiter laser altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zappa, F.

Zellar, R. S.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The lunar orbiter laser altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zeng, H.

Zhang, W.

Zhou, H.

Zuber, M. T.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The lunar orbiter laser altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zwally, H.

H. Zwally, B. Schutz, W. Abdalati, J. Abshire, C. Bentley, A. Brenner, J. Bufton, J. Dezio, D. Hancock, D. Harding, T. Herring, B. Minster, K. Quinn, S. Palm, J. Spinhirne, and R. Thomas, “ICESat’s laser measurements of polar ice, atmosphere, ocean, and land,” J. Geodyn. 34(3-4), 405–445 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zwiller, V.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Geomorphology (1)

P. Tarolli, “High-resolution topography for understanding Earth surface processes: opportunities and challenges,” Geomorphology 216, 295–312 (2014).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

M. S. Moussavi, W. Abdalati, T. Scambos, and A. Neuenschwander, “Applicability of an automatic surface detection approach to micro-pulse photon-counting lidar altimetry data: implications for canopy height retrieval from future ICESat-2 data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 35(13), 5263–5279 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Geodyn. (1)

H. Zwally, B. Schutz, W. Abdalati, J. Abshire, C. Bentley, A. Brenner, J. Bufton, J. Dezio, D. Hancock, D. Harding, T. Herring, B. Minster, K. Quinn, S. Palm, J. Spinhirne, and R. Thomas, “ICESat’s laser measurements of polar ice, atmosphere, ocean, and land,” J. Geodyn. 34(3-4), 405–445 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Glaciol. (1)

J. S. Deems, T. H. Painter, and D. C. Finnegan, “Lidar measurement of snow depth: a review,” J. Glaciol. 59(215), 467–479 (2013).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 712–716 (2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

M. Ren, X. Gu, Y. Liang, W. Kong, E. Wu, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Laser ranging at 1550 nm with 1-GHz sine-wave gated InGaAs/InP APD single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13497–13502 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. McCarthy, N. J. Krichel, N. R. Gemmell, X. Ren, M. G. Tanner, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, R. H. Hadfield, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range, high resolution depth imaging via 1560 nm wavelength single-photon detection,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8904–8915 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liang, J. Huang, M. Ren, B. Feng, X. Chen, E. Wu, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “1550-nm time-of-flight ranging system employing laser with multiple repetition rates for reducing the range ambiguity,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4662–4670 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Maccarone, A. McCarthy, X. Ren, R. E. Warburton, A. M. Wallace, J. Moffat, Y. Petillot, and G. S. Buller, “Underwater depth imaging using time-correlated single-photon counting,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33911–33926 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bellisai, D. Bronzi, F. A. Villa, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “Single-photon pulsed-light indirect time-of-flight 3D ranging,” Opt. Express 21(4), 5086–5098 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. McCarthy, X. Ren, A. Della Frera, N. R. Gemmell, N. J. Krichel, C. Scarcella, A. Ruggeri, A. Tosi, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range depth imaging at 1,550 nm wavelength using an InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diode detector,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22098–22113 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhou, Y. He, L. You, S. Chen, W. Zhang, J. Wu, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Few-photon imaging at 1550 nm using a low-timing-jitter superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14603–14611 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

A. Yu, M. Krainak, D. Harding, J. Abshire, X. Sun, S. Valett, J. Cavanaugh, and L. Ramos-Izquierdo, “Spaceborne laser instruments for high-resolution mapping,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 757802 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Yu, M. Stephen, S. X. Li, G. B. Shaw, A. Seas, E. Dowdye, E. Troupaki, P. Liiva, D. Poulios, and K. Mascetti, “Space laser transmitter development for ICESat-2 Mission,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 757809 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

C. L. Glennie, W. E. Carter, R. L. Shrestha, and W. E. Dietrich, “Geodetic imaging with airborne LiDAR: the Earth’s surface revealed,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 76(8), 086801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. China Ser. G. (1)

J. Ping, Q. Huang, J. Yan, J. Cao, G. Tang, and R. Shu, “Lunar topographic model CLTM-s01 from Chang’E-1 laser altimeter,” Sci. China Ser. G. 52(7), 1105–1114 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

A. Swatantran, H. Tang, T. Barrett, P. DeCola, and R. Dubayah, “Rapid, High-Resolution Forest Structure and Terrain Mapping over Large Areas using Single Photon Lidar,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28277 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

H. Araki, S. Tazawa, H. Noda, Y. Ishihara, S. Goossens, S. Sasaki, N. Kawano, I. Kamiya, H. Otake, J. Oberst, and C. Shum, “Lunar global shape and polar topography derived from Kaguya-LALT laser altimetry,” Science 323(5916), 897–900 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Space Sci. Rev. (1)

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The lunar orbiter laser altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

NASA, “Our Mission | ICESat-2,” http://icesat-2.gsfc.nasa.gov/mission .

W. Becker, Advanced Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting Techniques (Springer-Verlag, 2005).

D. Harding, P. Dabney, J. Abshire, T. Huss, G. Jodor, R. Machan, J. Marzouk, K. Rush, A. Seas, C. Shuman, X. Sun, S. Valett, A. Vasilyev, A. Yu, and Y. Zheng, “The slope imaging multi-polarization photon-counting Lidar: an advanced technology airborne laser altimeter,” NASA Earth Science Technology Forum 10, 253–256 (2010).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the multi-beam photon-counting lidar system. Pulsed laser source: 532-nm with repetition rate of 10 kHz and pulse duration of 600 ps. Beam expender: composed of two lens L1 (f = 3.3 mm) and L2 (f = 60 mm). M1, M2: high reflection mirror at 532 nm. PIN: fast photodiode. DOE: diffractive optical element to produce100 beams with divergence angle of 0.25 mrad between adjacent beams. Camera Lens: long-focal-length adjustable camera lens. BP: bandpass filter at 532 nm with linewidth of 1.0 nm. Fiber array: composed of 100 multimode fibers. Si-APDs: 100 Si-APDs with fiber pigtail on heat sinks. FPGA: seven FPGA board integrated in one box for data processing.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Laser beam spots on the wall of the target building 600 m away, (b) beam spot at the focus of the camera lens taken by a CCD camera, and (c) microscope image of the multi-mode fiber array facet.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Detection efficiency and dark counts of the 100 Si-APD channels. The calibration of each channel was carried out with an attenuated pulsed laser independently. The operation temperature was set at −10°C, (b) statistics on the detection efficiency. Binning size: 1%, and (c) statistics on the dark counts. Binning size: 0.5 kcps.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Precision of the single channel photon-counting laser ranging as a function of photon counts, (b) precision of the 100 channels measured when the detected photon number was 65, (c) statistics on the precision data in (b).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Real photo of the target buildings, (b) rebuilt lidar image of the buildings in vision, and (c) detailed lidar image of the target building in the red box in (a).

Equations (1)

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Δ t = t L 2 + t P I N 2 + t D 2 + t T D C 2 .

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