Abstract

We propose a laser feedback interferometer operating at multiple terahertz (THz) frequency bands by using a pulsed coupled-cavity THz quantum cascade laser (QCL) under optical feedback. A theoretical model that contains multi-mode reduced rate equations and thermal equations is presented, which captures the interplay between electro-optical, thermal, and feedback effects. By using the self-heating effect in both active and passive cavities, self-mixing signal responses at three different THz frequency bands are predicted. A multi-spectral laser feedback interferometry system based on such a coupled-cavity THz QCL will permit ultra-high-speed sensing and spectroscopic applications including material identification.

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2017 (3)

C. Wu, Y. Jin, J. L. Reno, and S. Kumar, “Large static tuning of narrow-beam terahertz plasmonic lasers operating at 78 K,” APL Photonics 2, 026101 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Qi, I. Kundu, P. Dean, G. Agnew, T. Taimre, A. Valavanis, A. T. Grier, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Mode selection and tuning mechanisms in coupled-cavity terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 23, 1–12 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Kundu, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. Chen, L. H. Li, J. E. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Quasi-continuous frequency tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with coupled cavity and integrated photonic lattice,” Opt. Express 25, 486–496 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (7)

T. Hagelschuer, N. Rothbart, H. Richter, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “High-spectral-resolution terahertz imaging with a quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Express 24, 13839–13849 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, K. Bertling, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, P. Dean, J. Cooper, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Model for a pulsed terahertz quantum cascade laser under optical feedback,” Opt. Express 24, 20554–20570 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hempel, B. Röben, L. Schrottke, H.-W. Hübers, and H. T. Grahn, “Fast continuous tuning of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers by rear-facet illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 191106 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, Z. Ikonić, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, P. Harrison, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Temperature dependent high speed dynamics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 23, 1200209 (2016).

M. Wienold, T. Hagelschuer, N. Rothbart, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “Real-time terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 011102 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Han, K. Bertling, P. Dean, J. Keeley, A. D. Burnett, Y. L. Lim, S. P. Khanna, A. Valavanis, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, and A. D. Rakić, “Laser feedback interferometry as a tool for analysis of granular materials at terahertz frequencies: Towards imaging and identification of plastic explosives,” Sensors 16, 352 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Hagelschuer, M. Wienold, H. Richter, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz gas spectroscopy through self-mixing in a quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 191101 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

M. Wienold, B. Röben, X. Lü, G. Rozas, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, and H. T. Grahn, “Frequency dependence of the maximum operating temperature for quantum-cascade lasers up to 5.4 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 202101 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Turčinková, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Electrically tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers based on a two-sections interdigitated distributed feedback cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 131107 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, M. Nikolić, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, Z. Ikonić, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Efficient prediction of terahertz quantum cascade laser dynamics from steady-state simulations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161105 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Castellano, V. Bianchi, L. H. Li, J. Zhu, A. Tredicucci, E. H. Linfield, A. Giles Davies, and M. S. Vitiello, “Tuning a microcavity-coupled terahertz laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 261108 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Taimre, M. Nikolić, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, T. Bosch, and A. D. Rakić, “Laser feedback interferometry: a tutorial on the self-mixing effect for coherent sensing,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 570–631 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (9)

H. S. Lui, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “Terahertz inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging using self-mixing interferometry with a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2629–2632 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Columbo and M. Brambilla, “Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers with optical feedback,” Opt. Express 22, 10105–10118 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Han, A. de Geofroy, D. P. Burghoff, C. W. I. Chan, A. W. M. Lee, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Broadband all-electronically tunable MEMS terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 39, 3480–3483 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Kundu, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. Chen, L. H. Li, J. E. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Discrete Vernier tuning in terahertz quantum cascade lasers using coupled cavities,” Opt. Express 22, 16595–16605 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Methodology for materials analysis using swept-frequency feedback interferometry with terahertz frequency quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 22, 18633–18647 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lim, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, P. Dean, D. Indjin, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, H. Schaider, T. W. Prow, H. P. Soyer, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “High-contrast coherent terahertz imaging of porcine tissue via swept-frequency feedback interferometry,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 3981–3989 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. H. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with > 1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50, 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers — a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. Appl. Phys. 47, 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Mezzapesa, M. Petruzzella, M. Dabbicco, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, M. Vitiello, and G. Scamarcio, “Continuous-wave reflection imaging using optical feedback interferometry in terahertz and mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 4, 631–633 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

D. Turčinková, M. I. Amanti, F. Castellano, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Continuous tuning of terahertz distributed feedback quantum cascade laser by gas condensation and dielectric deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 181113 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Mezzapesa, L. Columbo, M. Brambilla, M. Dabbicco, S. Borri, M. Vitiello, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and G. Scamarcio, “Intrinsic stability of quantum cascade lasers against optical feedback,” Opt. Express 21, 13748–13757 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Rakić, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Swept-frequency feedback interferometry using terahertz frequency QCLs: a method for imaging and materials analysis,” Opt. Express 21, 22194–22205 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Valavanis, P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Self-mixing interferometry with terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 37–43 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. Chan, Z. Wasilewski, S. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. Mátyás, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to ∼ 200 K with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling,” Opt. Express 20, 3866–3876 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Consolino, A. Taschin, P. Bartolini, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, R. Torre, M. S. Vitiello, and P. De Natale, “Phase-locking to a free-space terahertz comb for metrological-grade terahertz lasers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1040 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. I. Chan, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Ground state terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 151108 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. J. Wilson, and A. D. Rakić, “Demonstration of a self-mixing displacement sensor based on terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 081108 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. S. Vitiello and A. Tredicucci, “Tunable emission in THz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 76–84 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

G. P. Kniffin, S. Schecklman, J. Chen, S. C. Henry, L. M. Zurk, B. Pejcinovic, and A. I. Timchenko, “Measurement and modeling of terahertz spectral signatures from layered material,” Proc. SPIE 7687, 768708 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Federici and L. Moeller, “Review of terahertz and subterahertz wireless communications,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 111101 (2010).
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A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with external gratings,” Opt. Lett. 35, 910–912 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tuning a distributed feedback laser with a coupled microcavity,” Opt. Express 18, 19185–19191 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, “THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 45–66 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. Qin, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Tuning a terahertz wire laser,” Nature Photon. 3, 732–737 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. P. Khanna, M. Salih, P. Dean, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Electrically tunable terahertz quantum-cascade laser with a heterogeneous active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 181101 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

C. A. Evans, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, M. S. Vitiello, V. Spagnolo, and G. Scamarcio, “Thermal modeling of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers: comparison of optical waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 44, 680–685 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Ho, M. Pepper, and P. Taday, “Terahertz spectroscopy: Signatures and fingerprints,” Nat. Photon. 2, 541 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “Time-resolved measurement of the local lattice temperature in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101116 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121104 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

C. A. Evans, V. D. Jovanovic, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, and P. Harrison, “Investigation of thermal effects in quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 42, 859–867 (2006).
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V. Jovanović, S. Höfling, D. Indjin, N. Vukmirović, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, J. Reithmaier, and A. Forchel, “Influence of doping density on electron dynamics in GaAs/ AlGaAs quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 103106 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, and S. Barbieri, “Subband electronic temperatures and electron-lattice energy relaxation in terahertz quantum cascade lasers with different conduction band offsets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131114 (2006).
[Crossref]

O. Demichel, L. Mahler, T. Losco, C. Mauro, R. Green, A. Tredicucci, J. Xu, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and V. Tamosinas, “Surface plasmon photonic structures in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 14, 5335–5345 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “2.9 THz quantum cascade lasers operating up to 70 K in continuous wave,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology in biology and medicine,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 2438–2447 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

D. Indjin, P. Harrison, R. Kelsall, and Z. Ikonić, “Self-consistent scattering model of carrier dynamics in GaAs-AlGaAs terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 15, 15–17 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. Indjin, P. Harrison, R. Kelsall, and Z. Ikonić, “Mechanisms of temperature performance degradation in terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1347–1349 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith, and J. M. Chamberlain, “An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R67 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
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1984 (1)

L. Coldren and T. Koch, “Analysis and design of coupled-cavity lasers-part I: Threshold gain analysis and design guidelines,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 20, 659–670 (1984).
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1982 (1)

C. H. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 259–264 (1982).
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Agnew, G.

X. Qi, I. Kundu, P. Dean, G. Agnew, T. Taimre, A. Valavanis, A. T. Grier, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Mode selection and tuning mechanisms in coupled-cavity terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 23, 1–12 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, Z. Ikonić, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, P. Harrison, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Temperature dependent high speed dynamics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 23, 1200209 (2016).

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, K. Bertling, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, P. Dean, J. Cooper, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Model for a pulsed terahertz quantum cascade laser under optical feedback,” Opt. Express 24, 20554–20570 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, M. Nikolić, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, Z. Ikonić, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Efficient prediction of terahertz quantum cascade laser dynamics from steady-state simulations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161105 (2015).
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X. Qi, I. Kundu, G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. H. Li, E. Linfield, A. Davies, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Frequency tunability in coupled-cavity terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” in “Conference on Optoelectronic and Microelectronic Materials and Devices” (Sydney, Australia, 2016).

Alhathlool, R.

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers — a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. Appl. Phys. 47, 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Valavanis, P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Self-mixing interferometry with terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 37–43 (2013).
[Crossref]

Allen, M. G.

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Alton, J.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, and S. Barbieri, “Subband electronic temperatures and electron-lattice energy relaxation in terahertz quantum cascade lasers with different conduction band offsets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131114 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “2.9 THz quantum cascade lasers operating up to 70 K in continuous wave,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674 (2004).
[Crossref]

Amanti, M. I.

D. Turčinková, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Electrically tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers based on a two-sections interdigitated distributed feedback cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 131107 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Turčinková, M. I. Amanti, F. Castellano, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Continuous tuning of terahertz distributed feedback quantum cascade laser by gas condensation and dielectric deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 181113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ban, D.

Barbieri, S.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, and S. Barbieri, “Subband electronic temperatures and electron-lattice energy relaxation in terahertz quantum cascade lasers with different conduction band offsets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131114 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “2.9 THz quantum cascade lasers operating up to 70 K in continuous wave,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bartalini, S.

L. Consolino, A. Taschin, P. Bartolini, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, R. Torre, M. S. Vitiello, and P. De Natale, “Phase-locking to a free-space terahertz comb for metrological-grade terahertz lasers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1040 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartolini, P.

L. Consolino, A. Taschin, P. Bartolini, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, R. Torre, M. S. Vitiello, and P. De Natale, “Phase-locking to a free-space terahertz comb for metrological-grade terahertz lasers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1040 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beck, M.

D. Turčinková, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Electrically tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers based on a two-sections interdigitated distributed feedback cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 131107 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Turčinková, M. I. Amanti, F. Castellano, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Continuous tuning of terahertz distributed feedback quantum cascade laser by gas condensation and dielectric deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 181113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Beere, H.

F. Mezzapesa, M. Petruzzella, M. Dabbicco, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, M. Vitiello, and G. Scamarcio, “Continuous-wave reflection imaging using optical feedback interferometry in terahertz and mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 4, 631–633 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Mezzapesa, L. Columbo, M. Brambilla, M. Dabbicco, S. Borri, M. Vitiello, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and G. Scamarcio, “Intrinsic stability of quantum cascade lasers against optical feedback,” Opt. Express 21, 13748–13757 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, “THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 45–66 (2009).
[Crossref]

Beere, H. E.

L. Consolino, A. Taschin, P. Bartolini, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, R. Torre, M. S. Vitiello, and P. De Natale, “Phase-locking to a free-space terahertz comb for metrological-grade terahertz lasers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1040 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tuning a distributed feedback laser with a coupled microcavity,” Opt. Express 18, 19185–19191 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121104 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, and S. Barbieri, “Subband electronic temperatures and electron-lattice energy relaxation in terahertz quantum cascade lasers with different conduction band offsets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131114 (2006).
[Crossref]

O. Demichel, L. Mahler, T. Losco, C. Mauro, R. Green, A. Tredicucci, J. Xu, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and V. Tamosinas, “Surface plasmon photonic structures in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 14, 5335–5345 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “2.9 THz quantum cascade lasers operating up to 70 K in continuous wave,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Mahler, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, D. A. Ritchie, and A. G. Davies, “Single-mode operation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with distributed-feedback resonators,” in “Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics” (Optical Society of America, 2004), p. CMR1.

Beltram, F.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tuning a distributed feedback laser with a coupled microcavity,” Opt. Express 18, 19185–19191 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121104 (2007).
[Crossref]

O. Demichel, L. Mahler, T. Losco, C. Mauro, R. Green, A. Tredicucci, J. Xu, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and V. Tamosinas, “Surface plasmon photonic structures in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 14, 5335–5345 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Mahler, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, D. A. Ritchie, and A. G. Davies, “Single-mode operation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with distributed-feedback resonators,” in “Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics” (Optical Society of America, 2004), p. CMR1.

Berry, E.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith, and J. M. Chamberlain, “An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R67 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bertling, K.

S. Han, K. Bertling, P. Dean, J. Keeley, A. D. Burnett, Y. L. Lim, S. P. Khanna, A. Valavanis, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, and A. D. Rakić, “Laser feedback interferometry as a tool for analysis of granular materials at terahertz frequencies: Towards imaging and identification of plastic explosives,” Sensors 16, 352 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, Z. Ikonić, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, P. Harrison, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Temperature dependent high speed dynamics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 23, 1200209 (2016).

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, K. Bertling, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, P. Dean, J. Cooper, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Model for a pulsed terahertz quantum cascade laser under optical feedback,” Opt. Express 24, 20554–20570 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Taimre, M. Nikolić, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, T. Bosch, and A. D. Rakić, “Laser feedback interferometry: a tutorial on the self-mixing effect for coherent sensing,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 570–631 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Methodology for materials analysis using swept-frequency feedback interferometry with terahertz frequency quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 22, 18633–18647 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers — a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. Appl. Phys. 47, 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. S. Lui, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “Terahertz inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging using self-mixing interferometry with a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2629–2632 (2014).
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Y. L. Lim, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, P. Dean, D. Indjin, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, H. Schaider, T. W. Prow, H. P. Soyer, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “High-contrast coherent terahertz imaging of porcine tissue via swept-frequency feedback interferometry,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 3981–3989 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Rakić, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Swept-frequency feedback interferometry using terahertz frequency QCLs: a method for imaging and materials analysis,” Opt. Express 21, 22194–22205 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bianchi, V.

F. Castellano, V. Bianchi, L. H. Li, J. Zhu, A. Tredicucci, E. H. Linfield, A. Giles Davies, and M. S. Vitiello, “Tuning a microcavity-coupled terahertz laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 261108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Biermann, K.

M. Wienold, T. Hagelschuer, N. Rothbart, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “Real-time terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 011102 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Hagelschuer, M. Wienold, H. Richter, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz gas spectroscopy through self-mixing in a quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 191101 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Wienold, B. Röben, X. Lü, G. Rozas, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, and H. T. Grahn, “Frequency dependence of the maximum operating temperature for quantum-cascade lasers up to 5.4 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 202101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Borri, S.

Bosch, T.

Brambilla, M.

Burghoff, D. P.

Burnett, A. D.

S. Han, K. Bertling, P. Dean, J. Keeley, A. D. Burnett, Y. L. Lim, S. P. Khanna, A. Valavanis, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, and A. D. Rakić, “Laser feedback interferometry as a tool for analysis of granular materials at terahertz frequencies: Towards imaging and identification of plastic explosives,” Sensors 16, 352 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers — a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. Appl. Phys. 47, 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cancio, P.

L. Consolino, A. Taschin, P. Bartolini, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, R. Torre, M. S. Vitiello, and P. De Natale, “Phase-locking to a free-space terahertz comb for metrological-grade terahertz lasers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1040 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castellano, F.

F. Castellano, V. Bianchi, L. H. Li, J. Zhu, A. Tredicucci, E. H. Linfield, A. Giles Davies, and M. S. Vitiello, “Tuning a microcavity-coupled terahertz laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 261108 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Turčinková, M. I. Amanti, F. Castellano, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Continuous tuning of terahertz distributed feedback quantum cascade laser by gas condensation and dielectric deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 181113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chamberlain, J. M.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith, and J. M. Chamberlain, “An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R67 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, C.

Chan, C. W. I.

Chen, J.

G. P. Kniffin, S. Schecklman, J. Chen, S. C. Henry, L. M. Zurk, B. Pejcinovic, and A. I. Timchenko, “Measurement and modeling of terahertz spectral signatures from layered material,” Proc. SPIE 7687, 768708 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

Coldren, L.

L. Coldren and T. Koch, “Analysis and design of coupled-cavity lasers-part I: Threshold gain analysis and design guidelines,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 20, 659–670 (1984).
[Crossref]

Coldren, L. A.

L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, and M. L. Masanovic, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (John Wiley & Sons, 2012).
[Crossref]

Columbo, L.

Consolino, L.

L. Consolino, A. Taschin, P. Bartolini, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, R. Torre, M. S. Vitiello, and P. De Natale, “Phase-locking to a free-space terahertz comb for metrological-grade terahertz lasers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1040 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cooper, J.

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, K. Bertling, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, P. Dean, J. Cooper, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Model for a pulsed terahertz quantum cascade laser under optical feedback,” Opt. Express 24, 20554–20570 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, M. Nikolić, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, Z. Ikonić, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Efficient prediction of terahertz quantum cascade laser dynamics from steady-state simulations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Corzine, S. W.

L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, and M. L. Masanovic, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (John Wiley & Sons, 2012).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, J. E.

Dabbicco, M.

F. Mezzapesa, M. Petruzzella, M. Dabbicco, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, M. Vitiello, and G. Scamarcio, “Continuous-wave reflection imaging using optical feedback interferometry in terahertz and mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 4, 631–633 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Mezzapesa, L. Columbo, M. Brambilla, M. Dabbicco, S. Borri, M. Vitiello, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and G. Scamarcio, “Intrinsic stability of quantum cascade lasers against optical feedback,” Opt. Express 21, 13748–13757 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davies, A.

X. Qi, I. Kundu, G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. H. Li, E. Linfield, A. Davies, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Frequency tunability in coupled-cavity terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” in “Conference on Optoelectronic and Microelectronic Materials and Devices” (Sydney, Australia, 2016).

Davies, A. G.

I. Kundu, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. Chen, L. H. Li, J. E. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Quasi-continuous frequency tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with coupled cavity and integrated photonic lattice,” Opt. Express 25, 486–496 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Qi, I. Kundu, P. Dean, G. Agnew, T. Taimre, A. Valavanis, A. T. Grier, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Mode selection and tuning mechanisms in coupled-cavity terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 23, 1–12 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, K. Bertling, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, P. Dean, J. Cooper, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Model for a pulsed terahertz quantum cascade laser under optical feedback,” Opt. Express 24, 20554–20570 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Han, K. Bertling, P. Dean, J. Keeley, A. D. Burnett, Y. L. Lim, S. P. Khanna, A. Valavanis, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, and A. D. Rakić, “Laser feedback interferometry as a tool for analysis of granular materials at terahertz frequencies: Towards imaging and identification of plastic explosives,” Sensors 16, 352 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, M. Nikolić, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, Z. Ikonić, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Efficient prediction of terahertz quantum cascade laser dynamics from steady-state simulations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Lim, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, P. Dean, D. Indjin, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, H. Schaider, T. W. Prow, H. P. Soyer, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “High-contrast coherent terahertz imaging of porcine tissue via swept-frequency feedback interferometry,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 3981–3989 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. H. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with > 1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50, 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. S. Lui, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “Terahertz inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging using self-mixing interferometry with a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2629–2632 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers — a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. Appl. Phys. 47, 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Kundu, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. Chen, L. H. Li, J. E. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Discrete Vernier tuning in terahertz quantum cascade lasers using coupled cavities,” Opt. Express 22, 16595–16605 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Rakić, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Swept-frequency feedback interferometry using terahertz frequency QCLs: a method for imaging and materials analysis,” Opt. Express 21, 22194–22205 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Valavanis, P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Self-mixing interferometry with terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 37–43 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. J. Wilson, and A. D. Rakić, “Demonstration of a self-mixing displacement sensor based on terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 081108 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. P. Khanna, M. Salih, P. Dean, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Electrically tunable terahertz quantum-cascade laser with a heterogeneous active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 181101 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. H. Li, I. Kundu, P. Dean, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “High-power GaAs/AlGaAs quantum cascade lasers with emission in the frequency range 4.7–5.6 THz,” in “International Quantum Cascade Lasers School and Workshop” (Cambridge, UK, 2016).

I. Kundu, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. H. Li, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Electrically-controlled frequency tuning of terahertz quantum cascade lasers over 190 GHz using a coupled cavity with integrated photonic lattice,” in “OTST 2017” (London, UK, 2017) Accepted.

L. Mahler, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, D. A. Ritchie, and A. G. Davies, “Single-mode operation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with distributed-feedback resonators,” in “Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics” (Optical Society of America, 2004), p. CMR1.

de Geofroy, A.

Dean, P.

X. Qi, I. Kundu, P. Dean, G. Agnew, T. Taimre, A. Valavanis, A. T. Grier, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Mode selection and tuning mechanisms in coupled-cavity terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 23, 1–12 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Kundu, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. Chen, L. H. Li, J. E. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Quasi-continuous frequency tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with coupled cavity and integrated photonic lattice,” Opt. Express 25, 486–496 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, K. Bertling, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, P. Dean, J. Cooper, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Model for a pulsed terahertz quantum cascade laser under optical feedback,” Opt. Express 24, 20554–20570 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, Z. Ikonić, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, P. Harrison, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Temperature dependent high speed dynamics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 23, 1200209 (2016).

S. Han, K. Bertling, P. Dean, J. Keeley, A. D. Burnett, Y. L. Lim, S. P. Khanna, A. Valavanis, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, and A. D. Rakić, “Laser feedback interferometry as a tool for analysis of granular materials at terahertz frequencies: Towards imaging and identification of plastic explosives,” Sensors 16, 352 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, M. Nikolić, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, Z. Ikonić, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Efficient prediction of terahertz quantum cascade laser dynamics from steady-state simulations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Lim, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, P. Dean, D. Indjin, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, H. Schaider, T. W. Prow, H. P. Soyer, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “High-contrast coherent terahertz imaging of porcine tissue via swept-frequency feedback interferometry,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 3981–3989 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. H. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with > 1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50, 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. S. Lui, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “Terahertz inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging using self-mixing interferometry with a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2629–2632 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers — a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. Appl. Phys. 47, 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Kundu, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. Chen, L. H. Li, J. E. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Discrete Vernier tuning in terahertz quantum cascade lasers using coupled cavities,” Opt. Express 22, 16595–16605 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Methodology for materials analysis using swept-frequency feedback interferometry with terahertz frequency quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 22, 18633–18647 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Rakić, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Swept-frequency feedback interferometry using terahertz frequency QCLs: a method for imaging and materials analysis,” Opt. Express 21, 22194–22205 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Valavanis, P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Self-mixing interferometry with terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 37–43 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. J. Wilson, and A. D. Rakić, “Demonstration of a self-mixing displacement sensor based on terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 081108 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. P. Khanna, M. Salih, P. Dean, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Electrically tunable terahertz quantum-cascade laser with a heterogeneous active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 181101 (2009).
[Crossref]

I. Kundu, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. H. Li, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Electrically-controlled frequency tuning of terahertz quantum cascade lasers over 190 GHz using a coupled cavity with integrated photonic lattice,” in “OTST 2017” (London, UK, 2017) Accepted.

X. Qi, I. Kundu, G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. H. Li, E. Linfield, A. Davies, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Frequency tunability in coupled-cavity terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” in “Conference on Optoelectronic and Microelectronic Materials and Devices” (Sydney, Australia, 2016).

L. H. Li, I. Kundu, P. Dean, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “High-power GaAs/AlGaAs quantum cascade lasers with emission in the frequency range 4.7–5.6 THz,” in “International Quantum Cascade Lasers School and Workshop” (Cambridge, UK, 2016).

Demichel, O.

Dupont, E.

Evans, C. A.

C. A. Evans, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, M. S. Vitiello, V. Spagnolo, and G. Scamarcio, “Thermal modeling of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers: comparison of optical waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 44, 680–685 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. A. Evans, V. D. Jovanovic, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, and P. Harrison, “Investigation of thermal effects in quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 42, 859–867 (2006).
[Crossref]

Faist, J.

D. Turčinková, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Electrically tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers based on a two-sections interdigitated distributed feedback cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 131107 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Turčinková, M. I. Amanti, F. Castellano, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Continuous tuning of terahertz distributed feedback quantum cascade laser by gas condensation and dielectric deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 181113 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, “THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 45–66 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fathololoumi, S.

Federici, J.

J. Federici and L. Moeller, “Review of terahertz and subterahertz wireless communications,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 111101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fenner, D.

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fischer, M.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, “THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 45–66 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fitzgerald, A. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith, and J. M. Chamberlain, “An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R67 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Forchel, A.

V. Jovanović, S. Höfling, D. Indjin, N. Vukmirović, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, J. Reithmaier, and A. Forchel, “Influence of doping density on electron dynamics in GaAs/ AlGaAs quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 103106 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fosnight, A. M.

B. L. Moran, A. M. Fosnight, and I. R. Medvedev, “Analytical chemical sensing in the thz spectral range,” in “Imaging and Applied Optics Technical Papers,” (Optical Society of America, 2012), p. SW1C.2.

Fowler, J.

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “2.9 THz quantum cascade lasers operating up to 70 K in continuous wave,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674 (2004).
[Crossref]

Freeman, J.

L. H. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with > 1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50, 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gellie, P.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

Giles Davies, A.

F. Castellano, V. Bianchi, L. H. Li, J. Zhu, A. Tredicucci, E. H. Linfield, A. Giles Davies, and M. S. Vitiello, “Tuning a microcavity-coupled terahertz laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 261108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Grahn, H.

T. Hagelschuer, M. Wienold, H. Richter, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz gas spectroscopy through self-mixing in a quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 191101 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Wienold, T. Hagelschuer, N. Rothbart, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “Real-time terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 011102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Grahn, H. T.

M. Hempel, B. Röben, L. Schrottke, H.-W. Hübers, and H. T. Grahn, “Fast continuous tuning of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers by rear-facet illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 191106 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Hagelschuer, N. Rothbart, H. Richter, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “High-spectral-resolution terahertz imaging with a quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Express 24, 13839–13849 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wienold, B. Röben, X. Lü, G. Rozas, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, and H. T. Grahn, “Frequency dependence of the maximum operating temperature for quantum-cascade lasers up to 5.4 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 202101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Green, R.

Green, R. P.

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121104 (2007).
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Grier, A.

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G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, M. Nikolić, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, Z. Ikonić, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Efficient prediction of terahertz quantum cascade laser dynamics from steady-state simulations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161105 (2015).
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Grier, A. T.

X. Qi, I. Kundu, P. Dean, G. Agnew, T. Taimre, A. Valavanis, A. T. Grier, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Mode selection and tuning mechanisms in coupled-cavity terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 23, 1–12 (2017).
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T. Hagelschuer, N. Rothbart, H. Richter, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “High-spectral-resolution terahertz imaging with a quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Express 24, 13839–13849 (2016).
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S. Han, K. Bertling, P. Dean, J. Keeley, A. D. Burnett, Y. L. Lim, S. P. Khanna, A. Valavanis, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, and A. D. Rakić, “Laser feedback interferometry as a tool for analysis of granular materials at terahertz frequencies: Towards imaging and identification of plastic explosives,” Sensors 16, 352 (2016).
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G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, Z. Ikonić, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, P. Harrison, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Temperature dependent high speed dynamics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 23, 1200209 (2016).

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, K. Bertling, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, P. Dean, J. Cooper, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Model for a pulsed terahertz quantum cascade laser under optical feedback,” Opt. Express 24, 20554–20570 (2016).
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G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, M. Nikolić, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, Z. Ikonić, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Efficient prediction of terahertz quantum cascade laser dynamics from steady-state simulations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161105 (2015).
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D. Indjin, P. Harrison, R. Kelsall, and Z. Ikonić, “Self-consistent scattering model of carrier dynamics in GaAs-AlGaAs terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 15, 15–17 (2003).
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D. Indjin, P. Harrison, R. Kelsall, and Z. Ikonić, “Mechanisms of temperature performance degradation in terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1347–1349 (2003).
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Hübers, H.-W.

T. Hagelschuer, N. Rothbart, H. Richter, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “High-spectral-resolution terahertz imaging with a quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Express 24, 13839–13849 (2016).
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M. Hempel, B. Röben, L. Schrottke, H.-W. Hübers, and H. T. Grahn, “Fast continuous tuning of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers by rear-facet illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 191106 (2016).
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T. Hagelschuer, M. Wienold, H. Richter, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz gas spectroscopy through self-mixing in a quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 191101 (2016).
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M. Wienold, T. Hagelschuer, N. Rothbart, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “Real-time terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 011102 (2016).
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G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, K. Bertling, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, P. Dean, J. Cooper, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Model for a pulsed terahertz quantum cascade laser under optical feedback,” Opt. Express 24, 20554–20570 (2016).
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G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, Z. Ikonić, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, P. Harrison, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Temperature dependent high speed dynamics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 23, 1200209 (2016).

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, M. Nikolić, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, Z. Ikonić, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Efficient prediction of terahertz quantum cascade laser dynamics from steady-state simulations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161105 (2015).
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A. D. Rakić, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Swept-frequency feedback interferometry using terahertz frequency QCLs: a method for imaging and materials analysis,” Opt. Express 21, 22194–22205 (2013).
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Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. J. Wilson, and A. D. Rakić, “Demonstration of a self-mixing displacement sensor based on terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 081108 (2011).
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C. A. Evans, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, M. S. Vitiello, V. Spagnolo, and G. Scamarcio, “Thermal modeling of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers: comparison of optical waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 44, 680–685 (2008).
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C. A. Evans, V. D. Jovanovic, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, and P. Harrison, “Investigation of thermal effects in quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 42, 859–867 (2006).
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V. Jovanović, S. Höfling, D. Indjin, N. Vukmirović, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, J. Reithmaier, and A. Forchel, “Influence of doping density on electron dynamics in GaAs/ AlGaAs quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 103106 (2006).
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D. Indjin, P. Harrison, R. Kelsall, and Z. Ikonić, “Self-consistent scattering model of carrier dynamics in GaAs-AlGaAs terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 15, 15–17 (2003).
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D. Indjin, P. Harrison, R. Kelsall, and Z. Ikonić, “Mechanisms of temperature performance degradation in terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1347–1349 (2003).
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X. Qi, I. Kundu, P. Dean, G. Agnew, T. Taimre, A. Valavanis, A. T. Grier, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Mode selection and tuning mechanisms in coupled-cavity terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 23, 1–12 (2017).
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G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, Z. Ikonić, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, P. Harrison, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Temperature dependent high speed dynamics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 23, 1200209 (2016).

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, K. Bertling, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, P. Dean, J. Cooper, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Model for a pulsed terahertz quantum cascade laser under optical feedback,” Opt. Express 24, 20554–20570 (2016).
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S. Han, K. Bertling, P. Dean, J. Keeley, A. D. Burnett, Y. L. Lim, S. P. Khanna, A. Valavanis, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, and A. D. Rakić, “Laser feedback interferometry as a tool for analysis of granular materials at terahertz frequencies: Towards imaging and identification of plastic explosives,” Sensors 16, 352 (2016).
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G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, M. Nikolić, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, Z. Ikonić, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Efficient prediction of terahertz quantum cascade laser dynamics from steady-state simulations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161105 (2015).
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Y. L. Lim, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, P. Dean, D. Indjin, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, H. Schaider, T. W. Prow, H. P. Soyer, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “High-contrast coherent terahertz imaging of porcine tissue via swept-frequency feedback interferometry,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 3981–3989 (2014).
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H. S. Lui, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “Terahertz inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging using self-mixing interferometry with a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2629–2632 (2014).
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P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers — a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. Appl. Phys. 47, 374008 (2014).
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A. D. Rakić, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Swept-frequency feedback interferometry using terahertz frequency QCLs: a method for imaging and materials analysis,” Opt. Express 21, 22194–22205 (2013).
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A. Valavanis, P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Self-mixing interferometry with terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 37–43 (2013).
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Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. J. Wilson, and A. D. Rakić, “Demonstration of a self-mixing displacement sensor based on terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 081108 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. A. Evans, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, M. S. Vitiello, V. Spagnolo, and G. Scamarcio, “Thermal modeling of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers: comparison of optical waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 44, 680–685 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. A. Evans, V. D. Jovanovic, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, and P. Harrison, “Investigation of thermal effects in quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 42, 859–867 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. Jovanović, S. Höfling, D. Indjin, N. Vukmirović, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, J. Reithmaier, and A. Forchel, “Influence of doping density on electron dynamics in GaAs/ AlGaAs quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 103106 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Indjin, P. Harrison, R. Kelsall, and Z. Ikonić, “Self-consistent scattering model of carrier dynamics in GaAs-AlGaAs terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 15, 15–17 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. Indjin, P. Harrison, R. Kelsall, and Z. Ikonić, “Mechanisms of temperature performance degradation in terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1347–1349 (2003).
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X. Qi, I. Kundu, G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. H. Li, E. Linfield, A. Davies, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Frequency tunability in coupled-cavity terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” in “Conference on Optoelectronic and Microelectronic Materials and Devices” (Sydney, Australia, 2016).

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V. Jovanović, S. Höfling, D. Indjin, N. Vukmirović, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, J. Reithmaier, and A. Forchel, “Influence of doping density on electron dynamics in GaAs/ AlGaAs quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 103106 (2006).
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Jovanovic, V. D.

C. A. Evans, V. D. Jovanovic, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, and P. Harrison, “Investigation of thermal effects in quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 42, 859–867 (2006).
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Keeley, J.

S. Han, K. Bertling, P. Dean, J. Keeley, A. D. Burnett, Y. L. Lim, S. P. Khanna, A. Valavanis, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, and A. D. Rakić, “Laser feedback interferometry as a tool for analysis of granular materials at terahertz frequencies: Towards imaging and identification of plastic explosives,” Sensors 16, 352 (2016).
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P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers — a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. Appl. Phys. 47, 374008 (2014).
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D. Indjin, P. Harrison, R. Kelsall, and Z. Ikonić, “Mechanisms of temperature performance degradation in terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1347–1349 (2003).
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D. Indjin, P. Harrison, R. Kelsall, and Z. Ikonić, “Self-consistent scattering model of carrier dynamics in GaAs-AlGaAs terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 15, 15–17 (2003).
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Khanna, S. P.

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, K. Bertling, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, P. Dean, J. Cooper, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Model for a pulsed terahertz quantum cascade laser under optical feedback,” Opt. Express 24, 20554–20570 (2016).
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S. Han, K. Bertling, P. Dean, J. Keeley, A. D. Burnett, Y. L. Lim, S. P. Khanna, A. Valavanis, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, and A. D. Rakić, “Laser feedback interferometry as a tool for analysis of granular materials at terahertz frequencies: Towards imaging and identification of plastic explosives,” Sensors 16, 352 (2016).
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G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, M. Nikolić, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, Z. Ikonić, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Efficient prediction of terahertz quantum cascade laser dynamics from steady-state simulations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161105 (2015).
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Y. L. Lim, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, P. Dean, D. Indjin, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, H. Schaider, T. W. Prow, H. P. Soyer, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “High-contrast coherent terahertz imaging of porcine tissue via swept-frequency feedback interferometry,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 3981–3989 (2014).
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P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers — a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. Appl. Phys. 47, 374008 (2014).
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H. S. Lui, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “Terahertz inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging using self-mixing interferometry with a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2629–2632 (2014).
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A. D. Rakić, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Swept-frequency feedback interferometry using terahertz frequency QCLs: a method for imaging and materials analysis,” Opt. Express 21, 22194–22205 (2013).
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A. Valavanis, P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Self-mixing interferometry with terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 37–43 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. J. Wilson, and A. D. Rakić, “Demonstration of a self-mixing displacement sensor based on terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 081108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kniffin, G. P.

G. P. Kniffin, S. Schecklman, J. Chen, S. C. Henry, L. M. Zurk, B. Pejcinovic, and A. I. Timchenko, “Measurement and modeling of terahertz spectral signatures from layered material,” Proc. SPIE 7687, 768708 (2010).
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L. Coldren and T. Koch, “Analysis and design of coupled-cavity lasers-part I: Threshold gain analysis and design guidelines,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 20, 659–670 (1984).
[Crossref]

Köhler, R.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Mahler, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, D. A. Ritchie, and A. G. Davies, “Single-mode operation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with distributed-feedback resonators,” in “Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics” (Optical Society of America, 2004), p. CMR1.

Kumar, S.

C. Wu, Y. Jin, J. L. Reno, and S. Kumar, “Large static tuning of narrow-beam terahertz plasmonic lasers operating at 78 K,” APL Photonics 2, 026101 (2017).
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A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with external gratings,” Opt. Lett. 35, 910–912 (2010).
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Q. Qin, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Tuning a terahertz wire laser,” Nature Photon. 3, 732–737 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kundu, I.

X. Qi, I. Kundu, P. Dean, G. Agnew, T. Taimre, A. Valavanis, A. T. Grier, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Mode selection and tuning mechanisms in coupled-cavity terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 23, 1–12 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Kundu, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. Chen, L. H. Li, J. E. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Quasi-continuous frequency tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with coupled cavity and integrated photonic lattice,” Opt. Express 25, 486–496 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Kundu, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. Chen, L. H. Li, J. E. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Discrete Vernier tuning in terahertz quantum cascade lasers using coupled cavities,” Opt. Express 22, 16595–16605 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Kundu, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. H. Li, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Electrically-controlled frequency tuning of terahertz quantum cascade lasers over 190 GHz using a coupled cavity with integrated photonic lattice,” in “OTST 2017” (London, UK, 2017) Accepted.

X. Qi, I. Kundu, G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. H. Li, E. Linfield, A. Davies, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Frequency tunability in coupled-cavity terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” in “Conference on Optoelectronic and Microelectronic Materials and Devices” (Sydney, Australia, 2016).

L. H. Li, I. Kundu, P. Dean, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “High-power GaAs/AlGaAs quantum cascade lasers with emission in the frequency range 4.7–5.6 THz,” in “International Quantum Cascade Lasers School and Workshop” (Cambridge, UK, 2016).

Lachab, M.

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, K. Bertling, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, P. Dean, J. Cooper, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Model for a pulsed terahertz quantum cascade laser under optical feedback,” Opt. Express 24, 20554–20570 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, M. Nikolić, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, Z. Ikonić, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Efficient prediction of terahertz quantum cascade laser dynamics from steady-state simulations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Lim, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, P. Dean, D. Indjin, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, H. Schaider, T. W. Prow, H. P. Soyer, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “High-contrast coherent terahertz imaging of porcine tissue via swept-frequency feedback interferometry,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 3981–3989 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Lui, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “Terahertz inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging using self-mixing interferometry with a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2629–2632 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Rakić, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Swept-frequency feedback interferometry using terahertz frequency QCLs: a method for imaging and materials analysis,” Opt. Express 21, 22194–22205 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. J. Wilson, and A. D. Rakić, “Demonstration of a self-mixing displacement sensor based on terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 081108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Laframboise, S.

Lee, A. W. M.

Li, L. H.

I. Kundu, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. Chen, L. H. Li, J. E. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Quasi-continuous frequency tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with coupled cavity and integrated photonic lattice,” Opt. Express 25, 486–496 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Castellano, V. Bianchi, L. H. Li, J. Zhu, A. Tredicucci, E. H. Linfield, A. Giles Davies, and M. S. Vitiello, “Tuning a microcavity-coupled terahertz laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 261108 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers — a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. Appl. Phys. 47, 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. H. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with > 1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50, 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Kundu, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. Chen, L. H. Li, J. E. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Discrete Vernier tuning in terahertz quantum cascade lasers using coupled cavities,” Opt. Express 22, 16595–16605 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Kundu, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. H. Li, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Electrically-controlled frequency tuning of terahertz quantum cascade lasers over 190 GHz using a coupled cavity with integrated photonic lattice,” in “OTST 2017” (London, UK, 2017) Accepted.

L. H. Li, I. Kundu, P. Dean, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “High-power GaAs/AlGaAs quantum cascade lasers with emission in the frequency range 4.7–5.6 THz,” in “International Quantum Cascade Lasers School and Workshop” (Cambridge, UK, 2016).

X. Qi, I. Kundu, G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. H. Li, E. Linfield, A. Davies, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Frequency tunability in coupled-cavity terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” in “Conference on Optoelectronic and Microelectronic Materials and Devices” (Sydney, Australia, 2016).

Lim, Y. L.

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, K. Bertling, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, P. Dean, J. Cooper, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Model for a pulsed terahertz quantum cascade laser under optical feedback,” Opt. Express 24, 20554–20570 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, Z. Ikonić, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, P. Harrison, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Temperature dependent high speed dynamics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 23, 1200209 (2016).

S. Han, K. Bertling, P. Dean, J. Keeley, A. D. Burnett, Y. L. Lim, S. P. Khanna, A. Valavanis, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, and A. D. Rakić, “Laser feedback interferometry as a tool for analysis of granular materials at terahertz frequencies: Towards imaging and identification of plastic explosives,” Sensors 16, 352 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Taimre, M. Nikolić, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, T. Bosch, and A. D. Rakić, “Laser feedback interferometry: a tutorial on the self-mixing effect for coherent sensing,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 570–631 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, M. Nikolić, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, Z. Ikonić, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Efficient prediction of terahertz quantum cascade laser dynamics from steady-state simulations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Lim, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, P. Dean, D. Indjin, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, H. Schaider, T. W. Prow, H. P. Soyer, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “High-contrast coherent terahertz imaging of porcine tissue via swept-frequency feedback interferometry,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 3981–3989 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Methodology for materials analysis using swept-frequency feedback interferometry with terahertz frequency quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 22, 18633–18647 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Lui, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “Terahertz inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging using self-mixing interferometry with a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2629–2632 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers — a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. Appl. Phys. 47, 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. D. Rakić, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Swept-frequency feedback interferometry using terahertz frequency QCLs: a method for imaging and materials analysis,” Opt. Express 21, 22194–22205 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Valavanis, P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Self-mixing interferometry with terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 37–43 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. J. Wilson, and A. D. Rakić, “Demonstration of a self-mixing displacement sensor based on terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 081108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Linfield, E.

X. Qi, I. Kundu, G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. H. Li, E. Linfield, A. Davies, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Frequency tunability in coupled-cavity terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” in “Conference on Optoelectronic and Microelectronic Materials and Devices” (Sydney, Australia, 2016).

Linfield, E. H.

I. Kundu, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. Chen, L. H. Li, J. E. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Quasi-continuous frequency tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with coupled cavity and integrated photonic lattice,” Opt. Express 25, 486–496 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Qi, I. Kundu, P. Dean, G. Agnew, T. Taimre, A. Valavanis, A. T. Grier, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Mode selection and tuning mechanisms in coupled-cavity terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 23, 1–12 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, K. Bertling, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, P. Dean, J. Cooper, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Model for a pulsed terahertz quantum cascade laser under optical feedback,” Opt. Express 24, 20554–20570 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Han, K. Bertling, P. Dean, J. Keeley, A. D. Burnett, Y. L. Lim, S. P. Khanna, A. Valavanis, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, and A. D. Rakić, “Laser feedback interferometry as a tool for analysis of granular materials at terahertz frequencies: Towards imaging and identification of plastic explosives,” Sensors 16, 352 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, M. Nikolić, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, Z. Ikonić, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Efficient prediction of terahertz quantum cascade laser dynamics from steady-state simulations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161105 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Castellano, V. Bianchi, L. H. Li, J. Zhu, A. Tredicucci, E. H. Linfield, A. Giles Davies, and M. S. Vitiello, “Tuning a microcavity-coupled terahertz laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 261108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Lim, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, P. Dean, D. Indjin, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, H. Schaider, T. W. Prow, H. P. Soyer, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “High-contrast coherent terahertz imaging of porcine tissue via swept-frequency feedback interferometry,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 3981–3989 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. H. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with > 1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50, 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers — a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. Appl. Phys. 47, 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. S. Lui, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “Terahertz inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging using self-mixing interferometry with a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2629–2632 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Kundu, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. Chen, L. H. Li, J. E. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Discrete Vernier tuning in terahertz quantum cascade lasers using coupled cavities,” Opt. Express 22, 16595–16605 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Rakić, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Swept-frequency feedback interferometry using terahertz frequency QCLs: a method for imaging and materials analysis,” Opt. Express 21, 22194–22205 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Valavanis, P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Self-mixing interferometry with terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 37–43 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. J. Wilson, and A. D. Rakić, “Demonstration of a self-mixing displacement sensor based on terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 081108 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. P. Khanna, M. Salih, P. Dean, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Electrically tunable terahertz quantum-cascade laser with a heterogeneous active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 181101 (2009).
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S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “2.9 THz quantum cascade lasers operating up to 70 K in continuous wave,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674 (2004).
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R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. H. Li, I. Kundu, P. Dean, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “High-power GaAs/AlGaAs quantum cascade lasers with emission in the frequency range 4.7–5.6 THz,” in “International Quantum Cascade Lasers School and Workshop” (Cambridge, UK, 2016).

I. Kundu, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. H. Li, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Electrically-controlled frequency tuning of terahertz quantum cascade lasers over 190 GHz using a coupled cavity with integrated photonic lattice,” in “OTST 2017” (London, UK, 2017) Accepted.

L. Mahler, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, D. A. Ritchie, and A. G. Davies, “Single-mode operation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with distributed-feedback resonators,” in “Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics” (Optical Society of America, 2004), p. CMR1.

Liu, H. C.

Losco, T.

Lü, X.

M. Wienold, B. Röben, X. Lü, G. Rozas, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, and H. T. Grahn, “Frequency dependence of the maximum operating temperature for quantum-cascade lasers up to 5.4 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 202101 (2015).
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Mahler, L.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tuning a distributed feedback laser with a coupled microcavity,” Opt. Express 18, 19185–19191 (2010).
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J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121104 (2007).
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O. Demichel, L. Mahler, T. Losco, C. Mauro, R. Green, A. Tredicucci, J. Xu, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and V. Tamosinas, “Surface plasmon photonic structures in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 14, 5335–5345 (2006).
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L. Mahler, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, D. A. Ritchie, and A. G. Davies, “Single-mode operation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with distributed-feedback resonators,” in “Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics” (Optical Society of America, 2004), p. CMR1.

Manquest, C.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 306–313 (2011).
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Masanovic, M. L.

L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, and M. L. Masanovic, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (John Wiley & Sons, 2012).
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Mauro, C.

Medvedev, I. R.

B. L. Moran, A. M. Fosnight, and I. R. Medvedev, “Analytical chemical sensing in the thz spectral range,” in “Imaging and Applied Optics Technical Papers,” (Optical Society of America, 2012), p. SW1C.2.

Mezzapesa, F.

F. Mezzapesa, M. Petruzzella, M. Dabbicco, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, M. Vitiello, and G. Scamarcio, “Continuous-wave reflection imaging using optical feedback interferometry in terahertz and mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 4, 631–633 (2014).
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F. Mezzapesa, L. Columbo, M. Brambilla, M. Dabbicco, S. Borri, M. Vitiello, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and G. Scamarcio, “Intrinsic stability of quantum cascade lasers against optical feedback,” Opt. Express 21, 13748–13757 (2013).
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Moeller, L.

J. Federici and L. Moeller, “Review of terahertz and subterahertz wireless communications,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 111101 (2010).
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Moran, B. L.

B. L. Moran, A. M. Fosnight, and I. R. Medvedev, “Analytical chemical sensing in the thz spectral range,” in “Imaging and Applied Optics Technical Papers,” (Optical Society of America, 2012), p. SW1C.2.

Natale, P. De

L. Consolino, A. Taschin, P. Bartolini, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, R. Torre, M. S. Vitiello, and P. De Natale, “Phase-locking to a free-space terahertz comb for metrological-grade terahertz lasers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1040 (2012).
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Nikolic, M.

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H. S. Lui, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “Terahertz inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging using self-mixing interferometry with a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2629–2632 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers — a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. Appl. Phys. 47, 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. D. Rakić, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Swept-frequency feedback interferometry using terahertz frequency QCLs: a method for imaging and materials analysis,” Opt. Express 21, 22194–22205 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Qi, I. Kundu, G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. H. Li, E. Linfield, A. Davies, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Frequency tunability in coupled-cavity terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” in “Conference on Optoelectronic and Microelectronic Materials and Devices” (Sydney, Australia, 2016).

Tamosinas, V.

Tang, S.

S. Tang, D. Saeedkia, and K. Iniewski, Advances in Imaging and Sensing (Taylor & Francis Group, LLC, 2016).

Taschin, A.

L. Consolino, A. Taschin, P. Bartolini, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, R. Torre, M. S. Vitiello, and P. De Natale, “Phase-locking to a free-space terahertz comb for metrological-grade terahertz lasers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1040 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Terazzi, R.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, “THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 45–66 (2009).
[Crossref]

Timchenko, A. I.

G. P. Kniffin, S. Schecklman, J. Chen, S. C. Henry, L. M. Zurk, B. Pejcinovic, and A. I. Timchenko, “Measurement and modeling of terahertz spectral signatures from layered material,” Proc. SPIE 7687, 768708 (2010).
[Crossref]

Torre, R.

L. Consolino, A. Taschin, P. Bartolini, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, R. Torre, M. S. Vitiello, and P. De Natale, “Phase-locking to a free-space terahertz comb for metrological-grade terahertz lasers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1040 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tredicucci, A.

F. Castellano, V. Bianchi, L. H. Li, J. Zhu, A. Tredicucci, E. H. Linfield, A. Giles Davies, and M. S. Vitiello, “Tuning a microcavity-coupled terahertz laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 261108 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Consolino, A. Taschin, P. Bartolini, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, R. Torre, M. S. Vitiello, and P. De Natale, “Phase-locking to a free-space terahertz comb for metrological-grade terahertz lasers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1040 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Vitiello and A. Tredicucci, “Tunable emission in THz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 76–84 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tuning a distributed feedback laser with a coupled microcavity,” Opt. Express 18, 19185–19191 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121104 (2007).
[Crossref]

O. Demichel, L. Mahler, T. Losco, C. Mauro, R. Green, A. Tredicucci, J. Xu, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and V. Tamosinas, “Surface plasmon photonic structures in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 14, 5335–5345 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Mahler, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, D. A. Ritchie, and A. G. Davies, “Single-mode operation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with distributed-feedback resonators,” in “Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics” (Optical Society of America, 2004), p. CMR1.

Turcinková, D.

D. Turčinková, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Electrically tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers based on a two-sections interdigitated distributed feedback cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 131107 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Turčinková, M. I. Amanti, F. Castellano, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Continuous tuning of terahertz distributed feedback quantum cascade laser by gas condensation and dielectric deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 181113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Valavanis, A.

X. Qi, I. Kundu, P. Dean, G. Agnew, T. Taimre, A. Valavanis, A. T. Grier, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Mode selection and tuning mechanisms in coupled-cavity terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 23, 1–12 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Kundu, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. Chen, L. H. Li, J. E. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Quasi-continuous frequency tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with coupled cavity and integrated photonic lattice,” Opt. Express 25, 486–496 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, K. Bertling, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, P. Dean, J. Cooper, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Model for a pulsed terahertz quantum cascade laser under optical feedback,” Opt. Express 24, 20554–20570 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, Z. Ikonić, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, P. Harrison, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Temperature dependent high speed dynamics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 23, 1200209 (2016).

S. Han, K. Bertling, P. Dean, J. Keeley, A. D. Burnett, Y. L. Lim, S. P. Khanna, A. Valavanis, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, and A. D. Rakić, “Laser feedback interferometry as a tool for analysis of granular materials at terahertz frequencies: Towards imaging and identification of plastic explosives,” Sensors 16, 352 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, M. Nikolić, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, Z. Ikonić, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Efficient prediction of terahertz quantum cascade laser dynamics from steady-state simulations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Lim, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, P. Dean, D. Indjin, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, H. Schaider, T. W. Prow, H. P. Soyer, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “High-contrast coherent terahertz imaging of porcine tissue via swept-frequency feedback interferometry,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 3981–3989 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. H. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with > 1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50, 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. S. Lui, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “Terahertz inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging using self-mixing interferometry with a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2629–2632 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers — a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. Appl. Phys. 47, 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Kundu, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. Chen, L. H. Li, J. E. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Discrete Vernier tuning in terahertz quantum cascade lasers using coupled cavities,” Opt. Express 22, 16595–16605 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Rakić, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Swept-frequency feedback interferometry using terahertz frequency QCLs: a method for imaging and materials analysis,” Opt. Express 21, 22194–22205 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Valavanis, P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Self-mixing interferometry with terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 37–43 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. J. Wilson, and A. D. Rakić, “Demonstration of a self-mixing displacement sensor based on terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 081108 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Qi, I. Kundu, G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. H. Li, E. Linfield, A. Davies, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Frequency tunability in coupled-cavity terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” in “Conference on Optoelectronic and Microelectronic Materials and Devices” (Sydney, Australia, 2016).

P. Harrison and A. Valavanis, Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots: Theoretical and Computational Physics of Semiconductor Nanostructures (Wiley, 2016), 4th ed.
[Crossref]

I. Kundu, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, L. H. Li, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Electrically-controlled frequency tuning of terahertz quantum cascade lasers over 190 GHz using a coupled cavity with integrated photonic lattice,” in “OTST 2017” (London, UK, 2017) Accepted.

Vitiello, M.

F. Mezzapesa, M. Petruzzella, M. Dabbicco, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, M. Vitiello, and G. Scamarcio, “Continuous-wave reflection imaging using optical feedback interferometry in terahertz and mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 4, 631–633 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Mezzapesa, L. Columbo, M. Brambilla, M. Dabbicco, S. Borri, M. Vitiello, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and G. Scamarcio, “Intrinsic stability of quantum cascade lasers against optical feedback,” Opt. Express 21, 13748–13757 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vitiello, M. S.

F. Castellano, V. Bianchi, L. H. Li, J. Zhu, A. Tredicucci, E. H. Linfield, A. Giles Davies, and M. S. Vitiello, “Tuning a microcavity-coupled terahertz laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 261108 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Consolino, A. Taschin, P. Bartolini, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, R. Torre, M. S. Vitiello, and P. De Natale, “Phase-locking to a free-space terahertz comb for metrological-grade terahertz lasers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1040 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Vitiello and A. Tredicucci, “Tunable emission in THz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1, 76–84 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. A. Evans, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, M. S. Vitiello, V. Spagnolo, and G. Scamarcio, “Thermal modeling of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers: comparison of optical waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 44, 680–685 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “Time-resolved measurement of the local lattice temperature in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101116 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, and S. Barbieri, “Subband electronic temperatures and electron-lattice energy relaxation in terahertz quantum cascade lasers with different conduction band offsets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131114 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vukmirovic, N.

V. Jovanović, S. Höfling, D. Indjin, N. Vukmirović, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, J. Reithmaier, and A. Forchel, “Influence of doping density on electron dynamics in GaAs/ AlGaAs quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 103106 (2006).
[Crossref]

Walker, G. C.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith, and J. M. Chamberlain, “An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R67 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walther, C.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, “THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 45–66 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wasilewski, Z.

Wienold, M.

T. Hagelschuer, N. Rothbart, H. Richter, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “High-spectral-resolution terahertz imaging with a quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Express 24, 13839–13849 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wienold, T. Hagelschuer, N. Rothbart, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “Real-time terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 011102 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Hagelschuer, M. Wienold, H. Richter, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz gas spectroscopy through self-mixing in a quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 191101 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Wienold, B. Röben, X. Lü, G. Rozas, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, and H. T. Grahn, “Frequency dependence of the maximum operating temperature for quantum-cascade lasers up to 5.4 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 202101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Williams, B. S.

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with external gratings,” Opt. Lett. 35, 910–912 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Qin, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Tuning a terahertz wire laser,” Nature Photon. 3, 732–737 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wilson, S. J.

Y. L. Lim, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, P. Dean, D. Indjin, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, H. Schaider, T. W. Prow, H. P. Soyer, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and A. D. Rakić, “High-contrast coherent terahertz imaging of porcine tissue via swept-frequency feedback interferometry,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 3981–3989 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Rakić, T. Taimre, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. Valavanis, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, S. J. Wilson, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Swept-frequency feedback interferometry using terahertz frequency QCLs: a method for imaging and materials analysis,” Opt. Express 21, 22194–22205 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Valavanis, P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Self-mixing interferometry with terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Sens. J. 13, 37–43 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. J. Wilson, and A. D. Rakić, “Demonstration of a self-mixing displacement sensor based on terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 081108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Worrall, C.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, and S. Barbieri, “Subband electronic temperatures and electron-lattice energy relaxation in terahertz quantum cascade lasers with different conduction band offsets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131114 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.

C. Wu, Y. Jin, J. L. Reno, and S. Kumar, “Large static tuning of narrow-beam terahertz plasmonic lasers operating at 78 K,” APL Photonics 2, 026101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121104 (2007).
[Crossref]

O. Demichel, L. Mahler, T. Losco, C. Mauro, R. Green, A. Tredicucci, J. Xu, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and V. Tamosinas, “Surface plasmon photonic structures in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 14, 5335–5345 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

F. Castellano, V. Bianchi, L. H. Li, J. Zhu, A. Tredicucci, E. H. Linfield, A. Giles Davies, and M. S. Vitiello, “Tuning a microcavity-coupled terahertz laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 261108 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. H. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with > 1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50, 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zinovev, N. N.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith, and J. M. Chamberlain, “An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R67 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zurk, L. M.

G. P. Kniffin, S. Schecklman, J. Chen, S. C. Henry, L. M. Zurk, B. Pejcinovic, and A. I. Timchenko, “Measurement and modeling of terahertz spectral signatures from layered material,” Proc. SPIE 7687, 768708 (2010).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

APL Photonics (1)

C. Wu, Y. Jin, J. L. Reno, and S. Kumar, “Large static tuning of narrow-beam terahertz plasmonic lasers operating at 78 K,” APL Photonics 2, 026101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (16)

M. Hempel, B. Röben, L. Schrottke, H.-W. Hübers, and H. T. Grahn, “Fast continuous tuning of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers by rear-facet illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 191106 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Turčinková, M. I. Amanti, F. Castellano, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Continuous tuning of terahertz distributed feedback quantum cascade laser by gas condensation and dielectric deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 181113 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Turčinková, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Electrically tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers based on a two-sections interdigitated distributed feedback cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 131107 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121104 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Castellano, V. Bianchi, L. H. Li, J. Zhu, A. Tredicucci, E. H. Linfield, A. Giles Davies, and M. S. Vitiello, “Tuning a microcavity-coupled terahertz laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 261108 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Agnew, A. Grier, T. Taimre, Y. L. Lim, M. Nikolić, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. Harrison, Z. Ikonić, D. Indjin, and A. D. Rakić, “Efficient prediction of terahertz quantum cascade laser dynamics from steady-state simulations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 161105 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. W. I. Chan, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Ground state terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 151108 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Wienold, B. Röben, X. Lü, G. Rozas, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, and H. T. Grahn, “Frequency dependence of the maximum operating temperature for quantum-cascade lasers up to 5.4 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 202101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Lim, P. Dean, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Valavanis, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. J. Wilson, and A. D. Rakić, “Demonstration of a self-mixing displacement sensor based on terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 081108 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Wienold, T. Hagelschuer, N. Rothbart, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “Real-time terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 011102 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Hagelschuer, M. Wienold, H. Richter, L. Schrottke, K. Biermann, H. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz gas spectroscopy through self-mixing in a quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 191101 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. P. Khanna, M. Salih, P. Dean, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Electrically tunable terahertz quantum-cascade laser with a heterogeneous active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 181101 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Indjin, P. Harrison, R. Kelsall, and Z. Ikonić, “Mechanisms of temperature performance degradation in terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1347–1349 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, and S. Barbieri, “Subband electronic temperatures and electron-lattice energy relaxation in terahertz quantum cascade lasers with different conduction band offsets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131114 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “2.9 THz quantum cascade lasers operating up to 70 K in continuous wave,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “Time-resolved measurement of the local lattice temperature in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. H. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with > 1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50, 309–311 (2014).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

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Nature (1)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical feedback model for the coupled-cavity THz QCL. The internal cavity has passive cavity of length Lp, air gap of length Lg, and active cavity of length La. THz emission is through the facet on the right-hand side of the active cavity and traverses the external cavity of length Lext with refractive index next before reflecting back toward the QCL by the target. The power reflectivity and phase change introduced by the target are R and θR respectively. The round trip propagation time in the external cavity is τext. A portion of the reflected light, dictated by the re-injection loss ε, re-enters the laser and mixes with the field inside the laser cavity, generating the SM signal, which contains information pertaining to the target.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mode tunability in a CC THz QCL with La=1.5 mm, Lg = 13 μm, Lp=1.582 mm: (a) Multimode output power Pout as a function of the passive current amplitude Ip in the CC THz QCL, and output spectra of the CC THz QCL for three different values of the passive cavity current: (b) Ip=0 A, (c) Ip=1.39 A, and (d) Ip=2.05 A, corresponding to A, B, C, respectively in (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Self-mixing response at three different frequency bands generated by LFI with thermal modulation in a coupled-cavity THz QCL: (a) the active cavity driving current Ia and passive cavity driving current Ip; (b) the time varying lattice temperature in the passive and active cavity Tp and Ta; (c) the emission frequency of active cavity of the CC THz QCL ν, where three continuous frequency red shifts are shown in three insets, respectively; (d) the output power of each emission mode Pout. The inserts show the fine power features at the peak of each dominant mode, where blue, green, and orange solid curves indicate the output power of mode 4, 3, and 2 under optical feedback (target reflectivity R = 0.7) respectively. The grey lines in each insert denotes output power of the dominant mode without optical feedback; (e) the SM signal PSMI, i.e. the difference between the blue, green, and orange and their respective grey traces in (d). The grey region in (e) denotes the time period illustrated in each inserts.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Simulation parameters used in Eqs. (1)(5).

Equations (5)

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d N 3 t d t = η 3 q I a ( t ) ( N 3 ( t ) N 2 ( t ) ) m = 1 N G m S m ( t ) N 3 ( t ) τ 3 ,
d N 2 ( t ) d t = η 2 q I a ( t ) + ( N 3 ( t ) N 2 ( t ) ) m = 1 N G m S m ( t ) + N 3 ( t ) τ 32 + N 3 ( t ) τ sp N 2 ( t ) τ 2 ,
d S m ( t ) d t = M G m ( N 3 ( t ) N 2 ( t ) ) S m ( t ) S m ( t ) τ p , m + M β sp τ sp N 3 ( t ) + 2 κ τ in ( S m ( t ) S m ( t τ ext ) ) 1 2 cos ( ω th , m τ ext + φ m ( t ) φ m ( t τ ext ) ) Feedback Term m = 1 , 2 , , N ,
d φ m ( t ) d t = α 2 ( G m ( N 3 ( t ) N 2 ( t ) ) 1 τ p , m ) κ τ in ( S m ( t τ ext ) S m ( t ) ) 1 2 sin ( ω th , m τ ext + φ m ( t ) φ m ( t τ ext ) ) Feedback Term m = 1 , 2 , , N ,
d T a , p ( t ) d t = 1 m a , p c a , p ( T ) ( I a , p ( t ) V a , p ( t ) ( T a , p ( t ) T 0 ( t ) ) R th , a , p ) ,

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