Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a long distance non-line-of-sight (NLOS) visible light signal detection based on the rolling shutter patterning using commercial mobile phone camera. By using our improved rolling shutter pattern demodulation algorithm, such as the background compensation (BC) blooming mitigation, extinction-ratio (ER) enhancement and Bradley adaptive thresholding, a 1.5 m NLOS visible signal (at low illumination of 145 lux) can be retrieved.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. R. D. Retamal, H. M. Oubei, B. Janjua, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, T. K. Ng, D. H. Hsieh, H. C. Kuo, M. S. Alouini, J. H. He, G. R. Lin, and B. S. Ooi, “4-Gbit/s visible light communication link based on 16-QAM OFDM transmission over remote phosphor-film converted white light by using blue laser diode,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33656–33666 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. H. H. Lu, Y. P. Lin, P. Y. Wu, C. Y. Chen, M. C. Chen, and T. W. Jhang, “A multiple-input-multiple-output visible light communication system based on VCSELs and spatial light modulators,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3468–3474 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  4. Z. Wang, C. Yu, W. D. Zhong, J. Chen, and W. Chen, “Performance of a novel LED lamp arrangement to reduce SNR fluctuation for multi-user visible light communication systems,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4564–4573 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. C. H. Kwok, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Link reliability improvement for optical wireless communication systems with temporal-domain diversity reception,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(9), 700–702 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  6. C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. Liu, and Y. F. Liu, “Digital signal processing for light emitting diode based visible light communication,” IEEE Photon. Soc. Newslett. 26, 9–13 (2012).
  7. C. W. Hsu, C. W. Chow, I. C. Lu, Y. L. Liu, C. H. Yeh, and Y. Liu, “High speed imaging 3× 3 MIMO phosphor white-light LED based visible light communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 7907406 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Wu, H. Wang, and C. H. Youn, “Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: from fixed to mobile communications,” IEEE Netw. 28(6), 41–45 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  9. P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).
  10. C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” in Proc. OWC’12 (2012), pp. 1244–1248.
    [Crossref]
  11. C. W. Chow, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Enhancement of signal performance in LED visible light communications using mobile phone camera,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 7903607 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  12. K. Liang, C. W. Chow, and Y. Liu, “Mobile-phone based visible light communication using region-grow light source tracking for unstable light source,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17505–17510 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. D. Bradley and G. Roth, “Adaptive thresholding using the integral image,” J. Graph. GPU Game Tools 12(2), 13–21 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  14. ISO/IEC 18004:2000. Information technology-Automatic identification and data capture techniques - bar code symbology - QR Code (2000).

2016 (2)

C. W. Hsu, C. W. Chow, I. C. Lu, Y. L. Liu, C. H. Yeh, and Y. Liu, “High speed imaging 3× 3 MIMO phosphor white-light LED based visible light communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 7907406 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Liang, C. W. Chow, and Y. Liu, “Mobile-phone based visible light communication using region-grow light source tracking for unstable light source,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17505–17510 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

C. W. Chow, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Enhancement of signal performance in LED visible light communications using mobile phone camera,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 7903607 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. R. D. Retamal, H. M. Oubei, B. Janjua, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, T. K. Ng, D. H. Hsieh, H. C. Kuo, M. S. Alouini, J. H. He, G. R. Lin, and B. S. Ooi, “4-Gbit/s visible light communication link based on 16-QAM OFDM transmission over remote phosphor-film converted white light by using blue laser diode,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33656–33666 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

H. H. Lu, Y. P. Lin, P. Y. Wu, C. Y. Chen, M. C. Chen, and T. W. Jhang, “A multiple-input-multiple-output visible light communication system based on VCSELs and spatial light modulators,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3468–3474 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Wu, H. Wang, and C. H. Youn, “Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: from fixed to mobile communications,” IEEE Netw. 28(6), 41–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

Z. Wang, C. Yu, W. D. Zhong, J. Chen, and W. Chen, “Performance of a novel LED lamp arrangement to reduce SNR fluctuation for multi-user visible light communication systems,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4564–4573 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. Liu, and Y. F. Liu, “Digital signal processing for light emitting diode based visible light communication,” IEEE Photon. Soc. Newslett. 26, 9–13 (2012).

2008 (1)

C. H. Kwok, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Link reliability improvement for optical wireless communication systems with temporal-domain diversity reception,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(9), 700–702 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

D. Bradley and G. Roth, “Adaptive thresholding using the integral image,” J. Graph. GPU Game Tools 12(2), 13–21 (2007).
[Crossref]

Afgani, M.

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” in Proc. OWC’12 (2012), pp. 1244–1248.
[Crossref]

Alouini, M. S.

Bradley, D.

D. Bradley and G. Roth, “Adaptive thresholding using the integral image,” J. Graph. GPU Game Tools 12(2), 13–21 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. H.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. Y.

C. W. Chow, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Enhancement of signal performance in LED visible light communications using mobile phone camera,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 7903607 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. H. Lu, Y. P. Lin, P. Y. Wu, C. Y. Chen, M. C. Chen, and T. W. Jhang, “A multiple-input-multiple-output visible light communication system based on VCSELs and spatial light modulators,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3468–3474 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

Chen, J. H.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, M. C.

Chen, S. H.

C. W. Chow, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Enhancement of signal performance in LED visible light communications using mobile phone camera,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 7903607 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

Cheng, C. J.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chi, Y. C.

Chow, C. W.

K. Liang, C. W. Chow, and Y. Liu, “Mobile-phone based visible light communication using region-grow light source tracking for unstable light source,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17505–17510 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Hsu, C. W. Chow, I. C. Lu, Y. L. Liu, C. H. Yeh, and Y. Liu, “High speed imaging 3× 3 MIMO phosphor white-light LED based visible light communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 7907406 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chow, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Enhancement of signal performance in LED visible light communications using mobile phone camera,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 7903607 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. Liu, and Y. F. Liu, “Digital signal processing for light emitting diode based visible light communication,” IEEE Photon. Soc. Newslett. 26, 9–13 (2012).

Danakis, C.

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” in Proc. OWC’12 (2012), pp. 1244–1248.
[Crossref]

Ghassemlooy, Z.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

Haas, H.

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” in Proc. OWC’12 (2012), pp. 1244–1248.
[Crossref]

Han, D.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

He, J. H.

Hsieh, D. H.

Hsu, C. W.

C. W. Hsu, C. W. Chow, I. C. Lu, Y. L. Liu, C. H. Yeh, and Y. Liu, “High speed imaging 3× 3 MIMO phosphor white-light LED based visible light communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 7907406 (2016).
[Crossref]

Janjua, B.

Jhang, T. W.

Kuo, H. C.

Kwok, C. H.

C. H. Kwok, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Link reliability improvement for optical wireless communication systems with temporal-domain diversity reception,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(9), 700–702 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, C. Y.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liang, K.

Lin, C. Y.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, G. R.

Lin, Y. P.

Liu, Y.

C. W. Hsu, C. W. Chow, I. C. Lu, Y. L. Liu, C. H. Yeh, and Y. Liu, “High speed imaging 3× 3 MIMO phosphor white-light LED based visible light communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 7907406 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Liang, C. W. Chow, and Y. Liu, “Mobile-phone based visible light communication using region-grow light source tracking for unstable light source,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17505–17510 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. Liu, and Y. F. Liu, “Digital signal processing for light emitting diode based visible light communication,” IEEE Photon. Soc. Newslett. 26, 9–13 (2012).

Liu, Y. F.

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. Liu, and Y. F. Liu, “Digital signal processing for light emitting diode based visible light communication,” IEEE Photon. Soc. Newslett. 26, 9–13 (2012).

Liu, Y. L.

C. W. Hsu, C. W. Chow, I. C. Lu, Y. L. Liu, C. H. Yeh, and Y. Liu, “High speed imaging 3× 3 MIMO phosphor white-light LED based visible light communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 7907406 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lu, H. H.

H. H. Lu, Y. P. Lin, P. Y. Wu, C. Y. Chen, M. C. Chen, and T. W. Jhang, “A multiple-input-multiple-output visible light communication system based on VCSELs and spatial light modulators,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3468–3474 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lu, I. C.

C. W. Hsu, C. W. Chow, I. C. Lu, Y. L. Liu, C. H. Yeh, and Y. Liu, “High speed imaging 3× 3 MIMO phosphor white-light LED based visible light communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 7907406 (2016).
[Crossref]

Luo, P.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

Minh, H. L.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

Ng, T. K.

Ooi, B. S.

Oubei, H. M.

Penty, R. V.

C. H. Kwok, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Link reliability improvement for optical wireless communication systems with temporal-domain diversity reception,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(9), 700–702 (2008).
[Crossref]

Png, L. C.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

Povey, G.

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” in Proc. OWC’12 (2012), pp. 1244–1248.
[Crossref]

Retamal, J. R. D.

Roth, G.

D. Bradley and G. Roth, “Adaptive thresholding using the integral image,” J. Graph. GPU Game Tools 12(2), 13–21 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tang, X.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

Tsai, C. T.

Tsai, H. M.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

Underwood, I.

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” in Proc. OWC’12 (2012), pp. 1244–1248.
[Crossref]

Wan, Z. W.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

S. Wu, H. Wang, and C. H. Youn, “Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: from fixed to mobile communications,” IEEE Netw. 28(6), 41–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. Y.

Wang, Z.

White, I. H.

C. H. Kwok, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Link reliability improvement for optical wireless communication systems with temporal-domain diversity reception,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(9), 700–702 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wu, P. Y.

Wu, S.

S. Wu, H. Wang, and C. H. Youn, “Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: from fixed to mobile communications,” IEEE Netw. 28(6), 41–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yeh, C. H.

C. W. Hsu, C. W. Chow, I. C. Lu, Y. L. Liu, C. H. Yeh, and Y. Liu, “High speed imaging 3× 3 MIMO phosphor white-light LED based visible light communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 7907406 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. Liu, and Y. F. Liu, “Digital signal processing for light emitting diode based visible light communication,” IEEE Photon. Soc. Newslett. 26, 9–13 (2012).

Youn, C. H.

S. Wu, H. Wang, and C. H. Youn, “Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: from fixed to mobile communications,” IEEE Netw. 28(6), 41–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, C.

Zhang, M.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

Zhong, W. D.

IEEE Netw. (1)

S. Wu, H. Wang, and C. H. Youn, “Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: from fixed to mobile communications,” IEEE Netw. 28(6), 41–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Soc. Newslett. (1)

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. Liu, and Y. F. Liu, “Digital signal processing for light emitting diode based visible light communication,” IEEE Photon. Soc. Newslett. 26, 9–13 (2012).

IEEE Photonics J. (3)

C. W. Hsu, C. W. Chow, I. C. Lu, Y. L. Liu, C. H. Yeh, and Y. Liu, “High speed imaging 3× 3 MIMO phosphor white-light LED based visible light communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 7907406 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

C. W. Chow, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Enhancement of signal performance in LED visible light communications using mobile phone camera,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 7903607 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

C. H. Kwok, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Link reliability improvement for optical wireless communication systems with temporal-domain diversity reception,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(9), 700–702 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Graph. GPU Game Tools (1)

D. Bradley and G. Roth, “Adaptive thresholding using the integral image,” J. Graph. GPU Game Tools 12(2), 13–21 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Other (2)

ISO/IEC 18004:2000. Information technology-Automatic identification and data capture techniques - bar code symbology - QR Code (2000).

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” in Proc. OWC’12 (2012), pp. 1244–1248.
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Scenarios when the LED is (a) on and (b) off.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup of the NLOS VLC system using CMOS camera to capture the visible signal. Insets: Experimental image frames captured by the CMOS camera in different NLOS conditions.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Grayscale patterns of (a) the original rolling shutter pattern, after (b) the proposed BC blooming mitigation, and (c) the blooming mitigation used in [11].
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Grayscale patterns (a) after BC blooming mitigated and (b) after ER enhancement.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Experimental grayscale values after (a) Bradley thresholding, (b) second order polynomial thresholding, and (c) quick adaptive thresholding.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured BER performances and the illuminance at different transmission distances.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measured net data per frame at different transmission distances.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Processing time of the three thresholding schemes and their relative time required.

Equations (1)

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T i = 1 s n=s/2 s/2 y i+n

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