Abstract

White light produced by blue LEDs with yellow phosphor is the most widely used methods, but it results in poor quality in angular CCT uniformity. In this work, a novel technique was introduced to solve this problem by integrating different ZnO nanostructures into white light-emitting diodes. The experiment of ZnO doped films and the simulation of Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) were carried out. The result indicated scattering effect of ZnO nanoparticles could improve uniformity of scattering energy effectively. Moreover, the effect of ZnO nanostructures on white light-emitting diodes (wLEDs) devices was also investigated. The CCT deviation of wLEDs devices would decrease from 3455.49 K to 96.30 K, 40.03 K and 60.09 K when the node-like (N-ZnO), sheet-like (S-ZnO) and rod-like ZnO (R-ZnO) respectively applied. The higher CCT uniformity and little luminous flux dropping were achieved when the optimal concentrations of N-ZnO, S-ZnO, and R-ZnO nanostructures were 0.25%, 0.75%, and 0.25%. This low-cost and green manufacturing method has a great impact on development of white light-emitting diodes.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. B. R. Lee, E. D. Jung, J. S. Park, Y. S. Nam, S. H. Min, B. S. Kim, K. M. Lee, J. R. Jeong, R. H. Friend, J. S. Kim, S. O. Kim, and M. H. Song, “Highly efficient inverted polymer light-emitting diodes using surface modifications of ZnO layer,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4840 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. Y. C. Lee, H. L. Chen, C. Y. Lu, H. S. Wu, Y. F. Chou, and S. H. Chen, “Using nanoimprint lithography to improve the light extraction efficiency and color rendering of dichromatic white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale 7(39), 16312–16320 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, S. H. Chien, C. C. Huang, T. M. Chen, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “White light emitting diodes with enhanced CCT uniformity and luminous flux using ZrO2 nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 6(10), 5378–5383 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. Q. Chen, Z. Li, K. Chen, Y. Tang, X. Ding, and B. Yu, “CCT-tunable LED device with excellent ACU by using micro-structure array film,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16695–16704 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. S. Guo, S. Zhou, H. Li, and B. You, “Light diffusing films fabricated by strawberry-like PMMA/SiO2 composite microspheres for LED application,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 448, 123–129 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. K.-C. Huang, Y.-R. Huang, T.-L. Chuang, S.-Y. Ting, S. H. Tseng, and J.-E. Huang, “Incorporation of anatase TiO2 particles into silicone encapsulant for high-performance white LED,” Mater. Lett. 143, 244–247 (2015).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  20. L. Lilin, T. Xizhao, T. Dongdong, W. Mingyang, and W. Gang, “Simultaneously enhancing the angular-color uniformity, luminous efficiency, and reliability of white light-emitting diodes by ZnO@SiO2 modified silicones,” IEEE T. Comp. Pac. Man. 5, 599–605 (2015).
  21. D. E. Motaung, G. H. Mhlongo, S. S. Nkosi, G. F. Malgas, B. W. Mwakikunga, E. Coetsee, H. C. Swart, H. M. Abdallah, T. Moyo, and S. S. Ray, “Shape-selective dependence of room temperature ferromagnetism induced by hierarchical ZnO nanostructures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(12), 8981–8995 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. C.-T. Lee and T.-J. Wu, “Light distribution and light extraction improvement mechanisms of remote GaN-based white light-emitting-diodes using ZnO nanorod array,” J. Lumin. 137, 143–147 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  23. P. Mao, A. Mahapatra, J. Chen, M. Chen, G. Wang, and M. Han, “Fabrication of polystyrene/ZnO micronano hierarchical structure applied for light extraction of light-Emitting devices,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(34), 19179–19188 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. S. Maiti, S. Pal, and K. K. Chattopadhyay, “Recent advances in low temperature, solution processed morphology tailored ZnO nanoarchitectures for electron emission and photocatalysis applications,” CrystEngComm 17(48), 9264–9295 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  25. K.-K. Kim, S. Lee, H. Kim, J.-C. Park, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, S.-J. Park, and S.-W. Kim, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays grown using aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071118 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  26. Z. Yin, X. Liu, H. Yao, Y. Wu, X. Hao, M. Han, and X. Xu, “Light extraction enhancement of GaN LEDs by hybrid ZnO micro-cylinders and nanorods array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(20), 1989–1992 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  27. Z. Yin, X. Liu, H. Wang, Y. Wu, X. Hao, Z. Ji, and X. Xu, “Light transmission enhancement from hybrid ZnO micro-mesh and nanorod arrays with application to GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28531–28542 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. Z. Yin, X. Liu, Y. Wu, X. Hao, and X. Xu, “Enhancement of light extraction in GaN-based light-emitting diodes using rough beveled ZnO nanocone arrays,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1013–1021 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. Y.-S. Lee, Y.-I. Jung, B.-Y. Noh, and I.-K. Park, “Emission pattern control of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(11), 112101 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  30. P. Chand, A. Gaur, A. Kumar, and U. K. Gaur, “Effect of NaOH molar concentration on optical and ferroelectric properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 356, 438–446 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  31. W. J. Li, E. W. Shi, W. Z. Zhong, and Z. W. Yin, “Growth mechanism and growth habit of oxide crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 203(1-2), 186–196 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  32. X. Ding, J. Li, Q. Chen, Y. Tang, Z. Li, and B. Yu, “Improving LED CCT uniformity using micropatterned films optimized by combining ray tracing and FDTD methods,” Opt. Express 23(3), A180–A191 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. J.-S. Li, J.-X. Chen, L.-W. Lin, Z.-T. Li, Y. Tang, B.-H. Yu, and X.-R. Ding, “A detailed study on phosphor -converted light-emitting diodes with multi-phosphor configuration using the Finite-Difference Time -Domain and ray-tracing methods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51, 1–10 (2015).
  34. L. Yang, Z. Lv, Y. Jiaojiao, and S. Liu, “Effects of melamine formaldehyde resin and CaCO3 diffuser-loaded encapsulation on correlated color temperature uniformity of phosphor-converted LEDs,” Appl. Opt. 52(22), 5539–5544 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, Y. Li, T. Tao, J. Dai, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, P. Chen, D. Chen, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “High color rendering index hybrid III-nitride/nanocrystals white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(1), 36–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Yu, Z. Li, G. Liang, Y. Tang, B. Yu, and K. Chen, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes by remote micro-patterned phosphor film,” Photonics Res. 4(4), 140 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Chen, Z. Li, K. Chen, Y. Tang, X. Ding, and B. Yu, “CCT-tunable LED device with excellent ACU by using micro-structure array film,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16695–16704 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (10)

X. Ding, J. Li, Q. Chen, Y. Tang, Z. Li, and B. Yu, “Improving LED CCT uniformity using micropatterned films optimized by combining ray tracing and FDTD methods,” Opt. Express 23(3), A180–A191 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ding, J. Li, Q. Chen, Y. Tang, Z. Li, and B. Yu, “Improving LED CCT uniformity using micropatterned films optimized by combining ray tracing and FDTD methods,” Opt. Express 23(3), A180–A191 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Mao, A. Mahapatra, J. Chen, M. Chen, G. Wang, and M. Han, “Fabrication of polystyrene/ZnO micronano hierarchical structure applied for light extraction of light-Emitting devices,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(34), 19179–19188 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Maiti, S. Pal, and K. K. Chattopadhyay, “Recent advances in low temperature, solution processed morphology tailored ZnO nanoarchitectures for electron emission and photocatalysis applications,” CrystEngComm 17(48), 9264–9295 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Chand, A. Gaur, A. Kumar, and U. K. Gaur, “Effect of NaOH molar concentration on optical and ferroelectric properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 356, 438–446 (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-S. Li, J.-X. Chen, L.-W. Lin, Z.-T. Li, Y. Tang, B.-H. Yu, and X.-R. Ding, “A detailed study on phosphor -converted light-emitting diodes with multi-phosphor configuration using the Finite-Difference Time -Domain and ray-tracing methods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51, 1–10 (2015).

L. Lilin, T. Xizhao, T. Dongdong, W. Mingyang, and W. Gang, “Simultaneously enhancing the angular-color uniformity, luminous efficiency, and reliability of white light-emitting diodes by ZnO@SiO2 modified silicones,” IEEE T. Comp. Pac. Man. 5, 599–605 (2015).

S. Guo, S. Zhou, H. Li, and B. You, “Light diffusing films fabricated by strawberry-like PMMA/SiO2 composite microspheres for LED application,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 448, 123–129 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K.-C. Huang, Y.-R. Huang, T.-L. Chuang, S.-Y. Ting, S. H. Tseng, and J.-E. Huang, “Incorporation of anatase TiO2 particles into silicone encapsulant for high-performance white LED,” Mater. Lett. 143, 244–247 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Lee, H. L. Chen, C. Y. Lu, H. S. Wu, Y. F. Chou, and S. H. Chen, “Using nanoimprint lithography to improve the light extraction efficiency and color rendering of dichromatic white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale 7(39), 16312–16320 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, S. H. Chien, C. C. Huang, T. M. Chen, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “White light emitting diodes with enhanced CCT uniformity and luminous flux using ZrO2 nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 6(10), 5378–5383 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jeong, D. J. Park, H. S. Lee, Y. H. Ko, J. S. Yu, S. B. Choi, D. S. Lee, E. K. Suh, and M. S. Jeong, “Light-extraction enhancement of a GaN-based LED covered with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Nanoscale 6(8), 4371–4378 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Lee, E. D. Jung, J. S. Park, Y. S. Nam, S. H. Min, B. S. Kim, K. M. Lee, J. R. Jeong, R. H. Friend, J. S. Kim, S. O. Kim, and M. H. Song, “Highly efficient inverted polymer light-emitting diodes using surface modifications of ZnO layer,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4840 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lee, J.-Y. Hong, and J. Jang, “Performance enhancement of white light-emitting diodes using an encapsulant semi-solidification method,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(40), 8525–8531 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. E. Motaung, G. H. Mhlongo, S. S. Nkosi, G. F. Malgas, B. W. Mwakikunga, E. Coetsee, H. C. Swart, H. M. Abdallah, T. Moyo, and S. S. Ray, “Shape-selective dependence of room temperature ferromagnetism induced by hierarchical ZnO nanostructures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(12), 8981–8995 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

C.-T. Lee and T.-J. Wu, “Light distribution and light extraction improvement mechanisms of remote GaN-based white light-emitting-diodes using ZnO nanorod array,” J. Lumin. 137, 143–147 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. T. Li, Y. Tang, Z. Y. Liu, Y. E. Tan, and B. M. Zhu, “Detailed study on pulse-sprayed conformal phosphor configurations for LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(6), 433–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Yin, X. Liu, H. Yao, Y. Wu, X. Hao, M. Han, and X. Xu, “Light extraction enhancement of GaN LEDs by hybrid ZnO micro-cylinders and nanorods array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(20), 1989–1992 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Yang, Z. Lv, Y. Jiaojiao, and S. Liu, “Effects of melamine formaldehyde resin and CaCO3 diffuser-loaded encapsulation on correlated color temperature uniformity of phosphor-converted LEDs,” Appl. Opt. 52(22), 5539–5544 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Yin, X. Liu, H. Wang, Y. Wu, X. Hao, Z. Ji, and X. Xu, “Light transmission enhancement from hybrid ZnO micro-mesh and nanorod arrays with application to GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28531–28542 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

Z. Yin, X. Liu, Y. Wu, X. Hao, and X. Xu, “Enhancement of light extraction in GaN-based light-emitting diodes using rough beveled ZnO nanocone arrays,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1013–1021 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Chen, C. C. Chen, C. Y. Chiu, Y. N. Peng, Y. H. Wang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, and C. Y. Chung, “High uniformity in angular correlated-color-temperature distribution of white LEDs from 2800K to 6500K,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6622–6630 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. C. Lin, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “A novel randomly textured phosphor structure for highly efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 188 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

Y.-S. Lee, Y.-I. Jung, B.-Y. Noh, and I.-K. Park, “Emission pattern control of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(11), 112101 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

K. Wang, D. Wu, F. Chen, Z. Liu, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes integrated with freeform lenses,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1860–1862 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K.-C. Lee, I. Ferguson, S.-M. Kim, M. H. Kane, N. Narendran, J.-H. Moon, and T. Taguchi, “The effects of titania diffuser on angular color homogeneity in the phosphor conformal coated white LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 7784, 778410 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

K.-K. Kim, S. Lee, H. Kim, J.-C. Park, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, S.-J. Park, and S.-W. Kim, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays grown using aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071118 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

F. W. Mont, K. S. Kim, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, and R. W. Siegel, “High-refractive-index TiO2-nanoparticle-loaded encapsulants for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083120 (2008).

1999 (1)

W. J. Li, E. W. Shi, W. Z. Zhong, and Z. W. Yin, “Growth mechanism and growth habit of oxide crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 203(1-2), 186–196 (1999).
[Crossref]

Abdallah, H. M.

D. E. Motaung, G. H. Mhlongo, S. S. Nkosi, G. F. Malgas, B. W. Mwakikunga, E. Coetsee, H. C. Swart, H. M. Abdallah, T. Moyo, and S. S. Ray, “Shape-selective dependence of room temperature ferromagnetism induced by hierarchical ZnO nanostructures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(12), 8981–8995 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chand, P.

P. Chand, A. Gaur, A. Kumar, and U. K. Gaur, “Effect of NaOH molar concentration on optical and ferroelectric properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 356, 438–446 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chattopadhyay, K. K.

S. Maiti, S. Pal, and K. K. Chattopadhyay, “Recent advances in low temperature, solution processed morphology tailored ZnO nanoarchitectures for electron emission and photocatalysis applications,” CrystEngComm 17(48), 9264–9295 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. C.

Chen, C. Y.

Chen, D.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, Y. Li, T. Tao, J. Dai, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, P. Chen, D. Chen, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “High color rendering index hybrid III-nitride/nanocrystals white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(1), 36–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.

Chen, H. C.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, S. H. Chien, C. C. Huang, T. M. Chen, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “White light emitting diodes with enhanced CCT uniformity and luminous flux using ZrO2 nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 6(10), 5378–5383 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. C. Lin, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “A novel randomly textured phosphor structure for highly efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 188 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H. L.

Y. C. Lee, H. L. Chen, C. Y. Lu, H. S. Wu, Y. F. Chou, and S. H. Chen, “Using nanoimprint lithography to improve the light extraction efficiency and color rendering of dichromatic white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale 7(39), 16312–16320 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

P. Mao, A. Mahapatra, J. Chen, M. Chen, G. Wang, and M. Han, “Fabrication of polystyrene/ZnO micronano hierarchical structure applied for light extraction of light-Emitting devices,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(34), 19179–19188 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.-X.

J.-S. Li, J.-X. Chen, L.-W. Lin, Z.-T. Li, Y. Tang, B.-H. Yu, and X.-R. Ding, “A detailed study on phosphor -converted light-emitting diodes with multi-phosphor configuration using the Finite-Difference Time -Domain and ray-tracing methods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51, 1–10 (2015).

Chen, K.

S. Yu, Z. Li, G. Liang, Y. Tang, B. Yu, and K. Chen, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes by remote micro-patterned phosphor film,” Photonics Res. 4(4), 140 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Chen, Z. Li, K. Chen, Y. Tang, X. Ding, and B. Yu, “CCT-tunable LED device with excellent ACU by using micro-structure array film,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16695–16704 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, K. J.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, S. H. Chien, C. C. Huang, T. M. Chen, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “White light emitting diodes with enhanced CCT uniformity and luminous flux using ZrO2 nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 6(10), 5378–5383 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. C. Lin, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “A novel randomly textured phosphor structure for highly efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 188 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, M.

P. Mao, A. Mahapatra, J. Chen, M. Chen, G. Wang, and M. Han, “Fabrication of polystyrene/ZnO micronano hierarchical structure applied for light extraction of light-Emitting devices,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(34), 19179–19188 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, P.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, Y. Li, T. Tao, J. Dai, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, P. Chen, D. Chen, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “High color rendering index hybrid III-nitride/nanocrystals white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(1), 36–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

Chen, S. H.

Y. C. Lee, H. L. Chen, C. Y. Lu, H. S. Wu, Y. F. Chou, and S. H. Chen, “Using nanoimprint lithography to improve the light extraction efficiency and color rendering of dichromatic white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale 7(39), 16312–16320 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T. M.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, S. H. Chien, C. C. Huang, T. M. Chen, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “White light emitting diodes with enhanced CCT uniformity and luminous flux using ZrO2 nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 6(10), 5378–5383 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chien, S. H.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, S. H. Chien, C. C. Huang, T. M. Chen, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “White light emitting diodes with enhanced CCT uniformity and luminous flux using ZrO2 nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 6(10), 5378–5383 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiu, C. Y.

Choi, S. B.

H. Jeong, D. J. Park, H. S. Lee, Y. H. Ko, J. S. Yu, S. B. Choi, D. S. Lee, E. K. Suh, and M. S. Jeong, “Light-extraction enhancement of a GaN-based LED covered with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Nanoscale 6(8), 4371–4378 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chou, Y. F.

Y. C. Lee, H. L. Chen, C. Y. Lu, H. S. Wu, Y. F. Chou, and S. H. Chen, “Using nanoimprint lithography to improve the light extraction efficiency and color rendering of dichromatic white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale 7(39), 16312–16320 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chuang, T.-L.

K.-C. Huang, Y.-R. Huang, T.-L. Chuang, S.-Y. Ting, S. H. Tseng, and J.-E. Huang, “Incorporation of anatase TiO2 particles into silicone encapsulant for high-performance white LED,” Mater. Lett. 143, 244–247 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chung, C. Y.

Chung, T. Y.

Coetsee, E.

D. E. Motaung, G. H. Mhlongo, S. S. Nkosi, G. F. Malgas, B. W. Mwakikunga, E. Coetsee, H. C. Swart, H. M. Abdallah, T. Moyo, and S. S. Ray, “Shape-selective dependence of room temperature ferromagnetism induced by hierarchical ZnO nanostructures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(12), 8981–8995 (2014).
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Dai, J.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, Y. Li, T. Tao, J. Dai, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, P. Chen, D. Chen, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “High color rendering index hybrid III-nitride/nanocrystals white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(1), 36–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ding, X.

Ding, X.-R.

J.-S. Li, J.-X. Chen, L.-W. Lin, Z.-T. Li, Y. Tang, B.-H. Yu, and X.-R. Ding, “A detailed study on phosphor -converted light-emitting diodes with multi-phosphor configuration using the Finite-Difference Time -Domain and ray-tracing methods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51, 1–10 (2015).

Dongdong, T.

L. Lilin, T. Xizhao, T. Dongdong, W. Mingyang, and W. Gang, “Simultaneously enhancing the angular-color uniformity, luminous efficiency, and reliability of white light-emitting diodes by ZnO@SiO2 modified silicones,” IEEE T. Comp. Pac. Man. 5, 599–605 (2015).

Ferguson, I.

K.-C. Lee, I. Ferguson, S.-M. Kim, M. H. Kane, N. Narendran, J.-H. Moon, and T. Taguchi, “The effects of titania diffuser on angular color homogeneity in the phosphor conformal coated white LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 7784, 778410 (2010).
[Crossref]

Friend, R. H.

B. R. Lee, E. D. Jung, J. S. Park, Y. S. Nam, S. H. Min, B. S. Kim, K. M. Lee, J. R. Jeong, R. H. Friend, J. S. Kim, S. O. Kim, and M. H. Song, “Highly efficient inverted polymer light-emitting diodes using surface modifications of ZnO layer,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4840 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gang, W.

L. Lilin, T. Xizhao, T. Dongdong, W. Mingyang, and W. Gang, “Simultaneously enhancing the angular-color uniformity, luminous efficiency, and reliability of white light-emitting diodes by ZnO@SiO2 modified silicones,” IEEE T. Comp. Pac. Man. 5, 599–605 (2015).

Gaur, A.

P. Chand, A. Gaur, A. Kumar, and U. K. Gaur, “Effect of NaOH molar concentration on optical and ferroelectric properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 356, 438–446 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gaur, U. K.

P. Chand, A. Gaur, A. Kumar, and U. K. Gaur, “Effect of NaOH molar concentration on optical and ferroelectric properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 356, 438–446 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ge, H.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, Y. Li, T. Tao, J. Dai, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, P. Chen, D. Chen, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “High color rendering index hybrid III-nitride/nanocrystals white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(1), 36–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

Guo, S.

S. Guo, S. Zhou, H. Li, and B. You, “Light diffusing films fabricated by strawberry-like PMMA/SiO2 composite microspheres for LED application,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 448, 123–129 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, X.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, Y. Li, T. Tao, J. Dai, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, P. Chen, D. Chen, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “High color rendering index hybrid III-nitride/nanocrystals white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(1), 36–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

Han, H. V.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, S. H. Chien, C. C. Huang, T. M. Chen, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “White light emitting diodes with enhanced CCT uniformity and luminous flux using ZrO2 nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 6(10), 5378–5383 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, M.

P. Mao, A. Mahapatra, J. Chen, M. Chen, G. Wang, and M. Han, “Fabrication of polystyrene/ZnO micronano hierarchical structure applied for light extraction of light-Emitting devices,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(34), 19179–19188 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Yin, X. Liu, H. Yao, Y. Wu, X. Hao, M. Han, and X. Xu, “Light extraction enhancement of GaN LEDs by hybrid ZnO micro-cylinders and nanorods array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(20), 1989–1992 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hao, X.

Hong, J.-Y.

S. Lee, J.-Y. Hong, and J. Jang, “Performance enhancement of white light-emitting diodes using an encapsulant semi-solidification method,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(40), 8525–8531 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hu, F.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, Y. Li, T. Tao, J. Dai, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, P. Chen, D. Chen, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “High color rendering index hybrid III-nitride/nanocrystals white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(1), 36–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huang, C. C.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, S. H. Chien, C. C. Huang, T. M. Chen, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “White light emitting diodes with enhanced CCT uniformity and luminous flux using ZrO2 nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 6(10), 5378–5383 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, J.-E.

K.-C. Huang, Y.-R. Huang, T.-L. Chuang, S.-Y. Ting, S. H. Tseng, and J.-E. Huang, “Incorporation of anatase TiO2 particles into silicone encapsulant for high-performance white LED,” Mater. Lett. 143, 244–247 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, K.-C.

K.-C. Huang, Y.-R. Huang, T.-L. Chuang, S.-Y. Ting, S. H. Tseng, and J.-E. Huang, “Incorporation of anatase TiO2 particles into silicone encapsulant for high-performance white LED,” Mater. Lett. 143, 244–247 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.-R.

K.-C. Huang, Y.-R. Huang, T.-L. Chuang, S.-Y. Ting, S. H. Tseng, and J.-E. Huang, “Incorporation of anatase TiO2 particles into silicone encapsulant for high-performance white LED,” Mater. Lett. 143, 244–247 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jang, J.

S. Lee, J.-Y. Hong, and J. Jang, “Performance enhancement of white light-emitting diodes using an encapsulant semi-solidification method,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(40), 8525–8531 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jeong, H.

H. Jeong, D. J. Park, H. S. Lee, Y. H. Ko, J. S. Yu, S. B. Choi, D. S. Lee, E. K. Suh, and M. S. Jeong, “Light-extraction enhancement of a GaN-based LED covered with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Nanoscale 6(8), 4371–4378 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeong, J. R.

B. R. Lee, E. D. Jung, J. S. Park, Y. S. Nam, S. H. Min, B. S. Kim, K. M. Lee, J. R. Jeong, R. H. Friend, J. S. Kim, S. O. Kim, and M. H. Song, “Highly efficient inverted polymer light-emitting diodes using surface modifications of ZnO layer,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4840 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeong, M. S.

H. Jeong, D. J. Park, H. S. Lee, Y. H. Ko, J. S. Yu, S. B. Choi, D. S. Lee, E. K. Suh, and M. S. Jeong, “Light-extraction enhancement of a GaN-based LED covered with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Nanoscale 6(8), 4371–4378 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ji, Z.

Jiaojiao, Y.

Jung, E. D.

B. R. Lee, E. D. Jung, J. S. Park, Y. S. Nam, S. H. Min, B. S. Kim, K. M. Lee, J. R. Jeong, R. H. Friend, J. S. Kim, S. O. Kim, and M. H. Song, “Highly efficient inverted polymer light-emitting diodes using surface modifications of ZnO layer,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4840 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, Y.-I.

Y.-S. Lee, Y.-I. Jung, B.-Y. Noh, and I.-K. Park, “Emission pattern control of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(11), 112101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kane, M. H.

K.-C. Lee, I. Ferguson, S.-M. Kim, M. H. Kane, N. Narendran, J.-H. Moon, and T. Taguchi, “The effects of titania diffuser on angular color homogeneity in the phosphor conformal coated white LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 7784, 778410 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, B. S.

B. R. Lee, E. D. Jung, J. S. Park, Y. S. Nam, S. H. Min, B. S. Kim, K. M. Lee, J. R. Jeong, R. H. Friend, J. S. Kim, S. O. Kim, and M. H. Song, “Highly efficient inverted polymer light-emitting diodes using surface modifications of ZnO layer,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4840 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H.

K.-K. Kim, S. Lee, H. Kim, J.-C. Park, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, S.-J. Park, and S.-W. Kim, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays grown using aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071118 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. S.

B. R. Lee, E. D. Jung, J. S. Park, Y. S. Nam, S. H. Min, B. S. Kim, K. M. Lee, J. R. Jeong, R. H. Friend, J. S. Kim, S. O. Kim, and M. H. Song, “Highly efficient inverted polymer light-emitting diodes using surface modifications of ZnO layer,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4840 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K. S.

F. W. Mont, K. S. Kim, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, and R. W. Siegel, “High-refractive-index TiO2-nanoparticle-loaded encapsulants for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083120 (2008).

Kim, K.-K.

K.-K. Kim, S. Lee, H. Kim, J.-C. Park, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, S.-J. Park, and S.-W. Kim, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays grown using aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071118 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. O.

B. R. Lee, E. D. Jung, J. S. Park, Y. S. Nam, S. H. Min, B. S. Kim, K. M. Lee, J. R. Jeong, R. H. Friend, J. S. Kim, S. O. Kim, and M. H. Song, “Highly efficient inverted polymer light-emitting diodes using surface modifications of ZnO layer,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4840 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.-M.

K.-C. Lee, I. Ferguson, S.-M. Kim, M. H. Kane, N. Narendran, J.-H. Moon, and T. Taguchi, “The effects of titania diffuser on angular color homogeneity in the phosphor conformal coated white LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 7784, 778410 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.-W.

K.-K. Kim, S. Lee, H. Kim, J.-C. Park, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, S.-J. Park, and S.-W. Kim, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays grown using aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071118 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ko, Y. H.

H. Jeong, D. J. Park, H. S. Lee, Y. H. Ko, J. S. Yu, S. B. Choi, D. S. Lee, E. K. Suh, and M. S. Jeong, “Light-extraction enhancement of a GaN-based LED covered with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Nanoscale 6(8), 4371–4378 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar, A.

P. Chand, A. Gaur, A. Kumar, and U. K. Gaur, “Effect of NaOH molar concentration on optical and ferroelectric properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 356, 438–446 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. C.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, S. H. Chien, C. C. Huang, T. M. Chen, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “White light emitting diodes with enhanced CCT uniformity and luminous flux using ZrO2 nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 6(10), 5378–5383 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. C. Lin, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “A novel randomly textured phosphor structure for highly efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 188 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuo, H. T.

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, B. R.

B. R. Lee, E. D. Jung, J. S. Park, Y. S. Nam, S. H. Min, B. S. Kim, K. M. Lee, J. R. Jeong, R. H. Friend, J. S. Kim, S. O. Kim, and M. H. Song, “Highly efficient inverted polymer light-emitting diodes using surface modifications of ZnO layer,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4840 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, C.-T.

C.-T. Lee and T.-J. Wu, “Light distribution and light extraction improvement mechanisms of remote GaN-based white light-emitting-diodes using ZnO nanorod array,” J. Lumin. 137, 143–147 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, D. S.

H. Jeong, D. J. Park, H. S. Lee, Y. H. Ko, J. S. Yu, S. B. Choi, D. S. Lee, E. K. Suh, and M. S. Jeong, “Light-extraction enhancement of a GaN-based LED covered with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Nanoscale 6(8), 4371–4378 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, H. S.

H. Jeong, D. J. Park, H. S. Lee, Y. H. Ko, J. S. Yu, S. B. Choi, D. S. Lee, E. K. Suh, and M. S. Jeong, “Light-extraction enhancement of a GaN-based LED covered with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Nanoscale 6(8), 4371–4378 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K. M.

B. R. Lee, E. D. Jung, J. S. Park, Y. S. Nam, S. H. Min, B. S. Kim, K. M. Lee, J. R. Jeong, R. H. Friend, J. S. Kim, S. O. Kim, and M. H. Song, “Highly efficient inverted polymer light-emitting diodes using surface modifications of ZnO layer,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4840 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K.-C.

K.-C. Lee, I. Ferguson, S.-M. Kim, M. H. Kane, N. Narendran, J.-H. Moon, and T. Taguchi, “The effects of titania diffuser on angular color homogeneity in the phosphor conformal coated white LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 7784, 778410 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

S. Lee, J.-Y. Hong, and J. Jang, “Performance enhancement of white light-emitting diodes using an encapsulant semi-solidification method,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(40), 8525–8531 (2014).
[Crossref]

K.-K. Kim, S. Lee, H. Kim, J.-C. Park, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, S.-J. Park, and S.-W. Kim, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays grown using aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071118 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.-N.

K.-K. Kim, S. Lee, H. Kim, J.-C. Park, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, S.-J. Park, and S.-W. Kim, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays grown using aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071118 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. C.

Y. C. Lee, H. L. Chen, C. Y. Lu, H. S. Wu, Y. F. Chou, and S. H. Chen, “Using nanoimprint lithography to improve the light extraction efficiency and color rendering of dichromatic white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale 7(39), 16312–16320 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Lee, Y.-I. Jung, B.-Y. Noh, and I.-K. Park, “Emission pattern control of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(11), 112101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

S. Guo, S. Zhou, H. Li, and B. You, “Light diffusing films fabricated by strawberry-like PMMA/SiO2 composite microspheres for LED application,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 448, 123–129 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

Li, J.-S.

J.-S. Li, J.-X. Chen, L.-W. Lin, Z.-T. Li, Y. Tang, B.-H. Yu, and X.-R. Ding, “A detailed study on phosphor -converted light-emitting diodes with multi-phosphor configuration using the Finite-Difference Time -Domain and ray-tracing methods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51, 1–10 (2015).

Li, W. J.

W. J. Li, E. W. Shi, W. Z. Zhong, and Z. W. Yin, “Growth mechanism and growth habit of oxide crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 203(1-2), 186–196 (1999).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, Y. Li, T. Tao, J. Dai, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, P. Chen, D. Chen, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “High color rendering index hybrid III-nitride/nanocrystals white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(1), 36–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

Li, Z. T.

Z. T. Li, Y. Tang, Z. Y. Liu, Y. E. Tan, and B. M. Zhu, “Detailed study on pulse-sprayed conformal phosphor configurations for LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(6), 433–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.-T.

J.-S. Li, J.-X. Chen, L.-W. Lin, Z.-T. Li, Y. Tang, B.-H. Yu, and X.-R. Ding, “A detailed study on phosphor -converted light-emitting diodes with multi-phosphor configuration using the Finite-Difference Time -Domain and ray-tracing methods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51, 1–10 (2015).

Liang, G.

S. Yu, Z. Li, G. Liang, Y. Tang, B. Yu, and K. Chen, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes by remote micro-patterned phosphor film,” Photonics Res. 4(4), 140 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lilin, L.

L. Lilin, T. Xizhao, T. Dongdong, W. Mingyang, and W. Gang, “Simultaneously enhancing the angular-color uniformity, luminous efficiency, and reliability of white light-emitting diodes by ZnO@SiO2 modified silicones,” IEEE T. Comp. Pac. Man. 5, 599–605 (2015).

Lin, C. C.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, S. H. Chien, C. C. Huang, T. M. Chen, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “White light emitting diodes with enhanced CCT uniformity and luminous flux using ZrO2 nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 6(10), 5378–5383 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. C. Lin, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “A novel randomly textured phosphor structure for highly efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 188 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, L.-W.

J.-S. Li, J.-X. Chen, L.-W. Lin, Z.-T. Li, Y. Tang, B.-H. Yu, and X.-R. Ding, “A detailed study on phosphor -converted light-emitting diodes with multi-phosphor configuration using the Finite-Difference Time -Domain and ray-tracing methods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51, 1–10 (2015).

Liu, B.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, Y. Li, T. Tao, J. Dai, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, P. Chen, D. Chen, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “High color rendering index hybrid III-nitride/nanocrystals white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(1), 36–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

Liu, X.

Liu, Z.

Liu, Z. Y.

Z. T. Li, Y. Tang, Z. Y. Liu, Y. E. Tan, and B. M. Zhu, “Detailed study on pulse-sprayed conformal phosphor configurations for LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(6), 433–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lu, C. Y.

Y. C. Lee, H. L. Chen, C. Y. Lu, H. S. Wu, Y. F. Chou, and S. H. Chen, “Using nanoimprint lithography to improve the light extraction efficiency and color rendering of dichromatic white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale 7(39), 16312–16320 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, T. C.

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. C. Lin, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “A novel randomly textured phosphor structure for highly efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 188 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, X.

Lv, Z.

Mahapatra, A.

P. Mao, A. Mahapatra, J. Chen, M. Chen, G. Wang, and M. Han, “Fabrication of polystyrene/ZnO micronano hierarchical structure applied for light extraction of light-Emitting devices,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(34), 19179–19188 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maiti, S.

S. Maiti, S. Pal, and K. K. Chattopadhyay, “Recent advances in low temperature, solution processed morphology tailored ZnO nanoarchitectures for electron emission and photocatalysis applications,” CrystEngComm 17(48), 9264–9295 (2015).
[Crossref]

Malgas, G. F.

D. E. Motaung, G. H. Mhlongo, S. S. Nkosi, G. F. Malgas, B. W. Mwakikunga, E. Coetsee, H. C. Swart, H. M. Abdallah, T. Moyo, and S. S. Ray, “Shape-selective dependence of room temperature ferromagnetism induced by hierarchical ZnO nanostructures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(12), 8981–8995 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mao, P.

P. Mao, A. Mahapatra, J. Chen, M. Chen, G. Wang, and M. Han, “Fabrication of polystyrene/ZnO micronano hierarchical structure applied for light extraction of light-Emitting devices,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(34), 19179–19188 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mhlongo, G. H.

D. E. Motaung, G. H. Mhlongo, S. S. Nkosi, G. F. Malgas, B. W. Mwakikunga, E. Coetsee, H. C. Swart, H. M. Abdallah, T. Moyo, and S. S. Ray, “Shape-selective dependence of room temperature ferromagnetism induced by hierarchical ZnO nanostructures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(12), 8981–8995 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Min, S. H.

B. R. Lee, E. D. Jung, J. S. Park, Y. S. Nam, S. H. Min, B. S. Kim, K. M. Lee, J. R. Jeong, R. H. Friend, J. S. Kim, S. O. Kim, and M. H. Song, “Highly efficient inverted polymer light-emitting diodes using surface modifications of ZnO layer,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4840 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mingyang, W.

L. Lilin, T. Xizhao, T. Dongdong, W. Mingyang, and W. Gang, “Simultaneously enhancing the angular-color uniformity, luminous efficiency, and reliability of white light-emitting diodes by ZnO@SiO2 modified silicones,” IEEE T. Comp. Pac. Man. 5, 599–605 (2015).

Mont, F. W.

F. W. Mont, K. S. Kim, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, and R. W. Siegel, “High-refractive-index TiO2-nanoparticle-loaded encapsulants for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083120 (2008).

Moon, J.-H.

K.-C. Lee, I. Ferguson, S.-M. Kim, M. H. Kane, N. Narendran, J.-H. Moon, and T. Taguchi, “The effects of titania diffuser on angular color homogeneity in the phosphor conformal coated white LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 7784, 778410 (2010).
[Crossref]

Motaung, D. E.

D. E. Motaung, G. H. Mhlongo, S. S. Nkosi, G. F. Malgas, B. W. Mwakikunga, E. Coetsee, H. C. Swart, H. M. Abdallah, T. Moyo, and S. S. Ray, “Shape-selective dependence of room temperature ferromagnetism induced by hierarchical ZnO nanostructures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(12), 8981–8995 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moyo, T.

D. E. Motaung, G. H. Mhlongo, S. S. Nkosi, G. F. Malgas, B. W. Mwakikunga, E. Coetsee, H. C. Swart, H. M. Abdallah, T. Moyo, and S. S. Ray, “Shape-selective dependence of room temperature ferromagnetism induced by hierarchical ZnO nanostructures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(12), 8981–8995 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mwakikunga, B. W.

D. E. Motaung, G. H. Mhlongo, S. S. Nkosi, G. F. Malgas, B. W. Mwakikunga, E. Coetsee, H. C. Swart, H. M. Abdallah, T. Moyo, and S. S. Ray, “Shape-selective dependence of room temperature ferromagnetism induced by hierarchical ZnO nanostructures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(12), 8981–8995 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nam, Y. S.

B. R. Lee, E. D. Jung, J. S. Park, Y. S. Nam, S. H. Min, B. S. Kim, K. M. Lee, J. R. Jeong, R. H. Friend, J. S. Kim, S. O. Kim, and M. H. Song, “Highly efficient inverted polymer light-emitting diodes using surface modifications of ZnO layer,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4840 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Narendran, N.

K.-C. Lee, I. Ferguson, S.-M. Kim, M. H. Kane, N. Narendran, J.-H. Moon, and T. Taguchi, “The effects of titania diffuser on angular color homogeneity in the phosphor conformal coated white LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 7784, 778410 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nkosi, S. S.

D. E. Motaung, G. H. Mhlongo, S. S. Nkosi, G. F. Malgas, B. W. Mwakikunga, E. Coetsee, H. C. Swart, H. M. Abdallah, T. Moyo, and S. S. Ray, “Shape-selective dependence of room temperature ferromagnetism induced by hierarchical ZnO nanostructures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(12), 8981–8995 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noh, B.-Y.

Y.-S. Lee, Y.-I. Jung, B.-Y. Noh, and I.-K. Park, “Emission pattern control of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(11), 112101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pal, S.

S. Maiti, S. Pal, and K. K. Chattopadhyay, “Recent advances in low temperature, solution processed morphology tailored ZnO nanoarchitectures for electron emission and photocatalysis applications,” CrystEngComm 17(48), 9264–9295 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, D. J.

H. Jeong, D. J. Park, H. S. Lee, Y. H. Ko, J. S. Yu, S. B. Choi, D. S. Lee, E. K. Suh, and M. S. Jeong, “Light-extraction enhancement of a GaN-based LED covered with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Nanoscale 6(8), 4371–4378 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, I.-K.

Y.-S. Lee, Y.-I. Jung, B.-Y. Noh, and I.-K. Park, “Emission pattern control of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(11), 112101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Park, J. S.

B. R. Lee, E. D. Jung, J. S. Park, Y. S. Nam, S. H. Min, B. S. Kim, K. M. Lee, J. R. Jeong, R. H. Friend, J. S. Kim, S. O. Kim, and M. H. Song, “Highly efficient inverted polymer light-emitting diodes using surface modifications of ZnO layer,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4840 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J.-C.

K.-K. Kim, S. Lee, H. Kim, J.-C. Park, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, S.-J. Park, and S.-W. Kim, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays grown using aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071118 (2009).
[Crossref]

Park, S.-J.

K.-K. Kim, S. Lee, H. Kim, J.-C. Park, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, S.-J. Park, and S.-W. Kim, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays grown using aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071118 (2009).
[Crossref]

Park, Y.

K.-K. Kim, S. Lee, H. Kim, J.-C. Park, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, S.-J. Park, and S.-W. Kim, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays grown using aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071118 (2009).
[Crossref]

Peng, Y. N.

Ray, S. S.

D. E. Motaung, G. H. Mhlongo, S. S. Nkosi, G. F. Malgas, B. W. Mwakikunga, E. Coetsee, H. C. Swart, H. M. Abdallah, T. Moyo, and S. S. Ray, “Shape-selective dependence of room temperature ferromagnetism induced by hierarchical ZnO nanostructures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(12), 8981–8995 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schubert, E. F.

F. W. Mont, K. S. Kim, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, and R. W. Siegel, “High-refractive-index TiO2-nanoparticle-loaded encapsulants for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083120 (2008).

Schubert, M. F.

F. W. Mont, K. S. Kim, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, and R. W. Siegel, “High-refractive-index TiO2-nanoparticle-loaded encapsulants for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083120 (2008).

Shi, E. W.

W. J. Li, E. W. Shi, W. Z. Zhong, and Z. W. Yin, “Growth mechanism and growth habit of oxide crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 203(1-2), 186–196 (1999).
[Crossref]

Shi, Y.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, Y. Li, T. Tao, J. Dai, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, P. Chen, D. Chen, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “High color rendering index hybrid III-nitride/nanocrystals white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(1), 36–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shih, M. H.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, S. H. Chien, C. C. Huang, T. M. Chen, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “White light emitting diodes with enhanced CCT uniformity and luminous flux using ZrO2 nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 6(10), 5378–5383 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. C. Lin, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “A novel randomly textured phosphor structure for highly efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 188 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siegel, R. W.

F. W. Mont, K. S. Kim, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, and R. W. Siegel, “High-refractive-index TiO2-nanoparticle-loaded encapsulants for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083120 (2008).

Song, M. H.

B. R. Lee, E. D. Jung, J. S. Park, Y. S. Nam, S. H. Min, B. S. Kim, K. M. Lee, J. R. Jeong, R. H. Friend, J. S. Kim, S. O. Kim, and M. H. Song, “Highly efficient inverted polymer light-emitting diodes using surface modifications of ZnO layer,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4840 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suh, E. K.

H. Jeong, D. J. Park, H. S. Lee, Y. H. Ko, J. S. Yu, S. B. Choi, D. S. Lee, E. K. Suh, and M. S. Jeong, “Light-extraction enhancement of a GaN-based LED covered with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Nanoscale 6(8), 4371–4378 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, C. C.

Swart, H. C.

D. E. Motaung, G. H. Mhlongo, S. S. Nkosi, G. F. Malgas, B. W. Mwakikunga, E. Coetsee, H. C. Swart, H. M. Abdallah, T. Moyo, and S. S. Ray, “Shape-selective dependence of room temperature ferromagnetism induced by hierarchical ZnO nanostructures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(12), 8981–8995 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taguchi, T.

K.-C. Lee, I. Ferguson, S.-M. Kim, M. H. Kane, N. Narendran, J.-H. Moon, and T. Taguchi, “The effects of titania diffuser on angular color homogeneity in the phosphor conformal coated white LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 7784, 778410 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tan, Y. E.

Z. T. Li, Y. Tang, Z. Y. Liu, Y. E. Tan, and B. M. Zhu, “Detailed study on pulse-sprayed conformal phosphor configurations for LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(6), 433–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tang, Y.

S. Yu, Z. Li, G. Liang, Y. Tang, B. Yu, and K. Chen, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes by remote micro-patterned phosphor film,” Photonics Res. 4(4), 140 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Chen, Z. Li, K. Chen, Y. Tang, X. Ding, and B. Yu, “CCT-tunable LED device with excellent ACU by using micro-structure array film,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16695–16704 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ding, J. Li, Q. Chen, Y. Tang, Z. Li, and B. Yu, “Improving LED CCT uniformity using micropatterned films optimized by combining ray tracing and FDTD methods,” Opt. Express 23(3), A180–A191 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ding, J. Li, Q. Chen, Y. Tang, Z. Li, and B. Yu, “Improving LED CCT uniformity using micropatterned films optimized by combining ray tracing and FDTD methods,” Opt. Express 23(3), A180–A191 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-S. Li, J.-X. Chen, L.-W. Lin, Z.-T. Li, Y. Tang, B.-H. Yu, and X.-R. Ding, “A detailed study on phosphor -converted light-emitting diodes with multi-phosphor configuration using the Finite-Difference Time -Domain and ray-tracing methods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51, 1–10 (2015).

Z. T. Li, Y. Tang, Z. Y. Liu, Y. E. Tan, and B. M. Zhu, “Detailed study on pulse-sprayed conformal phosphor configurations for LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(6), 433–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tao, T.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, Y. Li, T. Tao, J. Dai, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, P. Chen, D. Chen, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “High color rendering index hybrid III-nitride/nanocrystals white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(1), 36–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ting, S.-Y.

K.-C. Huang, Y.-R. Huang, T.-L. Chuang, S.-Y. Ting, S. H. Tseng, and J.-E. Huang, “Incorporation of anatase TiO2 particles into silicone encapsulant for high-performance white LED,” Mater. Lett. 143, 244–247 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tsai, H. H.

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. C. Lin, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “A novel randomly textured phosphor structure for highly efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 188 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tseng, S. H.

K.-C. Huang, Y.-R. Huang, T.-L. Chuang, S.-Y. Ting, S. H. Tseng, and J.-E. Huang, “Incorporation of anatase TiO2 particles into silicone encapsulant for high-performance white LED,” Mater. Lett. 143, 244–247 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. H.

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. C. Lin, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “A novel randomly textured phosphor structure for highly efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 188 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, G.

P. Mao, A. Mahapatra, J. Chen, M. Chen, G. Wang, and M. Han, “Fabrication of polystyrene/ZnO micronano hierarchical structure applied for light extraction of light-Emitting devices,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(34), 19179–19188 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

Wang, K.

Wang, X.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, Y. Li, T. Tao, J. Dai, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, P. Chen, D. Chen, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “High color rendering index hybrid III-nitride/nanocrystals white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(1), 36–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. H.

Wu, D.

Wu, H. S.

Y. C. Lee, H. L. Chen, C. Y. Lu, H. S. Wu, Y. F. Chou, and S. H. Chen, “Using nanoimprint lithography to improve the light extraction efficiency and color rendering of dichromatic white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale 7(39), 16312–16320 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, T.-J.

C.-T. Lee and T.-J. Wu, “Light distribution and light extraction improvement mechanisms of remote GaN-based white light-emitting-diodes using ZnO nanorod array,” J. Lumin. 137, 143–147 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

Xiao, M.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, Y. Li, T. Tao, J. Dai, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, P. Chen, D. Chen, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “High color rendering index hybrid III-nitride/nanocrystals white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(1), 36–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xie, Z.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, Y. Li, T. Tao, J. Dai, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, P. Chen, D. Chen, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “High color rendering index hybrid III-nitride/nanocrystals white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(1), 36–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xizhao, T.

L. Lilin, T. Xizhao, T. Dongdong, W. Mingyang, and W. Gang, “Simultaneously enhancing the angular-color uniformity, luminous efficiency, and reliability of white light-emitting diodes by ZnO@SiO2 modified silicones,” IEEE T. Comp. Pac. Man. 5, 599–605 (2015).

Xu, X.

Yang, L.

Yang, T. H.

Yao, H.

Z. Yin, X. Liu, H. Yao, Y. Wu, X. Hao, M. Han, and X. Xu, “Light extraction enhancement of GaN LEDs by hybrid ZnO micro-cylinders and nanorods array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(20), 1989–1992 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yeh, C. C.

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. C. Lin, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “A novel randomly textured phosphor structure for highly efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 188 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, Z.

Yin, Z. W.

W. J. Li, E. W. Shi, W. Z. Zhong, and Z. W. Yin, “Growth mechanism and growth habit of oxide crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 203(1-2), 186–196 (1999).
[Crossref]

You, B.

S. Guo, S. Zhou, H. Li, and B. You, “Light diffusing films fabricated by strawberry-like PMMA/SiO2 composite microspheres for LED application,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 448, 123–129 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, B.

Yu, B.-H.

J.-S. Li, J.-X. Chen, L.-W. Lin, Z.-T. Li, Y. Tang, B.-H. Yu, and X.-R. Ding, “A detailed study on phosphor -converted light-emitting diodes with multi-phosphor configuration using the Finite-Difference Time -Domain and ray-tracing methods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51, 1–10 (2015).

Yu, J. S.

H. Jeong, D. J. Park, H. S. Lee, Y. H. Ko, J. S. Yu, S. B. Choi, D. S. Lee, E. K. Suh, and M. S. Jeong, “Light-extraction enhancement of a GaN-based LED covered with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Nanoscale 6(8), 4371–4378 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, S.

S. Yu, Z. Li, G. Liang, Y. Tang, B. Yu, and K. Chen, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes by remote micro-patterned phosphor film,” Photonics Res. 4(4), 140 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, R.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, Y. Li, T. Tao, J. Dai, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, P. Chen, D. Chen, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “High color rendering index hybrid III-nitride/nanocrystals white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(1), 36–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Y.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, Y. Li, T. Tao, J. Dai, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, P. Chen, D. Chen, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “High color rendering index hybrid III-nitride/nanocrystals white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(1), 36–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhi, T.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, Y. Li, T. Tao, J. Dai, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, P. Chen, D. Chen, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “High color rendering index hybrid III-nitride/nanocrystals white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(1), 36–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhong, W. Z.

W. J. Li, E. W. Shi, W. Z. Zhong, and Z. W. Yin, “Growth mechanism and growth habit of oxide crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 203(1-2), 186–196 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zhou, S.

S. Guo, S. Zhou, H. Li, and B. You, “Light diffusing films fabricated by strawberry-like PMMA/SiO2 composite microspheres for LED application,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 448, 123–129 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, B. M.

Z. T. Li, Y. Tang, Z. Y. Liu, Y. E. Tan, and B. M. Zhu, “Detailed study on pulse-sprayed conformal phosphor configurations for LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(6), 433–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhuang, Z.

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, Y. Li, T. Tao, J. Dai, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, P. Chen, D. Chen, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “High color rendering index hybrid III-nitride/nanocrystals white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(1), 36–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (2)

D. E. Motaung, G. H. Mhlongo, S. S. Nkosi, G. F. Malgas, B. W. Mwakikunga, E. Coetsee, H. C. Swart, H. M. Abdallah, T. Moyo, and S. S. Ray, “Shape-selective dependence of room temperature ferromagnetism induced by hierarchical ZnO nanostructures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(12), 8981–8995 (2014).
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P. Mao, A. Mahapatra, J. Chen, M. Chen, G. Wang, and M. Han, “Fabrication of polystyrene/ZnO micronano hierarchical structure applied for light extraction of light-Emitting devices,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(34), 19179–19188 (2015).
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Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Z. Zhuang, X. Guo, B. Liu, F. Hu, Y. Li, T. Tao, J. Dai, T. Zhi, Z. Xie, P. Chen, D. Chen, H. Ge, X. Wang, M. Xiao, Y. Shi, Y. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “High color rendering index hybrid III-nitride/nanocrystals white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(1), 36–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

Y.-S. Lee, Y.-I. Jung, B.-Y. Noh, and I.-K. Park, “Emission pattern control of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(11), 112101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K.-K. Kim, S. Lee, H. Kim, J.-C. Park, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, S.-J. Park, and S.-W. Kim, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays grown using aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071118 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

P. Chand, A. Gaur, A. Kumar, and U. K. Gaur, “Effect of NaOH molar concentration on optical and ferroelectric properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 356, 438–446 (2015).
[Crossref]

CrystEngComm (1)

S. Maiti, S. Pal, and K. K. Chattopadhyay, “Recent advances in low temperature, solution processed morphology tailored ZnO nanoarchitectures for electron emission and photocatalysis applications,” CrystEngComm 17(48), 9264–9295 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J.-S. Li, J.-X. Chen, L.-W. Lin, Z.-T. Li, Y. Tang, B.-H. Yu, and X.-R. Ding, “A detailed study on phosphor -converted light-emitting diodes with multi-phosphor configuration using the Finite-Difference Time -Domain and ray-tracing methods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51, 1–10 (2015).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

Z. Yin, X. Liu, H. Yao, Y. Wu, X. Hao, M. Han, and X. Xu, “Light extraction enhancement of GaN LEDs by hybrid ZnO micro-cylinders and nanorods array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(20), 1989–1992 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE T. Comp. Pac. Man. (1)

L. Lilin, T. Xizhao, T. Dongdong, W. Mingyang, and W. Gang, “Simultaneously enhancing the angular-color uniformity, luminous efficiency, and reliability of white light-emitting diodes by ZnO@SiO2 modified silicones,” IEEE T. Comp. Pac. Man. 5, 599–605 (2015).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. W. Mont, K. S. Kim, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, and R. W. Siegel, “High-refractive-index TiO2-nanoparticle-loaded encapsulants for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083120 (2008).

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

S. Guo, S. Zhou, H. Li, and B. You, “Light diffusing films fabricated by strawberry-like PMMA/SiO2 composite microspheres for LED application,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 448, 123–129 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

W. J. Li, E. W. Shi, W. Z. Zhong, and Z. W. Yin, “Growth mechanism and growth habit of oxide crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 203(1-2), 186–196 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

Z. T. Li, Y. Tang, Z. Y. Liu, Y. E. Tan, and B. M. Zhu, “Detailed study on pulse-sprayed conformal phosphor configurations for LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(6), 433–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (1)

C.-T. Lee and T.-J. Wu, “Light distribution and light extraction improvement mechanisms of remote GaN-based white light-emitting-diodes using ZnO nanorod array,” J. Lumin. 137, 143–147 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices (1)

S. Lee, J.-Y. Hong, and J. Jang, “Performance enhancement of white light-emitting diodes using an encapsulant semi-solidification method,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(40), 8525–8531 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mater. Lett. (1)

K.-C. Huang, Y.-R. Huang, T.-L. Chuang, S.-Y. Ting, S. H. Tseng, and J.-E. Huang, “Incorporation of anatase TiO2 particles into silicone encapsulant for high-performance white LED,” Mater. Lett. 143, 244–247 (2015).
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Nanoscale (3)

H. Jeong, D. J. Park, H. S. Lee, Y. H. Ko, J. S. Yu, S. B. Choi, D. S. Lee, E. K. Suh, and M. S. Jeong, “Light-extraction enhancement of a GaN-based LED covered with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Nanoscale 6(8), 4371–4378 (2014).
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Y. C. Lee, H. L. Chen, C. Y. Lu, H. S. Wu, Y. F. Chou, and S. H. Chen, “Using nanoimprint lithography to improve the light extraction efficiency and color rendering of dichromatic white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale 7(39), 16312–16320 (2015).
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K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, S. H. Chien, C. C. Huang, T. M. Chen, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “White light emitting diodes with enhanced CCT uniformity and luminous flux using ZrO2 nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 6(10), 5378–5383 (2014).
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Nanoscale Res. Lett. (1)

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. C. Lin, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “A novel randomly textured phosphor structure for highly efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 188 (2012).
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Nanotechnology (2)

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

B. R. Lee, E. D. Jung, J. S. Park, Y. S. Nam, S. H. Min, B. S. Kim, K. M. Lee, J. R. Jeong, R. H. Friend, J. S. Kim, S. O. Kim, and M. H. Song, “Highly efficient inverted polymer light-emitting diodes using surface modifications of ZnO layer,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4840 (2014).
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Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photonics Res. (1)

S. Yu, Z. Li, G. Liang, Y. Tang, B. Yu, and K. Chen, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes by remote micro-patterned phosphor film,” Photonics Res. 4(4), 140 (2016).
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Proc. SPIE (1)

K.-C. Lee, I. Ferguson, S.-M. Kim, M. H. Kane, N. Narendran, J.-H. Moon, and T. Taguchi, “The effects of titania diffuser on angular color homogeneity in the phosphor conformal coated white LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 7784, 778410 (2010).
[Crossref]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Photograph of 1W wLED device. (b) Schematic cross-sectional view of ZnO-doped wLED devices. (c) The images of wLED device samples without ZnO nanoparticles and doped with different concentrations (0.125~2.5%) and morphologies (N-ZnO, S-ZnO and R-ZnO) of ZnO nanoparticles.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

FE-SEM images of ZnO nanostructures: (a) N-ZnO, (b) S-ZnO and (c) R-ZnO, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The normalized scattering energy distribution of films doped with different concentrations and morphologies of ZnO nanoparticles measured by transmission method: (a) 0.125%, (b) 0.25%, (c) 0.75%, (d) 1.25% and (e) 2.5%.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized scattering energy distributions of various concentrations and morphologies of ZnO-doped films measured by the reflection method: (a) 0.125%, (b) 0.25%, (c) 0.75%, (d) 1.25% and (e) 2.5%.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scattering energy ratio of different concentrations of the different ZnO-doped films by using (a) transmission and (b) reflection measurement methods.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmittance of different concentrations of nanoparticle ZnO-doped films.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The scattering phase distributions (SPDs) of three different ZnO nanoparticles at light incident angle: (a) 0°, (b) 45°, (c) 90° and (d) the average scattering phase distributions of three light incident angle, respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Correlated color temperature (CCT) distribution of wLED devices doped with different ZnO nanostructures at different concentrations: (a) 0.125%, (b) 0.25%, (c) 0.75%, (d) 1.25% and (e) 2.5%.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Light intensity distribution of wLED devices doped with different ZnO nanostructures at different concentrations: (a) 0.125%, (b) 0.25%, (c) 0.75%, (d) 1.25% and (e) 2.5%.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Luminous flux and (b) CCT deviation and luminous flux reduction at different concentrations of ZnO.

Equations (1)

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η= E Total E specular E Total ×100%

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