Abstract

A series of Ba3Lu(PO4)3:Sm3+ phosphors were prepared by traditional high temperature solid-state reaction methods. The site-preferred occupancy of Sm3+ in Ba3Lu(PO4)3 and the luminescence properties of Ba3Lu(PO4)3:Sm3+ were studied combined with X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra, and emission (PL) spectra as well as temperature-dependent PL and decay curves. The PL intensity is improved with increasing Sm3+ content and the optimal dopant content is 0.05. The temperature-dependent PL spectra indicate that the emission intensity decreases with the temperature because of the enhancement of the non-radiative transition. The results indicate that these reddish-orange emitting phosphors could be for potential applications in w-LEDs.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  24. Z. P. Yang, Y. Han, Y. C. Song, Y. H. Zhao, and P. F. Liu, “Synthesis and luminescence properties of a novel red Sr3Bi (PO4) 3: Sm^ 3+ phosphor,” J. Rare Earths 30(12), 1199–1202 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  25. G. S. R. Raju and S. Buddhudu, “Emission analysis of Sm3+ and Dy3+:MgLaLiSi2O7 powder phosphors,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 70(3), 601–605 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. V. Singh, S. Watanabe, T. K. G. Rao, J. F. D. Chubaci, and H. Y. Kwak, “Luminescence and defect centres in MgSrAl10O17:Sm3+ phosphor,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(3), 1185–1190 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  27. Z. G. Xia and D. M. Chen, “Synthesis and Luminescence Properties of BaMoO4:Sm3+ phoshpors,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93(5), 1397–1401 (2010).
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    [Crossref]
  29. Y. Q. Zhai, W. Zhang, Y. J. Yin, Y. Han, X. Zhao, H. H. Ding, and N. Li, “Morphology tunable synthesis and luminescence property of NaGd(MoO4)2:Sm3+ microcrystals,” Ceram. Int. 43(1), 841–846 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  30. M. F. Joubert, A. Remillieux, B. Jacquier, J. Mugnier, B. Boulard, O. Perrot, and C. Jacoboni, “Infrared to visible conversion in rare-earth-doped planar waveguides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184(1), 341–345 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  31. G. Blasse, “Energy transfer between inequivalent Eu2+ ions,” J. Solid State Chem. 62(2), 207–211 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  32. L. G. Van Uitert, “Characterization of energy transfer interactions between rare earth ions,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 114(10), 1048–1053 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  33. Z. F. Yang, D. H. Xu, J. N. Du, X. D. Gao, and J. Y. Sun, “Tunable luminescence and energy transfer of Eu2+/Mn2+ co-doped Sr3NaY(PO4)3F phosphor for white LEDs,” RSC Advances 6(90), 87493–87501 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  34. J. H. Hao, S. A. Studenikin, and M. Cocivera, “Transient photoconductivity properties of tungsten oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5064–5069 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  35. H. Zhou, Q. Wang, M. Jiang, X. Jiang, and Y. Jin, “A novel green-emitting phosphor Ba2Gd2Si4O13:Eu(2+) for near UV-pumped light-emitting diodes,” Dalton Trans. 44(31), 13962–13968 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. D. H. Xu, Z. F. Yang, J. Y. Sun, X. D. Gao, and J. N. Du, “Synthesis and luminescence properties of double-perovskite white emitting phosphor Ca3WO6:Dy3+,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 27(8037), 8370–8377 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  37. W. R. Liu, C. H. Huang, C. W. Yeh, J. C. Tsai, Y. C. Chiu, Y. T. Yeh, and R. S. Liu, “A study on the luminescence and energy transfer of single-phase and color-tunable KCaY(PO4)2:Eu2+,Mn2+ phosphor for application in white-light LEDs,” Inorg. Chem. 51(18), 9636–9641 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

Y. Q. Zhai, W. Zhang, Y. J. Yin, Y. Han, X. Zhao, H. H. Ding, and N. Li, “Morphology tunable synthesis and luminescence property of NaGd(MoO4)2:Sm3+ microcrystals,” Ceram. Int. 43(1), 841–846 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

Z. F. Yang, D. H. Xu, J. N. Du, X. D. Gao, and J. Y. Sun, “Tunable luminescence and energy transfer of Eu2+/Mn2+ co-doped Sr3NaY(PO4)3F phosphor for white LEDs,” RSC Advances 6(90), 87493–87501 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. M. Yawalkar, G. D. Zade, K. V. Dabre, and S. J. Dhoble, “Luminescence study of Eu3+ doped Li6 Y(BO3 )3 phosphor for solid-state lighting,” Luminescence 31(4), 1037–1042 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Ramesh, G. Devarajulu, B. D. P. Raju, G. B. Kumar, G. R. Dillip, A. N. Banerjee, and S. W. Joo, “Determination of strain, site occupancy, photoluminescent, and thermoluminescent-trapping parameters of Sm3+-doped NaSrB5O9 microstructures,” Ceram. Int. 42(1), 1234–1245 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. K. Vishwakarma and M. Jayasimhadri, “Pure orange color emitting Sm3+ doped BaNb2O6 phosphor for solid - state lighting applications,” J. Lumin. 176, 112–117 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. H. Xu, Z. F. Yang, J. Y. Sun, X. D. Gao, and J. N. Du, “Synthesis and luminescence properties of double-perovskite white emitting phosphor Ca3WO6:Dy3+,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 27(8037), 8370–8377 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

H. Zhou, Q. Wang, M. Jiang, X. Jiang, and Y. Jin, “A novel green-emitting phosphor Ba2Gd2Si4O13:Eu(2+) for near UV-pumped light-emitting diodes,” Dalton Trans. 44(31), 13962–13968 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Cheng, Z. Xia, M. S. Molokeev, and X. Jing, “Effects of composition modulation on the luminescence properties of Eu3+ doped Li1-xAgxLu(MoO4)2 solid-solution phosphors,” Dalton Trans. 44(41), 18078–18089 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. M. Di, Q. G. Xu, L. Han, and J. Y. Sun, “Synthesis and luminescence properties of Eu3+-doped Ba3Gd(PO4)3 phosphors for light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Eng. 54(3), 035104 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Y. Chen, Z. G. Xia, M. S. Molokeev, and Q. L. Liu, “Insights into Ba4Si6O16 structure and photoluminescence tuning of Ba4Si6O16:Ce3+, Eu2+ phosphors,” J. Mater. Chem. C 3(48), 12477–12483 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Liang, H. You, Y. Fu, X. Teng, K. Liu, and J. He, “A novel tunable blue-green-emitting CaGdGaAl2O7:Ce(3+),Tb(3+) phosphor via energy transfer for UV-excited white LEDs,” Dalton Trans. 44(17), 8100–8106 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. F. Yang, D. H. Xu, J. Y. Sun, Y. M. Sun, and H. Y. Du, “Characterization and luminescence properties of Sr3Gd(PO4)3:Sm3+ orange-red phosphor,” Opt. Eng. 54(10), 105102 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

C. Jin, H. X. Ma, Y. F. Liu, Q. B. Liu, G. Y. Dong, and Q. M. Yu, “Tunable luminescence properties and energy transfer in Ba3Lu(PO4)3:Ce3+,Tb3+ phosphors,” J. Alloys Compd. 613(1), 275–279 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. W. Zhang, Y. S. Peng, X. H. Shen, J. P. Zhang, S. T. Song, and Q. Lian, “Enhanced novel orange red emission in LiSr4−x(BO3)3:xSm3+ by K+,” J. Mater. Sci. 49(6), 2534–2541 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. G. Zhang, J. L. Zhang, and M. L. Gong, “Synthesis and luminescent properties of UV-excited thermal stable red-emitting phosphor Ba3Lu(PO4)3: Eu3+ for NUV LED,” Opt. Mater. 36(4), 850–853 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Chen, Y. H. Hu, Y. H. Jin, L. Chen, and X. J. Wang, “Tunable emission and efficient energy-transfer properties of Ce3+ and Mn2+ co-doped Ba3Gd(PO4)3 phosphors,” Appl. Phys. A. 117(2), 823–829 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Pust, V. Weiler, C. Hecht, A. Tücks, A. S. Wochnik, A. K. Henß, D. Wiechert, C. Scheu, P. J. Schmidt, and W. Schnick, “Narrow-band red-emitting Sr[LiAl3N4]:Eu2+ as a next-generation LED-phosphor material,” Nat. Mater. 13(9), 891–896 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhu, C. C. Lin, W. Luo, S. Shu, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, J. Kong, E. Ma, Y. Cao, R. S. Liu, and X. Chen, “Highly efficient non-rare-earth red emitting phosphor for warm white light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4312 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

B. Chen, Q. Zhou, J. Li, F. Zhang, R. Liu, H. Zhong, and B. Zou, “Red emissive CuInS2-based nanocrystals: a potential phosphor for warm white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10105–10110 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Guo, Y. Huang, Y. Jia, W. Lv, Q. Zhao, W. Lü, Z. Xia, and H. You, “A novel orange-yellow-emitting Ba3Lu(PO4)3:Eu2+,Mn2+ phosphor with energy transfer for UV-excited white LEDs,” Dalton Trans. 42(4), 941–947 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Tamrakar, “Thermoluminescence studies of copper-doped cadmium sulphide nanoparticles with trap depth parameters,” Res. Chem. Intermed. 39(9), 4239–4245 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

Z. P. Yang, Y. Han, Y. C. Song, Y. H. Zhao, and P. F. Liu, “Synthesis and luminescence properties of a novel red Sr3Bi (PO4) 3: Sm^ 3+ phosphor,” J. Rare Earths 30(12), 1199–1202 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Guo, Y. H. Zheng, Y. C. Jia, H. Qiao, and H. P. You, “Warm-white-emitting from Eu2+/Mn2+-codoped Sr3Lu(PO4)3 phosphor with tunable color tone and correlated color temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(1), 1329–1334 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. R. Liu, C. H. Huang, C. W. Yeh, J. C. Tsai, Y. C. Chiu, Y. T. Yeh, and R. S. Liu, “A study on the luminescence and energy transfer of single-phase and color-tunable KCaY(PO4)2:Eu2+,Mn2+ phosphor for application in white-light LEDs,” Inorg. Chem. 51(18), 9636–9641 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

V. Singh, S. Watanabe, T. K. G. Rao, J. F. D. Chubaci, and H. Y. Kwak, “Luminescence and defect centres in MgSrAl10O17:Sm3+ phosphor,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(3), 1185–1190 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Xia and D. M. Chen, “Synthesis and Luminescence Properties of BaMoO4:Sm3+ phoshpors,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93(5), 1397–1401 (2010).

2009 (1)

C. J. Duan, A. C. A. Delsing, and H. T. Hintzen, “Photoluminescence properties of novel red-emitting Mn2+-activated MZnOS (M= Ca, Ba) phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 21(6), 1010–1016 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

G. S. R. Raju and S. Buddhudu, “Emission analysis of Sm3+ and Dy3+:MgLaLiSi2O7 powder phosphors,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 70(3), 601–605 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

S. J. Ho and Y. J. Duk, “Yellow-emitting Sr3SiO5:Ce3+, Li+ phosphor for white–light emitting diodes and yellow-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041906 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

B. F. Lei, Y. L. Liu, G. B. Tang, Z. R. Ye, and C. S. Shi, “Spectra and long-lasting properties of Sm3+-doped yttrium oxysulfide phosphor,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 87(1), 227–232 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. B. Liang, Y. Tao, J. H. Xu, H. He, H. Wu, W. X. Chen, S. B. Wang, and Q. Su, “Photoluminescence of Ce3+, Pr3+ and Tb3+ activated Sr3Ln(PO4)3 under VUV-UV excitation,” J. Solid State Chem. 177(3), 901–908 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

J. H. Hao, S. A. Studenikin, and M. Cocivera, “Transient photoconductivity properties of tungsten oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5064–5069 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

F. A. Ponce and D. P. Bour, “Nitride-based semiconductors for blue and green light -emitting devices,” Nature 386(6623), 351–359 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

M. F. Joubert, A. Remillieux, B. Jacquier, J. Mugnier, B. Boulard, O. Perrot, and C. Jacoboni, “Infrared to visible conversion in rare-earth-doped planar waveguides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184(1), 341–345 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

J. Barbier, “Structural refinements of eulytite-type Ca3Bi (PO4)3 and Ba3La(PO4)3,” J. Solid State Chem. 101(2), 249–256 (1992).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

G. Blasse, “Energy transfer between inequivalent Eu2+ ions,” J. Solid State Chem. 62(2), 207–211 (1986).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

L. G. Van Uitert, “Characterization of energy transfer interactions between rare earth ions,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 114(10), 1048–1053 (1967).
[Crossref]

Banerjee, A. N.

B. Ramesh, G. Devarajulu, B. D. P. Raju, G. B. Kumar, G. R. Dillip, A. N. Banerjee, and S. W. Joo, “Determination of strain, site occupancy, photoluminescent, and thermoluminescent-trapping parameters of Sm3+-doped NaSrB5O9 microstructures,” Ceram. Int. 42(1), 1234–1245 (2016).
[Crossref]

Barbier, J.

J. Barbier, “Structural refinements of eulytite-type Ca3Bi (PO4)3 and Ba3La(PO4)3,” J. Solid State Chem. 101(2), 249–256 (1992).
[Crossref]

Blasse, G.

G. Blasse, “Energy transfer between inequivalent Eu2+ ions,” J. Solid State Chem. 62(2), 207–211 (1986).
[Crossref]

Boulard, B.

M. F. Joubert, A. Remillieux, B. Jacquier, J. Mugnier, B. Boulard, O. Perrot, and C. Jacoboni, “Infrared to visible conversion in rare-earth-doped planar waveguides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184(1), 341–345 (1995).
[Crossref]

Bour, D. P.

F. A. Ponce and D. P. Bour, “Nitride-based semiconductors for blue and green light -emitting devices,” Nature 386(6623), 351–359 (1997).
[Crossref]

Buddhudu, S.

G. S. R. Raju and S. Buddhudu, “Emission analysis of Sm3+ and Dy3+:MgLaLiSi2O7 powder phosphors,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 70(3), 601–605 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, Y.

H. Zhu, C. C. Lin, W. Luo, S. Shu, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, J. Kong, E. Ma, Y. Cao, R. S. Liu, and X. Chen, “Highly efficient non-rare-earth red emitting phosphor for warm white light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4312 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, B.

Chen, D. M.

Z. G. Xia and D. M. Chen, “Synthesis and Luminescence Properties of BaMoO4:Sm3+ phoshpors,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93(5), 1397–1401 (2010).

Chen, L.

R. Chen, Y. H. Hu, Y. H. Jin, L. Chen, and X. J. Wang, “Tunable emission and efficient energy-transfer properties of Ce3+ and Mn2+ co-doped Ba3Gd(PO4)3 phosphors,” Appl. Phys. A. 117(2), 823–829 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, M. Y.

M. Y. Chen, Z. G. Xia, M. S. Molokeev, and Q. L. Liu, “Insights into Ba4Si6O16 structure and photoluminescence tuning of Ba4Si6O16:Ce3+, Eu2+ phosphors,” J. Mater. Chem. C 3(48), 12477–12483 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, R.

R. Chen, Y. H. Hu, Y. H. Jin, L. Chen, and X. J. Wang, “Tunable emission and efficient energy-transfer properties of Ce3+ and Mn2+ co-doped Ba3Gd(PO4)3 phosphors,” Appl. Phys. A. 117(2), 823–829 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, W. X.

H. B. Liang, Y. Tao, J. H. Xu, H. He, H. Wu, W. X. Chen, S. B. Wang, and Q. Su, “Photoluminescence of Ce3+, Pr3+ and Tb3+ activated Sr3Ln(PO4)3 under VUV-UV excitation,” J. Solid State Chem. 177(3), 901–908 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

H. Zhu, C. C. Lin, W. Luo, S. Shu, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, J. Kong, E. Ma, Y. Cao, R. S. Liu, and X. Chen, “Highly efficient non-rare-earth red emitting phosphor for warm white light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4312 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, F.

F. Cheng, Z. Xia, M. S. Molokeev, and X. Jing, “Effects of composition modulation on the luminescence properties of Eu3+ doped Li1-xAgxLu(MoO4)2 solid-solution phosphors,” Dalton Trans. 44(41), 18078–18089 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiu, Y. C.

W. R. Liu, C. H. Huang, C. W. Yeh, J. C. Tsai, Y. C. Chiu, Y. T. Yeh, and R. S. Liu, “A study on the luminescence and energy transfer of single-phase and color-tunable KCaY(PO4)2:Eu2+,Mn2+ phosphor for application in white-light LEDs,” Inorg. Chem. 51(18), 9636–9641 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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B. Ramesh, G. Devarajulu, B. D. P. Raju, G. B. Kumar, G. R. Dillip, A. N. Banerjee, and S. W. Joo, “Determination of strain, site occupancy, photoluminescent, and thermoluminescent-trapping parameters of Sm3+-doped NaSrB5O9 microstructures,” Ceram. Int. 42(1), 1234–1245 (2016).
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C. Jin, H. X. Ma, Y. F. Liu, Q. B. Liu, G. Y. Dong, and Q. M. Yu, “Tunable luminescence properties and energy transfer in Ba3Lu(PO4)3:Ce3+,Tb3+ phosphors,” J. Alloys Compd. 613(1), 275–279 (2014).
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S. J. Ho and Y. J. Duk, “Yellow-emitting Sr3SiO5:Ce3+, Li+ phosphor for white–light emitting diodes and yellow-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041906 (2007).
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C. Liang, H. You, Y. Fu, X. Teng, K. Liu, and J. He, “A novel tunable blue-green-emitting CaGdGaAl2O7:Ce(3+),Tb(3+) phosphor via energy transfer for UV-excited white LEDs,” Dalton Trans. 44(17), 8100–8106 (2015).
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Z. F. Yang, D. H. Xu, J. N. Du, X. D. Gao, and J. Y. Sun, “Tunable luminescence and energy transfer of Eu2+/Mn2+ co-doped Sr3NaY(PO4)3F phosphor for white LEDs,” RSC Advances 6(90), 87493–87501 (2016).
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D. H. Xu, Z. F. Yang, J. Y. Sun, X. D. Gao, and J. N. Du, “Synthesis and luminescence properties of double-perovskite white emitting phosphor Ca3WO6:Dy3+,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 27(8037), 8370–8377 (2016).
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N. Guo, Y. H. Zheng, Y. C. Jia, H. Qiao, and H. P. You, “Warm-white-emitting from Eu2+/Mn2+-codoped Sr3Lu(PO4)3 phosphor with tunable color tone and correlated color temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(1), 1329–1334 (2012).
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Q. M. Di, Q. G. Xu, L. Han, and J. Y. Sun, “Synthesis and luminescence properties of Eu3+-doped Ba3Gd(PO4)3 phosphors for light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Eng. 54(3), 035104 (2015).
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Y. Q. Zhai, W. Zhang, Y. J. Yin, Y. Han, X. Zhao, H. H. Ding, and N. Li, “Morphology tunable synthesis and luminescence property of NaGd(MoO4)2:Sm3+ microcrystals,” Ceram. Int. 43(1), 841–846 (2017).
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Z. P. Yang, Y. Han, Y. C. Song, Y. H. Zhao, and P. F. Liu, “Synthesis and luminescence properties of a novel red Sr3Bi (PO4) 3: Sm^ 3+ phosphor,” J. Rare Earths 30(12), 1199–1202 (2012).
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J. H. Hao, S. A. Studenikin, and M. Cocivera, “Transient photoconductivity properties of tungsten oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5064–5069 (2001).
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H. B. Liang, Y. Tao, J. H. Xu, H. He, H. Wu, W. X. Chen, S. B. Wang, and Q. Su, “Photoluminescence of Ce3+, Pr3+ and Tb3+ activated Sr3Ln(PO4)3 under VUV-UV excitation,” J. Solid State Chem. 177(3), 901–908 (2004).
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C. Liang, H. You, Y. Fu, X. Teng, K. Liu, and J. He, “A novel tunable blue-green-emitting CaGdGaAl2O7:Ce(3+),Tb(3+) phosphor via energy transfer for UV-excited white LEDs,” Dalton Trans. 44(17), 8100–8106 (2015).
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S. J. Ho and Y. J. Duk, “Yellow-emitting Sr3SiO5:Ce3+, Li+ phosphor for white–light emitting diodes and yellow-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041906 (2007).
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R. Chen, Y. H. Hu, Y. H. Jin, L. Chen, and X. J. Wang, “Tunable emission and efficient energy-transfer properties of Ce3+ and Mn2+ co-doped Ba3Gd(PO4)3 phosphors,” Appl. Phys. A. 117(2), 823–829 (2014).
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N. Guo, Y. Huang, Y. Jia, W. Lv, Q. Zhao, W. Lü, Z. Xia, and H. You, “A novel orange-yellow-emitting Ba3Lu(PO4)3:Eu2+,Mn2+ phosphor with energy transfer for UV-excited white LEDs,” Dalton Trans. 42(4), 941–947 (2013).
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N. Guo, Y. H. Zheng, Y. C. Jia, H. Qiao, and H. P. You, “Warm-white-emitting from Eu2+/Mn2+-codoped Sr3Lu(PO4)3 phosphor with tunable color tone and correlated color temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(1), 1329–1334 (2012).
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H. Zhou, Q. Wang, M. Jiang, X. Jiang, and Y. Jin, “A novel green-emitting phosphor Ba2Gd2Si4O13:Eu(2+) for near UV-pumped light-emitting diodes,” Dalton Trans. 44(31), 13962–13968 (2015).
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F. Cheng, Z. Xia, M. S. Molokeev, and X. Jing, “Effects of composition modulation on the luminescence properties of Eu3+ doped Li1-xAgxLu(MoO4)2 solid-solution phosphors,” Dalton Trans. 44(41), 18078–18089 (2015).
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B. Ramesh, G. Devarajulu, B. D. P. Raju, G. B. Kumar, G. R. Dillip, A. N. Banerjee, and S. W. Joo, “Determination of strain, site occupancy, photoluminescent, and thermoluminescent-trapping parameters of Sm3+-doped NaSrB5O9 microstructures,” Ceram. Int. 42(1), 1234–1245 (2016).
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M. F. Joubert, A. Remillieux, B. Jacquier, J. Mugnier, B. Boulard, O. Perrot, and C. Jacoboni, “Infrared to visible conversion in rare-earth-doped planar waveguides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184(1), 341–345 (1995).
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H. Zhu, C. C. Lin, W. Luo, S. Shu, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, J. Kong, E. Ma, Y. Cao, R. S. Liu, and X. Chen, “Highly efficient non-rare-earth red emitting phosphor for warm white light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4312 (2014).
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B. Ramesh, G. Devarajulu, B. D. P. Raju, G. B. Kumar, G. R. Dillip, A. N. Banerjee, and S. W. Joo, “Determination of strain, site occupancy, photoluminescent, and thermoluminescent-trapping parameters of Sm3+-doped NaSrB5O9 microstructures,” Ceram. Int. 42(1), 1234–1245 (2016).
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V. Singh, S. Watanabe, T. K. G. Rao, J. F. D. Chubaci, and H. Y. Kwak, “Luminescence and defect centres in MgSrAl10O17:Sm3+ phosphor,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(3), 1185–1190 (2010).
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B. F. Lei, Y. L. Liu, G. B. Tang, Z. R. Ye, and C. S. Shi, “Spectra and long-lasting properties of Sm3+-doped yttrium oxysulfide phosphor,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 87(1), 227–232 (2004).
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Li, N.

Y. Q. Zhai, W. Zhang, Y. J. Yin, Y. Han, X. Zhao, H. H. Ding, and N. Li, “Morphology tunable synthesis and luminescence property of NaGd(MoO4)2:Sm3+ microcrystals,” Ceram. Int. 43(1), 841–846 (2017).
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Z. W. Zhang, Y. S. Peng, X. H. Shen, J. P. Zhang, S. T. Song, and Q. Lian, “Enhanced novel orange red emission in LiSr4−x(BO3)3:xSm3+ by K+,” J. Mater. Sci. 49(6), 2534–2541 (2014).
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C. Liang, H. You, Y. Fu, X. Teng, K. Liu, and J. He, “A novel tunable blue-green-emitting CaGdGaAl2O7:Ce(3+),Tb(3+) phosphor via energy transfer for UV-excited white LEDs,” Dalton Trans. 44(17), 8100–8106 (2015).
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H. B. Liang, Y. Tao, J. H. Xu, H. He, H. Wu, W. X. Chen, S. B. Wang, and Q. Su, “Photoluminescence of Ce3+, Pr3+ and Tb3+ activated Sr3Ln(PO4)3 under VUV-UV excitation,” J. Solid State Chem. 177(3), 901–908 (2004).
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H. Zhu, C. C. Lin, W. Luo, S. Shu, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, J. Kong, E. Ma, Y. Cao, R. S. Liu, and X. Chen, “Highly efficient non-rare-earth red emitting phosphor for warm white light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4312 (2014).
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C. Liang, H. You, Y. Fu, X. Teng, K. Liu, and J. He, “A novel tunable blue-green-emitting CaGdGaAl2O7:Ce(3+),Tb(3+) phosphor via energy transfer for UV-excited white LEDs,” Dalton Trans. 44(17), 8100–8106 (2015).
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Z. P. Yang, Y. Han, Y. C. Song, Y. H. Zhao, and P. F. Liu, “Synthesis and luminescence properties of a novel red Sr3Bi (PO4) 3: Sm^ 3+ phosphor,” J. Rare Earths 30(12), 1199–1202 (2012).
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C. Jin, H. X. Ma, Y. F. Liu, Q. B. Liu, G. Y. Dong, and Q. M. Yu, “Tunable luminescence properties and energy transfer in Ba3Lu(PO4)3:Ce3+,Tb3+ phosphors,” J. Alloys Compd. 613(1), 275–279 (2014).
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Liu, Q. L.

M. Y. Chen, Z. G. Xia, M. S. Molokeev, and Q. L. Liu, “Insights into Ba4Si6O16 structure and photoluminescence tuning of Ba4Si6O16:Ce3+, Eu2+ phosphors,” J. Mater. Chem. C 3(48), 12477–12483 (2015).
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Liu, R. S.

H. Zhu, C. C. Lin, W. Luo, S. Shu, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, J. Kong, E. Ma, Y. Cao, R. S. Liu, and X. Chen, “Highly efficient non-rare-earth red emitting phosphor for warm white light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4312 (2014).
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W. R. Liu, C. H. Huang, C. W. Yeh, J. C. Tsai, Y. C. Chiu, Y. T. Yeh, and R. S. Liu, “A study on the luminescence and energy transfer of single-phase and color-tunable KCaY(PO4)2:Eu2+,Mn2+ phosphor for application in white-light LEDs,” Inorg. Chem. 51(18), 9636–9641 (2012).
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W. R. Liu, C. H. Huang, C. W. Yeh, J. C. Tsai, Y. C. Chiu, Y. T. Yeh, and R. S. Liu, “A study on the luminescence and energy transfer of single-phase and color-tunable KCaY(PO4)2:Eu2+,Mn2+ phosphor for application in white-light LEDs,” Inorg. Chem. 51(18), 9636–9641 (2012).
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H. Zhu, C. C. Lin, W. Luo, S. Shu, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, J. Kong, E. Ma, Y. Cao, R. S. Liu, and X. Chen, “Highly efficient non-rare-earth red emitting phosphor for warm white light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4312 (2014).
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C. Jin, H. X. Ma, Y. F. Liu, Q. B. Liu, G. Y. Dong, and Q. M. Yu, “Tunable luminescence properties and energy transfer in Ba3Lu(PO4)3:Ce3+,Tb3+ phosphors,” J. Alloys Compd. 613(1), 275–279 (2014).
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Liu, Y. L.

B. F. Lei, Y. L. Liu, G. B. Tang, Z. R. Ye, and C. S. Shi, “Spectra and long-lasting properties of Sm3+-doped yttrium oxysulfide phosphor,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 87(1), 227–232 (2004).
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H. Zhu, C. C. Lin, W. Luo, S. Shu, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, J. Kong, E. Ma, Y. Cao, R. S. Liu, and X. Chen, “Highly efficient non-rare-earth red emitting phosphor for warm white light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4312 (2014).
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N. Guo, Y. Huang, Y. Jia, W. Lv, Q. Zhao, W. Lü, Z. Xia, and H. You, “A novel orange-yellow-emitting Ba3Lu(PO4)3:Eu2+,Mn2+ phosphor with energy transfer for UV-excited white LEDs,” Dalton Trans. 42(4), 941–947 (2013).
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H. Zhu, C. C. Lin, W. Luo, S. Shu, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, J. Kong, E. Ma, Y. Cao, R. S. Liu, and X. Chen, “Highly efficient non-rare-earth red emitting phosphor for warm white light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4312 (2014).
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N. Guo, Y. Huang, Y. Jia, W. Lv, Q. Zhao, W. Lü, Z. Xia, and H. You, “A novel orange-yellow-emitting Ba3Lu(PO4)3:Eu2+,Mn2+ phosphor with energy transfer for UV-excited white LEDs,” Dalton Trans. 42(4), 941–947 (2013).
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F. Cheng, Z. Xia, M. S. Molokeev, and X. Jing, “Effects of composition modulation on the luminescence properties of Eu3+ doped Li1-xAgxLu(MoO4)2 solid-solution phosphors,” Dalton Trans. 44(41), 18078–18089 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Y. Chen, Z. G. Xia, M. S. Molokeev, and Q. L. Liu, “Insights into Ba4Si6O16 structure and photoluminescence tuning of Ba4Si6O16:Ce3+, Eu2+ phosphors,” J. Mater. Chem. C 3(48), 12477–12483 (2015).
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M. F. Joubert, A. Remillieux, B. Jacquier, J. Mugnier, B. Boulard, O. Perrot, and C. Jacoboni, “Infrared to visible conversion in rare-earth-doped planar waveguides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184(1), 341–345 (1995).
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Z. W. Zhang, Y. S. Peng, X. H. Shen, J. P. Zhang, S. T. Song, and Q. Lian, “Enhanced novel orange red emission in LiSr4−x(BO3)3:xSm3+ by K+,” J. Mater. Sci. 49(6), 2534–2541 (2014).
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M. F. Joubert, A. Remillieux, B. Jacquier, J. Mugnier, B. Boulard, O. Perrot, and C. Jacoboni, “Infrared to visible conversion in rare-earth-doped planar waveguides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184(1), 341–345 (1995).
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N. Guo, Y. H. Zheng, Y. C. Jia, H. Qiao, and H. P. You, “Warm-white-emitting from Eu2+/Mn2+-codoped Sr3Lu(PO4)3 phosphor with tunable color tone and correlated color temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(1), 1329–1334 (2012).
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B. Ramesh, G. Devarajulu, B. D. P. Raju, G. B. Kumar, G. R. Dillip, A. N. Banerjee, and S. W. Joo, “Determination of strain, site occupancy, photoluminescent, and thermoluminescent-trapping parameters of Sm3+-doped NaSrB5O9 microstructures,” Ceram. Int. 42(1), 1234–1245 (2016).
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N. Guo, Y. Huang, Y. Jia, W. Lv, Q. Zhao, W. Lü, Z. Xia, and H. You, “A novel orange-yellow-emitting Ba3Lu(PO4)3:Eu2+,Mn2+ phosphor with energy transfer for UV-excited white LEDs,” Dalton Trans. 42(4), 941–947 (2013).
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Z. F. Yang, D. H. Xu, J. N. Du, X. D. Gao, and J. Y. Sun, “Tunable luminescence and energy transfer of Eu2+/Mn2+ co-doped Sr3NaY(PO4)3F phosphor for white LEDs,” RSC Advances 6(90), 87493–87501 (2016).
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D. H. Xu, Z. F. Yang, J. Y. Sun, X. D. Gao, and J. N. Du, “Synthesis and luminescence properties of double-perovskite white emitting phosphor Ca3WO6:Dy3+,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 27(8037), 8370–8377 (2016).
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Z. F. Yang, D. H. Xu, J. Y. Sun, Y. M. Sun, and H. Y. Du, “Characterization and luminescence properties of Sr3Gd(PO4)3:Sm3+ orange-red phosphor,” Opt. Eng. 54(10), 105102 (2015).
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H. B. Liang, Y. Tao, J. H. Xu, H. He, H. Wu, W. X. Chen, S. B. Wang, and Q. Su, “Photoluminescence of Ce3+, Pr3+ and Tb3+ activated Sr3Ln(PO4)3 under VUV-UV excitation,” J. Solid State Chem. 177(3), 901–908 (2004).
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Q. M. Di, Q. G. Xu, L. Han, and J. Y. Sun, “Synthesis and luminescence properties of Eu3+-doped Ba3Gd(PO4)3 phosphors for light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Eng. 54(3), 035104 (2015).
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D. H. Xu, Z. F. Yang, J. Y. Sun, X. D. Gao, and J. N. Du, “Synthesis and luminescence properties of double-perovskite white emitting phosphor Ca3WO6:Dy3+,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 27(8037), 8370–8377 (2016).
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Z. F. Yang, D. H. Xu, J. Y. Sun, Y. M. Sun, and H. Y. Du, “Characterization and luminescence properties of Sr3Gd(PO4)3:Sm3+ orange-red phosphor,” Opt. Eng. 54(10), 105102 (2015).
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Z. P. Yang, Y. Han, Y. C. Song, Y. H. Zhao, and P. F. Liu, “Synthesis and luminescence properties of a novel red Sr3Bi (PO4) 3: Sm^ 3+ phosphor,” J. Rare Earths 30(12), 1199–1202 (2012).
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B. F. Lei, Y. L. Liu, G. B. Tang, Z. R. Ye, and C. S. Shi, “Spectra and long-lasting properties of Sm3+-doped yttrium oxysulfide phosphor,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 87(1), 227–232 (2004).
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[Crossref]

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C. Liang, H. You, Y. Fu, X. Teng, K. Liu, and J. He, “A novel tunable blue-green-emitting CaGdGaAl2O7:Ce(3+),Tb(3+) phosphor via energy transfer for UV-excited white LEDs,” Dalton Trans. 44(17), 8100–8106 (2015).
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N. Guo, Y. Huang, Y. Jia, W. Lv, Q. Zhao, W. Lü, Z. Xia, and H. You, “A novel orange-yellow-emitting Ba3Lu(PO4)3:Eu2+,Mn2+ phosphor with energy transfer for UV-excited white LEDs,” Dalton Trans. 42(4), 941–947 (2013).
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M. M. Yawalkar, G. D. Zade, K. V. Dabre, and S. J. Dhoble, “Luminescence study of Eu3+ doped Li6 Y(BO3 )3 phosphor for solid-state lighting,” Luminescence 31(4), 1037–1042 (2016).
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Z. W. Zhang, Y. S. Peng, X. H. Shen, J. P. Zhang, S. T. Song, and Q. Lian, “Enhanced novel orange red emission in LiSr4−x(BO3)3:xSm3+ by K+,” J. Mater. Sci. 49(6), 2534–2541 (2014).
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Zhang, W.

Y. Q. Zhai, W. Zhang, Y. J. Yin, Y. Han, X. Zhao, H. H. Ding, and N. Li, “Morphology tunable synthesis and luminescence property of NaGd(MoO4)2:Sm3+ microcrystals,” Ceram. Int. 43(1), 841–846 (2017).
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X. G. Zhang, J. L. Zhang, and M. L. Gong, “Synthesis and luminescent properties of UV-excited thermal stable red-emitting phosphor Ba3Lu(PO4)3: Eu3+ for NUV LED,” Opt. Mater. 36(4), 850–853 (2014).
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Z. W. Zhang, Y. S. Peng, X. H. Shen, J. P. Zhang, S. T. Song, and Q. Lian, “Enhanced novel orange red emission in LiSr4−x(BO3)3:xSm3+ by K+,” J. Mater. Sci. 49(6), 2534–2541 (2014).
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Zhao, Q.

N. Guo, Y. Huang, Y. Jia, W. Lv, Q. Zhao, W. Lü, Z. Xia, and H. You, “A novel orange-yellow-emitting Ba3Lu(PO4)3:Eu2+,Mn2+ phosphor with energy transfer for UV-excited white LEDs,” Dalton Trans. 42(4), 941–947 (2013).
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Y. Q. Zhai, W. Zhang, Y. J. Yin, Y. Han, X. Zhao, H. H. Ding, and N. Li, “Morphology tunable synthesis and luminescence property of NaGd(MoO4)2:Sm3+ microcrystals,” Ceram. Int. 43(1), 841–846 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y. H.

Z. P. Yang, Y. Han, Y. C. Song, Y. H. Zhao, and P. F. Liu, “Synthesis and luminescence properties of a novel red Sr3Bi (PO4) 3: Sm^ 3+ phosphor,” J. Rare Earths 30(12), 1199–1202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Y. H.

N. Guo, Y. H. Zheng, Y. C. Jia, H. Qiao, and H. P. You, “Warm-white-emitting from Eu2+/Mn2+-codoped Sr3Lu(PO4)3 phosphor with tunable color tone and correlated color temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(1), 1329–1334 (2012).
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Zhou, H.

H. Zhou, Q. Wang, M. Jiang, X. Jiang, and Y. Jin, “A novel green-emitting phosphor Ba2Gd2Si4O13:Eu(2+) for near UV-pumped light-emitting diodes,” Dalton Trans. 44(31), 13962–13968 (2015).
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Zhou, Q.

Zhu, H.

H. Zhu, C. C. Lin, W. Luo, S. Shu, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, J. Kong, E. Ma, Y. Cao, R. S. Liu, and X. Chen, “Highly efficient non-rare-earth red emitting phosphor for warm white light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4312 (2014).
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Appl. Phys. A. (1)

R. Chen, Y. H. Hu, Y. H. Jin, L. Chen, and X. J. Wang, “Tunable emission and efficient energy-transfer properties of Ce3+ and Mn2+ co-doped Ba3Gd(PO4)3 phosphors,” Appl. Phys. A. 117(2), 823–829 (2014).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

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Ceram. Int. (2)

B. Ramesh, G. Devarajulu, B. D. P. Raju, G. B. Kumar, G. R. Dillip, A. N. Banerjee, and S. W. Joo, “Determination of strain, site occupancy, photoluminescent, and thermoluminescent-trapping parameters of Sm3+-doped NaSrB5O9 microstructures,” Ceram. Int. 42(1), 1234–1245 (2016).
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Y. Q. Zhai, W. Zhang, Y. J. Yin, Y. Han, X. Zhao, H. H. Ding, and N. Li, “Morphology tunable synthesis and luminescence property of NaGd(MoO4)2:Sm3+ microcrystals,” Ceram. Int. 43(1), 841–846 (2017).
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Chem. Mater. (1)

C. J. Duan, A. C. A. Delsing, and H. T. Hintzen, “Photoluminescence properties of novel red-emitting Mn2+-activated MZnOS (M= Ca, Ba) phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 21(6), 1010–1016 (2009).
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Dalton Trans. (4)

F. Cheng, Z. Xia, M. S. Molokeev, and X. Jing, “Effects of composition modulation on the luminescence properties of Eu3+ doped Li1-xAgxLu(MoO4)2 solid-solution phosphors,” Dalton Trans. 44(41), 18078–18089 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Guo, Y. Huang, Y. Jia, W. Lv, Q. Zhao, W. Lü, Z. Xia, and H. You, “A novel orange-yellow-emitting Ba3Lu(PO4)3:Eu2+,Mn2+ phosphor with energy transfer for UV-excited white LEDs,” Dalton Trans. 42(4), 941–947 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Liang, H. You, Y. Fu, X. Teng, K. Liu, and J. He, “A novel tunable blue-green-emitting CaGdGaAl2O7:Ce(3+),Tb(3+) phosphor via energy transfer for UV-excited white LEDs,” Dalton Trans. 44(17), 8100–8106 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhou, Q. Wang, M. Jiang, X. Jiang, and Y. Jin, “A novel green-emitting phosphor Ba2Gd2Si4O13:Eu(2+) for near UV-pumped light-emitting diodes,” Dalton Trans. 44(31), 13962–13968 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Inorg. Chem. (1)

W. R. Liu, C. H. Huang, C. W. Yeh, J. C. Tsai, Y. C. Chiu, Y. T. Yeh, and R. S. Liu, “A study on the luminescence and energy transfer of single-phase and color-tunable KCaY(PO4)2:Eu2+,Mn2+ phosphor for application in white-light LEDs,” Inorg. Chem. 51(18), 9636–9641 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

C. Jin, H. X. Ma, Y. F. Liu, Q. B. Liu, G. Y. Dong, and Q. M. Yu, “Tunable luminescence properties and energy transfer in Ba3Lu(PO4)3:Ce3+,Tb3+ phosphors,” J. Alloys Compd. 613(1), 275–279 (2014).
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J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

Z. G. Xia and D. M. Chen, “Synthesis and Luminescence Properties of BaMoO4:Sm3+ phoshpors,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93(5), 1397–1401 (2010).

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A. K. Vishwakarma and M. Jayasimhadri, “Pure orange color emitting Sm3+ doped BaNb2O6 phosphor for solid - state lighting applications,” J. Lumin. 176, 112–117 (2016).
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J. Mater. Chem. C (1)

M. Y. Chen, Z. G. Xia, M. S. Molokeev, and Q. L. Liu, “Insights into Ba4Si6O16 structure and photoluminescence tuning of Ba4Si6O16:Ce3+, Eu2+ phosphors,” J. Mater. Chem. C 3(48), 12477–12483 (2015).
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Z. W. Zhang, Y. S. Peng, X. H. Shen, J. P. Zhang, S. T. Song, and Q. Lian, “Enhanced novel orange red emission in LiSr4−x(BO3)3:xSm3+ by K+,” J. Mater. Sci. 49(6), 2534–2541 (2014).
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Opt. Express (1)

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X. G. Zhang, J. L. Zhang, and M. L. Gong, “Synthesis and luminescent properties of UV-excited thermal stable red-emitting phosphor Ba3Lu(PO4)3: Eu3+ for NUV LED,” Opt. Mater. 36(4), 850–853 (2014).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Structural view of Ba3Lu(PO4)3; (b) The coordination environment of Ba2+/Lu3+ site.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images of Ba3Lu(PO4)3:0.05Sm3+ sample under different magnification (a): 2.2 k × ; (b) 3.5 k × .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

XRD patterns of Ba3Lu(PO4)3:Sm3+ with different Sm3+ contents. The standard data for Ba3Lu(PO4)3 (JCPDS card no. 43-0212) is shown as a reference.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Excitation spectra of Ba3Lu(PO4)3:Sm3+ with different Sm3+ contents; (b) The diffuse reflectance spectra of Ba3Lu(PO4)3 host, Ba3Lu(PO4)3:0.03Sm3+ and Ba3Lu(PO4)3:0.05Sm3+ phosphors.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Emission spectra of Ba3Lu(PO4)3:Sm3+ with different Sm3+ contents; (b) The relationship of lg(x) versus lg(I/x) for Ba3Lu(PO4)3:xSm3+ (x = 0.05, 0.07, 0.09) phosphor.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Decay curves of Ba3Lu(PO4)3:xSm3 + at different concentrations (λex = 370 nm and λem = 600 nm).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Temperature dependence of the PL intensity of Ba3Lu(PO4)3:0.05Sm3+ phosphor; (b) The relative emission intensity of Ba3Lu(PO4)3:0.05Sm3+ and YAG:Ce as a function of temperature; (c) Activation energy for thermal quenching of Ba3Lu(PO4)3:0.05Sm3+ phosphor.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) The emission spectra of red pc-LED (Inset: photo of red LED under a bias current of 20 mA); (b) Chromaticity coordinates of Ba3Lu(PO4)3:0.05Sm3+ phosphor in the CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Miller indices value Ba3Lu(PO4)3:Sm3+ phosphor

Tables Icon

Table 2 The doping rate of Sm3+ in the Ba3Lu(PO4)3:x% Sm3+ (x = 1, 3, 5)

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R c 2 [ 3V 4π X c N ] 1/3
I x =K ( 1+β ( x ) Q/3 ) 1
I( t )= A 1 exp( t/ t 1 )+ A 2 exp( t/ t 2 )
τ= A 1 t 1 2 + A 2 t 2 2 A 1 t 1 + A 2 t 2
η QE = λP( λ )dλ λ[E(λ)-R(λ)]dλ
I( T )= I o 1+cexp( ( ΔE/KT ) )

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