Abstract

Fowler’s Sneaker Depth (FSD), analogous to the well known Secchi disk depth (Zsd), is a visually discerned citizen scientist metric used to assess water clarity in the Patuxent River estuary. In this study, a simple remote sensing algorithm was developed to derive FSD from space-borne spectroradiometric imagery. An empirical model was formed that estimates FSD from red-end remote sensing reflectances at 645 nm, Rrs(645). The model is based on a hyperbolic function relating water clarity to Rrs(645) that was established using radiative transfer modeling and fine tuned using in-water FSD measurements and coincident Rrs(645) data observed by NASA’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer aboard the Aqua spacecraft (MODISA). The resultant FSD algorithm was applied to Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager data to derive a short time-series for the Patuxent River estuary from January 2015 to June 2016. Satellite-derived FSD had an inverse, statistically significant relationship (p<0.005) with total suspended sediment concentration (TSS). Further, a distinct negative relationship between FSD and chlorophyll concentration was discerned during periods of high biomass (> 4 μg L−1). The complex nature of water quality in the mid-to-upper Chesapeake Bay was captured using a MODISA-based FSD time series (2002-2016). This study demonstrates how a citizen scientist-conceived observation can be coupled with remote sensing. With further refinement and validation, the FSD may be a useful tool for delivering scientifically relevant results and for informing and engaging local stakeholders and policy makers.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (1)

J. A. Busch, I. Price, E. Jeansou, O. Zielinski, and H. J. van der Woerd, “Citizens and satellites: Assessment of phytoplankton dynamics in a NW Mediterranean aquaculture zone,” Int. J. Appl. Earth. Obs. 47, 40–49 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

Z. Lee, S. Shang, C. Hu, K. Du, A. Weidemann, W. Hou, J. Lin, and G. Lin, “Secchi disk depth: a new theory and mechanistic model for underwater visibility,” Remote Sens. Environ. 169, 139–149 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. L. Williams, S. J. Pierce, M. Fuentes, and M. Hamann, “Effectiveness of recreational divers for monitoring sea turtle populations,” Endanger. Species Res. 26(3), 209–219 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. P. Garaba, A. Friedrichs, D. Voß, and O. Zielinski, “Classifying natural waters with the Forel-Ule Colour index system: results, applications, correlations and crowdsourcing,” Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 12(12), 16096–16109 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, N. Kuring, and P. J. Werdell, “Ocean color measurements with the Operational Land Imager on Landsat-8: implementation and evaluation in SeaDAS,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 9(1), 096070 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Zheng, P. M. DiGiacomo, S. S. Kaushal, M. A. Yuen-Murphy, and S. Duan, “Evolution of sediment plumes in the Chesapeake Bay and implications of climate variability,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 49(11), 6494–6503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

S. S. Kaushal, P. M. Mayer, P. G. Vidon, R. M. Smith, M. J. Pennino, T. A. Newcomer, S. Duan, C. Welty, and K. T. Belt, “Land use and climate variability amplify carbon, nutrient, and contaminant pulses: a review with management implications,” J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 50(3), 585–614 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Buytaert, Z. Zulkafli, S. Grainger, L. Acosta, T. C. Alemie, J. Bastiaensen, B. De Bièvre, J. Bhusal, J. Clark, A. Dewulf, M. Foggin, D. M. Hannah, C. Hergarten, A. Isaeva, T. Karpouzoglou, B. Pandeya, D. Paudel, K. Sharma, T. Steenhuis, S. Tilahun, G. Van Hecken, and M. Zhumanova, “Citizen science in hydrology and water resources: opportunities for knowledge generation, ecosystem service management, and sustainable development,” Front. Earth Sci. 2, 26 (2014).

2013 (5)

R. Horne, “Seeking sailors to help measure phytoplankton populations,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(18), 7107 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Wernand, H. J. van der Woerd, and W. W. C. Gieskes, “Trends in ocean colour and chlorophyll concentration from 1889 to 2000, worldwide,” PLoS One 8(6), e63766 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z. Lee, H. Loisel, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, T. S. Moore, T. J. Smyth, D. Antoine, E. Devred, O. H. d’Andon, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Le, C. Hu, J. Cannizzaro, and H. Duan, “Long-term distribution patterns of remotely sensed water quality parameters in Chesapeake Bay,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 128, 93–103 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Wang, L. C. Linker, and R. A. Batiuk, “Monitored and modeled correlations of sediment and nutrients with Chesapeake Bay water clarity,” J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 49, 1103–1118 (2013).

2012 (4)

G. Neukermans, H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, R. Astoreca, and D. McKee, “In situ variability of mass-specific beam attenuation and backscattering of marine particles with respect to particle size, density, and composition,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 57(1), 124–144 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. J. Marshall, D. A. Kleine, and A. J. Dean, “CoralWatch: education, monitoring, and sustainability through citizen science,” Front. Ecol. Environ 10(6), 332–334 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Weeks, P. Werdell, B. Schaffelke, M. Canto, Z. Lee, J. Wilding, and G. Feldman, “Satellite-derived photic depth on the Great Barrier Reef: spatio-temporal patterns of water clarity,” Remote Sens. 4(12), 3781–3795 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. F. Knight and M. L. Voth, “Application of MODIS imagery for intra-annual water clarity assessment of Minnesota lakes,” Remote Sens. 4(12), 2181–2198 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

M. Doron, M. Babin, O. Hembise, A. Mangin, and P. Garnesson, “Ocean transparency from space: validation of algorithms estimating Secchi depth using MERIS, MODIS and SeaWiFS data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(12), 2986–3001 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. L. Gallegos, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, “Long-term changes in light scattering in Chesapeake Bay inferred from Secchi depth, light attenuation, and remote sensing measurements,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans 116, 7160 (2011).

2009 (1)

M. Wang, S. Son, and L. W. Harding, “Retrieval of diffuse attenuation coefficient in the Chesapeake Bay and turbid ocean regions for satellite ocean color applications,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans 114, 1–15 (2009).

2008 (2)

W. R. Boynton, J. D. Hagy, J. C. Cornwell, W. M. Kemp, S. M. Greene, M. S. Owens, J. E. Baker, and R. K. Larsen, “Nutrient budgets and management actions in the Patuxent River estuary, Maryland,” Estuaries Coasts 31(4), 623–651 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. M. Testa, W. M. Kemp, W. R. Boynton, and J. D. Hagy, “Long-term changes in water quality and productivity in the Patuxent River Estuary: 1985 to 2003,” Estuaries Coasts 31(6), 1021–1037 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

Z. Chen, C. Hu, and F. Muller-Karger, “Monitoring turbidity in Tampa Bay using MODIS/Aqua 250-m imagery,” Remote Sens. Environ. 109(2), 207–220 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

T. R. Fisher, J. I. D. Hagy, W. R. Boynton, and M. R. Williams, “Cultural eutrophication in the Choptank and Patuxent estuaries of Chesapeake Bay,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 51(1part2), 435–447 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

W. M. Kemp, W. R. Boynton, J. E. Adolf, D. F. Boesch, W. C. Boicourt, G. Brush, J. C. Cornwell, T. R. Fisher, P. M. Glibert, J. D. Hagy, L. W. Harding, E. D. Houde, D. G. Kimmel, W. D. Miller, R. I. E. Newell, M. R. Roman, E. M. Smith, and J. C. Stevenson, “Eutrophication of Chesapeake Bay: historical trends and ecological interactions,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 303, 1–29 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

R. L. Miller and B. A. McKee, “Using MODIS Terra 250 m imagery to map concentrations of total suspended matter in coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 93(1-2), 259–266 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

C. F. D’Elia, W. R. Boynton, and J. G. Sanders, “A watershed perspective on nutrient enrichment, science, and policy in the Patuxent River, Maryland: 1960-2000,” Estuaries 26(2), 171–185 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

S. Gasteyer, C. B. Flora, and Stephen Gasteyer, Cornelia Butler F, “Measuring ppm with tennis shoes: science and locally meaningful indicators of environmental quality,” Soc. Nat. Resour. 13(6), 589–597 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. R. Zimmerman and E. A. Canuel, “A geochemical record of eutrophication and anoxia in Chesapeake Bay sediments: anthropogenic influence on organic matter composition,” Mar. Chem. 69(1-2), 117–137 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

R. W. Preisendorfer, “Secchi disk science: visual optics of natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 31(5), 909–926 (1986).
[Crossref]

Acosta, L.

W. Buytaert, Z. Zulkafli, S. Grainger, L. Acosta, T. C. Alemie, J. Bastiaensen, B. De Bièvre, J. Bhusal, J. Clark, A. Dewulf, M. Foggin, D. M. Hannah, C. Hergarten, A. Isaeva, T. Karpouzoglou, B. Pandeya, D. Paudel, K. Sharma, T. Steenhuis, S. Tilahun, G. Van Hecken, and M. Zhumanova, “Citizen science in hydrology and water resources: opportunities for knowledge generation, ecosystem service management, and sustainable development,” Front. Earth Sci. 2, 26 (2014).

Adolf, J. E.

W. M. Kemp, W. R. Boynton, J. E. Adolf, D. F. Boesch, W. C. Boicourt, G. Brush, J. C. Cornwell, T. R. Fisher, P. M. Glibert, J. D. Hagy, L. W. Harding, E. D. Houde, D. G. Kimmel, W. D. Miller, R. I. E. Newell, M. R. Roman, E. M. Smith, and J. C. Stevenson, “Eutrophication of Chesapeake Bay: historical trends and ecological interactions,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 303, 1–29 (2005).
[Crossref]

Alemie, T. C.

W. Buytaert, Z. Zulkafli, S. Grainger, L. Acosta, T. C. Alemie, J. Bastiaensen, B. De Bièvre, J. Bhusal, J. Clark, A. Dewulf, M. Foggin, D. M. Hannah, C. Hergarten, A. Isaeva, T. Karpouzoglou, B. Pandeya, D. Paudel, K. Sharma, T. Steenhuis, S. Tilahun, G. Van Hecken, and M. Zhumanova, “Citizen science in hydrology and water resources: opportunities for knowledge generation, ecosystem service management, and sustainable development,” Front. Earth Sci. 2, 26 (2014).

Antoine, D.

Astoreca, R.

G. Neukermans, H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, R. Astoreca, and D. McKee, “In situ variability of mass-specific beam attenuation and backscattering of marine particles with respect to particle size, density, and composition,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 57(1), 124–144 (2012).
[Crossref]

Babin, M.

M. Doron, M. Babin, O. Hembise, A. Mangin, and P. Garnesson, “Ocean transparency from space: validation of algorithms estimating Secchi depth using MERIS, MODIS and SeaWiFS data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(12), 2986–3001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bailey, S. W.

Baker, J. E.

W. R. Boynton, J. D. Hagy, J. C. Cornwell, W. M. Kemp, S. M. Greene, M. S. Owens, J. E. Baker, and R. K. Larsen, “Nutrient budgets and management actions in the Patuxent River estuary, Maryland,” Estuaries Coasts 31(4), 623–651 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bastiaensen, J.

W. Buytaert, Z. Zulkafli, S. Grainger, L. Acosta, T. C. Alemie, J. Bastiaensen, B. De Bièvre, J. Bhusal, J. Clark, A. Dewulf, M. Foggin, D. M. Hannah, C. Hergarten, A. Isaeva, T. Karpouzoglou, B. Pandeya, D. Paudel, K. Sharma, T. Steenhuis, S. Tilahun, G. Van Hecken, and M. Zhumanova, “Citizen science in hydrology and water resources: opportunities for knowledge generation, ecosystem service management, and sustainable development,” Front. Earth Sci. 2, 26 (2014).

Batiuk, R. A.

P. Wang, L. C. Linker, and R. A. Batiuk, “Monitored and modeled correlations of sediment and nutrients with Chesapeake Bay water clarity,” J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 49, 1103–1118 (2013).

Belt, K. T.

S. S. Kaushal, P. M. Mayer, P. G. Vidon, R. M. Smith, M. J. Pennino, T. A. Newcomer, S. Duan, C. Welty, and K. T. Belt, “Land use and climate variability amplify carbon, nutrient, and contaminant pulses: a review with management implications,” J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 50(3), 585–614 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bhusal, J.

W. Buytaert, Z. Zulkafli, S. Grainger, L. Acosta, T. C. Alemie, J. Bastiaensen, B. De Bièvre, J. Bhusal, J. Clark, A. Dewulf, M. Foggin, D. M. Hannah, C. Hergarten, A. Isaeva, T. Karpouzoglou, B. Pandeya, D. Paudel, K. Sharma, T. Steenhuis, S. Tilahun, G. Van Hecken, and M. Zhumanova, “Citizen science in hydrology and water resources: opportunities for knowledge generation, ecosystem service management, and sustainable development,” Front. Earth Sci. 2, 26 (2014).

Boesch, D. F.

W. M. Kemp, W. R. Boynton, J. E. Adolf, D. F. Boesch, W. C. Boicourt, G. Brush, J. C. Cornwell, T. R. Fisher, P. M. Glibert, J. D. Hagy, L. W. Harding, E. D. Houde, D. G. Kimmel, W. D. Miller, R. I. E. Newell, M. R. Roman, E. M. Smith, and J. C. Stevenson, “Eutrophication of Chesapeake Bay: historical trends and ecological interactions,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 303, 1–29 (2005).
[Crossref]

Boicourt, W. C.

W. M. Kemp, W. R. Boynton, J. E. Adolf, D. F. Boesch, W. C. Boicourt, G. Brush, J. C. Cornwell, T. R. Fisher, P. M. Glibert, J. D. Hagy, L. W. Harding, E. D. Houde, D. G. Kimmel, W. D. Miller, R. I. E. Newell, M. R. Roman, E. M. Smith, and J. C. Stevenson, “Eutrophication of Chesapeake Bay: historical trends and ecological interactions,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 303, 1–29 (2005).
[Crossref]

Boss, E.

Boynton, W. R.

W. R. Boynton, J. D. Hagy, J. C. Cornwell, W. M. Kemp, S. M. Greene, M. S. Owens, J. E. Baker, and R. K. Larsen, “Nutrient budgets and management actions in the Patuxent River estuary, Maryland,” Estuaries Coasts 31(4), 623–651 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. M. Testa, W. M. Kemp, W. R. Boynton, and J. D. Hagy, “Long-term changes in water quality and productivity in the Patuxent River Estuary: 1985 to 2003,” Estuaries Coasts 31(6), 1021–1037 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. R. Fisher, J. I. D. Hagy, W. R. Boynton, and M. R. Williams, “Cultural eutrophication in the Choptank and Patuxent estuaries of Chesapeake Bay,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 51(1part2), 435–447 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. M. Kemp, W. R. Boynton, J. E. Adolf, D. F. Boesch, W. C. Boicourt, G. Brush, J. C. Cornwell, T. R. Fisher, P. M. Glibert, J. D. Hagy, L. W. Harding, E. D. Houde, D. G. Kimmel, W. D. Miller, R. I. E. Newell, M. R. Roman, E. M. Smith, and J. C. Stevenson, “Eutrophication of Chesapeake Bay: historical trends and ecological interactions,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 303, 1–29 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. F. D’Elia, W. R. Boynton, and J. G. Sanders, “A watershed perspective on nutrient enrichment, science, and policy in the Patuxent River, Maryland: 1960-2000,” Estuaries 26(2), 171–185 (2003).
[Crossref]

Brando, V. E.

Brush, G.

W. M. Kemp, W. R. Boynton, J. E. Adolf, D. F. Boesch, W. C. Boicourt, G. Brush, J. C. Cornwell, T. R. Fisher, P. M. Glibert, J. D. Hagy, L. W. Harding, E. D. Houde, D. G. Kimmel, W. D. Miller, R. I. E. Newell, M. R. Roman, E. M. Smith, and J. C. Stevenson, “Eutrophication of Chesapeake Bay: historical trends and ecological interactions,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 303, 1–29 (2005).
[Crossref]

Busch, J. A.

J. A. Busch, I. Price, E. Jeansou, O. Zielinski, and H. J. van der Woerd, “Citizens and satellites: Assessment of phytoplankton dynamics in a NW Mediterranean aquaculture zone,” Int. J. Appl. Earth. Obs. 47, 40–49 (2016).
[Crossref]

Buytaert, W.

W. Buytaert, Z. Zulkafli, S. Grainger, L. Acosta, T. C. Alemie, J. Bastiaensen, B. De Bièvre, J. Bhusal, J. Clark, A. Dewulf, M. Foggin, D. M. Hannah, C. Hergarten, A. Isaeva, T. Karpouzoglou, B. Pandeya, D. Paudel, K. Sharma, T. Steenhuis, S. Tilahun, G. Van Hecken, and M. Zhumanova, “Citizen science in hydrology and water resources: opportunities for knowledge generation, ecosystem service management, and sustainable development,” Front. Earth Sci. 2, 26 (2014).

Cannizzaro, J.

C. Le, C. Hu, J. Cannizzaro, and H. Duan, “Long-term distribution patterns of remotely sensed water quality parameters in Chesapeake Bay,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 128, 93–103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Canto, M.

S. Weeks, P. Werdell, B. Schaffelke, M. Canto, Z. Lee, J. Wilding, and G. Feldman, “Satellite-derived photic depth on the Great Barrier Reef: spatio-temporal patterns of water clarity,” Remote Sens. 4(12), 3781–3795 (2012).
[Crossref]

Canuel, E. A.

A. R. Zimmerman and E. A. Canuel, “A geochemical record of eutrophication and anoxia in Chesapeake Bay sediments: anthropogenic influence on organic matter composition,” Mar. Chem. 69(1-2), 117–137 (2000).
[Crossref]

Carder, K. L.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

Z. Chen, C. Hu, and F. Muller-Karger, “Monitoring turbidity in Tampa Bay using MODIS/Aqua 250-m imagery,” Remote Sens. Environ. 109(2), 207–220 (2007).
[Crossref]

Clark, J.

W. Buytaert, Z. Zulkafli, S. Grainger, L. Acosta, T. C. Alemie, J. Bastiaensen, B. De Bièvre, J. Bhusal, J. Clark, A. Dewulf, M. Foggin, D. M. Hannah, C. Hergarten, A. Isaeva, T. Karpouzoglou, B. Pandeya, D. Paudel, K. Sharma, T. Steenhuis, S. Tilahun, G. Van Hecken, and M. Zhumanova, “Citizen science in hydrology and water resources: opportunities for knowledge generation, ecosystem service management, and sustainable development,” Front. Earth Sci. 2, 26 (2014).

Cornwell, J. C.

W. R. Boynton, J. D. Hagy, J. C. Cornwell, W. M. Kemp, S. M. Greene, M. S. Owens, J. E. Baker, and R. K. Larsen, “Nutrient budgets and management actions in the Patuxent River estuary, Maryland,” Estuaries Coasts 31(4), 623–651 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. M. Kemp, W. R. Boynton, J. E. Adolf, D. F. Boesch, W. C. Boicourt, G. Brush, J. C. Cornwell, T. R. Fisher, P. M. Glibert, J. D. Hagy, L. W. Harding, E. D. Houde, D. G. Kimmel, W. D. Miller, R. I. E. Newell, M. R. Roman, E. M. Smith, and J. C. Stevenson, “Eutrophication of Chesapeake Bay: historical trends and ecological interactions,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 303, 1–29 (2005).
[Crossref]

d’Andon, O. H.

D’Elia, C. F.

C. F. D’Elia, W. R. Boynton, and J. G. Sanders, “A watershed perspective on nutrient enrichment, science, and policy in the Patuxent River, Maryland: 1960-2000,” Estuaries 26(2), 171–185 (2003).
[Crossref]

De Bièvre, B.

W. Buytaert, Z. Zulkafli, S. Grainger, L. Acosta, T. C. Alemie, J. Bastiaensen, B. De Bièvre, J. Bhusal, J. Clark, A. Dewulf, M. Foggin, D. M. Hannah, C. Hergarten, A. Isaeva, T. Karpouzoglou, B. Pandeya, D. Paudel, K. Sharma, T. Steenhuis, S. Tilahun, G. Van Hecken, and M. Zhumanova, “Citizen science in hydrology and water resources: opportunities for knowledge generation, ecosystem service management, and sustainable development,” Front. Earth Sci. 2, 26 (2014).

Dean, A. J.

N. J. Marshall, D. A. Kleine, and A. J. Dean, “CoralWatch: education, monitoring, and sustainability through citizen science,” Front. Ecol. Environ 10(6), 332–334 (2012).
[Crossref]

Devred, E.

Dewulf, A.

W. Buytaert, Z. Zulkafli, S. Grainger, L. Acosta, T. C. Alemie, J. Bastiaensen, B. De Bièvre, J. Bhusal, J. Clark, A. Dewulf, M. Foggin, D. M. Hannah, C. Hergarten, A. Isaeva, T. Karpouzoglou, B. Pandeya, D. Paudel, K. Sharma, T. Steenhuis, S. Tilahun, G. Van Hecken, and M. Zhumanova, “Citizen science in hydrology and water resources: opportunities for knowledge generation, ecosystem service management, and sustainable development,” Front. Earth Sci. 2, 26 (2014).

DiGiacomo, P. M.

G. Zheng, P. M. DiGiacomo, S. S. Kaushal, M. A. Yuen-Murphy, and S. Duan, “Evolution of sediment plumes in the Chesapeake Bay and implications of climate variability,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 49(11), 6494–6503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Doron, M.

M. Doron, M. Babin, O. Hembise, A. Mangin, and P. Garnesson, “Ocean transparency from space: validation of algorithms estimating Secchi depth using MERIS, MODIS and SeaWiFS data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(12), 2986–3001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dowell, M.

Du, K.

Z. Lee, S. Shang, C. Hu, K. Du, A. Weidemann, W. Hou, J. Lin, and G. Lin, “Secchi disk depth: a new theory and mechanistic model for underwater visibility,” Remote Sens. Environ. 169, 139–149 (2015).
[Crossref]

Duan, H.

C. Le, C. Hu, J. Cannizzaro, and H. Duan, “Long-term distribution patterns of remotely sensed water quality parameters in Chesapeake Bay,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 128, 93–103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Duan, S.

G. Zheng, P. M. DiGiacomo, S. S. Kaushal, M. A. Yuen-Murphy, and S. Duan, “Evolution of sediment plumes in the Chesapeake Bay and implications of climate variability,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 49(11), 6494–6503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Kaushal, P. M. Mayer, P. G. Vidon, R. M. Smith, M. J. Pennino, T. A. Newcomer, S. Duan, C. Welty, and K. T. Belt, “Land use and climate variability amplify carbon, nutrient, and contaminant pulses: a review with management implications,” J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 50(3), 585–614 (2014).
[Crossref]

Feldman, G.

S. Weeks, P. Werdell, B. Schaffelke, M. Canto, Z. Lee, J. Wilding, and G. Feldman, “Satellite-derived photic depth on the Great Barrier Reef: spatio-temporal patterns of water clarity,” Remote Sens. 4(12), 3781–3795 (2012).
[Crossref]

Feldman, G. C.

Fisher, T. R.

T. R. Fisher, J. I. D. Hagy, W. R. Boynton, and M. R. Williams, “Cultural eutrophication in the Choptank and Patuxent estuaries of Chesapeake Bay,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 51(1part2), 435–447 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. M. Kemp, W. R. Boynton, J. E. Adolf, D. F. Boesch, W. C. Boicourt, G. Brush, J. C. Cornwell, T. R. Fisher, P. M. Glibert, J. D. Hagy, L. W. Harding, E. D. Houde, D. G. Kimmel, W. D. Miller, R. I. E. Newell, M. R. Roman, E. M. Smith, and J. C. Stevenson, “Eutrophication of Chesapeake Bay: historical trends and ecological interactions,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 303, 1–29 (2005).
[Crossref]

Flora, C. B.

S. Gasteyer, C. B. Flora, and Stephen Gasteyer, Cornelia Butler F, “Measuring ppm with tennis shoes: science and locally meaningful indicators of environmental quality,” Soc. Nat. Resour. 13(6), 589–597 (2000).
[Crossref]

Foggin, M.

W. Buytaert, Z. Zulkafli, S. Grainger, L. Acosta, T. C. Alemie, J. Bastiaensen, B. De Bièvre, J. Bhusal, J. Clark, A. Dewulf, M. Foggin, D. M. Hannah, C. Hergarten, A. Isaeva, T. Karpouzoglou, B. Pandeya, D. Paudel, K. Sharma, T. Steenhuis, S. Tilahun, G. Van Hecken, and M. Zhumanova, “Citizen science in hydrology and water resources: opportunities for knowledge generation, ecosystem service management, and sustainable development,” Front. Earth Sci. 2, 26 (2014).

Franz, B. A.

Friedrichs, A.

S. P. Garaba, A. Friedrichs, D. Voß, and O. Zielinski, “Classifying natural waters with the Forel-Ule Colour index system: results, applications, correlations and crowdsourcing,” Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 12(12), 16096–16109 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fuentes, M.

J. L. Williams, S. J. Pierce, M. Fuentes, and M. Hamann, “Effectiveness of recreational divers for monitoring sea turtle populations,” Endanger. Species Res. 26(3), 209–219 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gallegos, C. L.

C. L. Gallegos, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, “Long-term changes in light scattering in Chesapeake Bay inferred from Secchi depth, light attenuation, and remote sensing measurements,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans 116, 7160 (2011).

Garaba, S. P.

S. P. Garaba, A. Friedrichs, D. Voß, and O. Zielinski, “Classifying natural waters with the Forel-Ule Colour index system: results, applications, correlations and crowdsourcing,” Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 12(12), 16096–16109 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garnesson, P.

M. Doron, M. Babin, O. Hembise, A. Mangin, and P. Garnesson, “Ocean transparency from space: validation of algorithms estimating Secchi depth using MERIS, MODIS and SeaWiFS data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(12), 2986–3001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Garver, S. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gasteyer, S.

S. Gasteyer, C. B. Flora, and Stephen Gasteyer, Cornelia Butler F, “Measuring ppm with tennis shoes: science and locally meaningful indicators of environmental quality,” Soc. Nat. Resour. 13(6), 589–597 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gieskes, W. W. C.

M. R. Wernand, H. J. van der Woerd, and W. W. C. Gieskes, “Trends in ocean colour and chlorophyll concentration from 1889 to 2000, worldwide,” PLoS One 8(6), e63766 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glibert, P. M.

W. M. Kemp, W. R. Boynton, J. E. Adolf, D. F. Boesch, W. C. Boicourt, G. Brush, J. C. Cornwell, T. R. Fisher, P. M. Glibert, J. D. Hagy, L. W. Harding, E. D. Houde, D. G. Kimmel, W. D. Miller, R. I. E. Newell, M. R. Roman, E. M. Smith, and J. C. Stevenson, “Eutrophication of Chesapeake Bay: historical trends and ecological interactions,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 303, 1–29 (2005).
[Crossref]

Grainger, S.

W. Buytaert, Z. Zulkafli, S. Grainger, L. Acosta, T. C. Alemie, J. Bastiaensen, B. De Bièvre, J. Bhusal, J. Clark, A. Dewulf, M. Foggin, D. M. Hannah, C. Hergarten, A. Isaeva, T. Karpouzoglou, B. Pandeya, D. Paudel, K. Sharma, T. Steenhuis, S. Tilahun, G. Van Hecken, and M. Zhumanova, “Citizen science in hydrology and water resources: opportunities for knowledge generation, ecosystem service management, and sustainable development,” Front. Earth Sci. 2, 26 (2014).

Greene, S. M.

W. R. Boynton, J. D. Hagy, J. C. Cornwell, W. M. Kemp, S. M. Greene, M. S. Owens, J. E. Baker, and R. K. Larsen, “Nutrient budgets and management actions in the Patuxent River estuary, Maryland,” Estuaries Coasts 31(4), 623–651 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hagy, J. D.

W. R. Boynton, J. D. Hagy, J. C. Cornwell, W. M. Kemp, S. M. Greene, M. S. Owens, J. E. Baker, and R. K. Larsen, “Nutrient budgets and management actions in the Patuxent River estuary, Maryland,” Estuaries Coasts 31(4), 623–651 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. M. Testa, W. M. Kemp, W. R. Boynton, and J. D. Hagy, “Long-term changes in water quality and productivity in the Patuxent River Estuary: 1985 to 2003,” Estuaries Coasts 31(6), 1021–1037 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. M. Kemp, W. R. Boynton, J. E. Adolf, D. F. Boesch, W. C. Boicourt, G. Brush, J. C. Cornwell, T. R. Fisher, P. M. Glibert, J. D. Hagy, L. W. Harding, E. D. Houde, D. G. Kimmel, W. D. Miller, R. I. E. Newell, M. R. Roman, E. M. Smith, and J. C. Stevenson, “Eutrophication of Chesapeake Bay: historical trends and ecological interactions,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 303, 1–29 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hagy, J. I. D.

T. R. Fisher, J. I. D. Hagy, W. R. Boynton, and M. R. Williams, “Cultural eutrophication in the Choptank and Patuxent estuaries of Chesapeake Bay,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 51(1part2), 435–447 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hamann, M.

J. L. Williams, S. J. Pierce, M. Fuentes, and M. Hamann, “Effectiveness of recreational divers for monitoring sea turtle populations,” Endanger. Species Res. 26(3), 209–219 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hannah, D. M.

W. Buytaert, Z. Zulkafli, S. Grainger, L. Acosta, T. C. Alemie, J. Bastiaensen, B. De Bièvre, J. Bhusal, J. Clark, A. Dewulf, M. Foggin, D. M. Hannah, C. Hergarten, A. Isaeva, T. Karpouzoglou, B. Pandeya, D. Paudel, K. Sharma, T. Steenhuis, S. Tilahun, G. Van Hecken, and M. Zhumanova, “Citizen science in hydrology and water resources: opportunities for knowledge generation, ecosystem service management, and sustainable development,” Front. Earth Sci. 2, 26 (2014).

Harding, L. W.

M. Wang, S. Son, and L. W. Harding, “Retrieval of diffuse attenuation coefficient in the Chesapeake Bay and turbid ocean regions for satellite ocean color applications,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans 114, 1–15 (2009).

W. M. Kemp, W. R. Boynton, J. E. Adolf, D. F. Boesch, W. C. Boicourt, G. Brush, J. C. Cornwell, T. R. Fisher, P. M. Glibert, J. D. Hagy, L. W. Harding, E. D. Houde, D. G. Kimmel, W. D. Miller, R. I. E. Newell, M. R. Roman, E. M. Smith, and J. C. Stevenson, “Eutrophication of Chesapeake Bay: historical trends and ecological interactions,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 303, 1–29 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hembise, O.

M. Doron, M. Babin, O. Hembise, A. Mangin, and P. Garnesson, “Ocean transparency from space: validation of algorithms estimating Secchi depth using MERIS, MODIS and SeaWiFS data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(12), 2986–3001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hergarten, C.

W. Buytaert, Z. Zulkafli, S. Grainger, L. Acosta, T. C. Alemie, J. Bastiaensen, B. De Bièvre, J. Bhusal, J. Clark, A. Dewulf, M. Foggin, D. M. Hannah, C. Hergarten, A. Isaeva, T. Karpouzoglou, B. Pandeya, D. Paudel, K. Sharma, T. Steenhuis, S. Tilahun, G. Van Hecken, and M. Zhumanova, “Citizen science in hydrology and water resources: opportunities for knowledge generation, ecosystem service management, and sustainable development,” Front. Earth Sci. 2, 26 (2014).

Hirata, T.

Horne, R.

R. Horne, “Seeking sailors to help measure phytoplankton populations,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(18), 7107 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hou, W.

Z. Lee, S. Shang, C. Hu, K. Du, A. Weidemann, W. Hou, J. Lin, and G. Lin, “Secchi disk depth: a new theory and mechanistic model for underwater visibility,” Remote Sens. Environ. 169, 139–149 (2015).
[Crossref]

Houde, E. D.

W. M. Kemp, W. R. Boynton, J. E. Adolf, D. F. Boesch, W. C. Boicourt, G. Brush, J. C. Cornwell, T. R. Fisher, P. M. Glibert, J. D. Hagy, L. W. Harding, E. D. Houde, D. G. Kimmel, W. D. Miller, R. I. E. Newell, M. R. Roman, E. M. Smith, and J. C. Stevenson, “Eutrophication of Chesapeake Bay: historical trends and ecological interactions,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 303, 1–29 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hu, C.

Z. Lee, S. Shang, C. Hu, K. Du, A. Weidemann, W. Hou, J. Lin, and G. Lin, “Secchi disk depth: a new theory and mechanistic model for underwater visibility,” Remote Sens. Environ. 169, 139–149 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Le, C. Hu, J. Cannizzaro, and H. Duan, “Long-term distribution patterns of remotely sensed water quality parameters in Chesapeake Bay,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 128, 93–103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Chen, C. Hu, and F. Muller-Karger, “Monitoring turbidity in Tampa Bay using MODIS/Aqua 250-m imagery,” Remote Sens. Environ. 109(2), 207–220 (2007).
[Crossref]

Isaeva, A.

W. Buytaert, Z. Zulkafli, S. Grainger, L. Acosta, T. C. Alemie, J. Bastiaensen, B. De Bièvre, J. Bhusal, J. Clark, A. Dewulf, M. Foggin, D. M. Hannah, C. Hergarten, A. Isaeva, T. Karpouzoglou, B. Pandeya, D. Paudel, K. Sharma, T. Steenhuis, S. Tilahun, G. Van Hecken, and M. Zhumanova, “Citizen science in hydrology and water resources: opportunities for knowledge generation, ecosystem service management, and sustainable development,” Front. Earth Sci. 2, 26 (2014).

Jeansou, E.

J. A. Busch, I. Price, E. Jeansou, O. Zielinski, and H. J. van der Woerd, “Citizens and satellites: Assessment of phytoplankton dynamics in a NW Mediterranean aquaculture zone,” Int. J. Appl. Earth. Obs. 47, 40–49 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kahru, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

Karpouzoglou, T.

W. Buytaert, Z. Zulkafli, S. Grainger, L. Acosta, T. C. Alemie, J. Bastiaensen, B. De Bièvre, J. Bhusal, J. Clark, A. Dewulf, M. Foggin, D. M. Hannah, C. Hergarten, A. Isaeva, T. Karpouzoglou, B. Pandeya, D. Paudel, K. Sharma, T. Steenhuis, S. Tilahun, G. Van Hecken, and M. Zhumanova, “Citizen science in hydrology and water resources: opportunities for knowledge generation, ecosystem service management, and sustainable development,” Front. Earth Sci. 2, 26 (2014).

Kaushal, S. S.

G. Zheng, P. M. DiGiacomo, S. S. Kaushal, M. A. Yuen-Murphy, and S. Duan, “Evolution of sediment plumes in the Chesapeake Bay and implications of climate variability,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 49(11), 6494–6503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Kaushal, P. M. Mayer, P. G. Vidon, R. M. Smith, M. J. Pennino, T. A. Newcomer, S. Duan, C. Welty, and K. T. Belt, “Land use and climate variability amplify carbon, nutrient, and contaminant pulses: a review with management implications,” J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 50(3), 585–614 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kemp, W. M.

J. M. Testa, W. M. Kemp, W. R. Boynton, and J. D. Hagy, “Long-term changes in water quality and productivity in the Patuxent River Estuary: 1985 to 2003,” Estuaries Coasts 31(6), 1021–1037 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. R. Boynton, J. D. Hagy, J. C. Cornwell, W. M. Kemp, S. M. Greene, M. S. Owens, J. E. Baker, and R. K. Larsen, “Nutrient budgets and management actions in the Patuxent River estuary, Maryland,” Estuaries Coasts 31(4), 623–651 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. M. Kemp, W. R. Boynton, J. E. Adolf, D. F. Boesch, W. C. Boicourt, G. Brush, J. C. Cornwell, T. R. Fisher, P. M. Glibert, J. D. Hagy, L. W. Harding, E. D. Houde, D. G. Kimmel, W. D. Miller, R. I. E. Newell, M. R. Roman, E. M. Smith, and J. C. Stevenson, “Eutrophication of Chesapeake Bay: historical trends and ecological interactions,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 303, 1–29 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kimmel, D. G.

W. M. Kemp, W. R. Boynton, J. E. Adolf, D. F. Boesch, W. C. Boicourt, G. Brush, J. C. Cornwell, T. R. Fisher, P. M. Glibert, J. D. Hagy, L. W. Harding, E. D. Houde, D. G. Kimmel, W. D. Miller, R. I. E. Newell, M. R. Roman, E. M. Smith, and J. C. Stevenson, “Eutrophication of Chesapeake Bay: historical trends and ecological interactions,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 303, 1–29 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kleine, D. A.

N. J. Marshall, D. A. Kleine, and A. J. Dean, “CoralWatch: education, monitoring, and sustainability through citizen science,” Front. Ecol. Environ 10(6), 332–334 (2012).
[Crossref]

Knight, J. F.

J. F. Knight and M. L. Voth, “Application of MODIS imagery for intra-annual water clarity assessment of Minnesota lakes,” Remote Sens. 4(12), 2181–2198 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kuring, N.

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, N. Kuring, and P. J. Werdell, “Ocean color measurements with the Operational Land Imager on Landsat-8: implementation and evaluation in SeaDAS,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 9(1), 096070 (2015).
[Crossref]

Larsen, R. K.

W. R. Boynton, J. D. Hagy, J. C. Cornwell, W. M. Kemp, S. M. Greene, M. S. Owens, J. E. Baker, and R. K. Larsen, “Nutrient budgets and management actions in the Patuxent River estuary, Maryland,” Estuaries Coasts 31(4), 623–651 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lavender, S. J.

Le, C.

C. Le, C. Hu, J. Cannizzaro, and H. Duan, “Long-term distribution patterns of remotely sensed water quality parameters in Chesapeake Bay,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 128, 93–103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, Z.

Z. Lee, S. Shang, C. Hu, K. Du, A. Weidemann, W. Hou, J. Lin, and G. Lin, “Secchi disk depth: a new theory and mechanistic model for underwater visibility,” Remote Sens. Environ. 169, 139–149 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z. Lee, H. Loisel, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, T. S. Moore, T. J. Smyth, D. Antoine, E. Devred, O. H. d’Andon, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Weeks, P. Werdell, B. Schaffelke, M. Canto, Z. Lee, J. Wilding, and G. Feldman, “Satellite-derived photic depth on the Great Barrier Reef: spatio-temporal patterns of water clarity,” Remote Sens. 4(12), 3781–3795 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, G.

Z. Lee, S. Shang, C. Hu, K. Du, A. Weidemann, W. Hou, J. Lin, and G. Lin, “Secchi disk depth: a new theory and mechanistic model for underwater visibility,” Remote Sens. Environ. 169, 139–149 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.

Z. Lee, S. Shang, C. Hu, K. Du, A. Weidemann, W. Hou, J. Lin, and G. Lin, “Secchi disk depth: a new theory and mechanistic model for underwater visibility,” Remote Sens. Environ. 169, 139–149 (2015).
[Crossref]

Linker, L. C.

P. Wang, L. C. Linker, and R. A. Batiuk, “Monitored and modeled correlations of sediment and nutrients with Chesapeake Bay water clarity,” J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 49, 1103–1118 (2013).

Loisel, H.

Mangin, A.

Maritorena, S.

Marshall, N. J.

N. J. Marshall, D. A. Kleine, and A. J. Dean, “CoralWatch: education, monitoring, and sustainability through citizen science,” Front. Ecol. Environ 10(6), 332–334 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mayer, P. M.

S. S. Kaushal, P. M. Mayer, P. G. Vidon, R. M. Smith, M. J. Pennino, T. A. Newcomer, S. Duan, C. Welty, and K. T. Belt, “Land use and climate variability amplify carbon, nutrient, and contaminant pulses: a review with management implications,” J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 50(3), 585–614 (2014).
[Crossref]

McClain, C.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

McClain, C. R.

C. L. Gallegos, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, “Long-term changes in light scattering in Chesapeake Bay inferred from Secchi depth, light attenuation, and remote sensing measurements,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans 116, 7160 (2011).

McKee, B. A.

R. L. Miller and B. A. McKee, “Using MODIS Terra 250 m imagery to map concentrations of total suspended matter in coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 93(1-2), 259–266 (2004).
[Crossref]

McKee, D.

G. Neukermans, H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, R. Astoreca, and D. McKee, “In situ variability of mass-specific beam attenuation and backscattering of marine particles with respect to particle size, density, and composition,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 57(1), 124–144 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mélin, F.

Mériaux, X.

G. Neukermans, H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, R. Astoreca, and D. McKee, “In situ variability of mass-specific beam attenuation and backscattering of marine particles with respect to particle size, density, and composition,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 57(1), 124–144 (2012).
[Crossref]

Miller, R. L.

R. L. Miller and B. A. McKee, “Using MODIS Terra 250 m imagery to map concentrations of total suspended matter in coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 93(1-2), 259–266 (2004).
[Crossref]

Miller, W. D.

W. M. Kemp, W. R. Boynton, J. E. Adolf, D. F. Boesch, W. C. Boicourt, G. Brush, J. C. Cornwell, T. R. Fisher, P. M. Glibert, J. D. Hagy, L. W. Harding, E. D. Houde, D. G. Kimmel, W. D. Miller, R. I. E. Newell, M. R. Roman, E. M. Smith, and J. C. Stevenson, “Eutrophication of Chesapeake Bay: historical trends and ecological interactions,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 303, 1–29 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mitchell, B. G.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

Moore, T. S.

Muller-Karger, F.

Z. Chen, C. Hu, and F. Muller-Karger, “Monitoring turbidity in Tampa Bay using MODIS/Aqua 250-m imagery,” Remote Sens. Environ. 109(2), 207–220 (2007).
[Crossref]

Neukermans, G.

G. Neukermans, H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, R. Astoreca, and D. McKee, “In situ variability of mass-specific beam attenuation and backscattering of marine particles with respect to particle size, density, and composition,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 57(1), 124–144 (2012).
[Crossref]

Newcomer, T. A.

S. S. Kaushal, P. M. Mayer, P. G. Vidon, R. M. Smith, M. J. Pennino, T. A. Newcomer, S. Duan, C. Welty, and K. T. Belt, “Land use and climate variability amplify carbon, nutrient, and contaminant pulses: a review with management implications,” J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 50(3), 585–614 (2014).
[Crossref]

Newell, R. I. E.

W. M. Kemp, W. R. Boynton, J. E. Adolf, D. F. Boesch, W. C. Boicourt, G. Brush, J. C. Cornwell, T. R. Fisher, P. M. Glibert, J. D. Hagy, L. W. Harding, E. D. Houde, D. G. Kimmel, W. D. Miller, R. I. E. Newell, M. R. Roman, E. M. Smith, and J. C. Stevenson, “Eutrophication of Chesapeake Bay: historical trends and ecological interactions,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 303, 1–29 (2005).
[Crossref]

O’Reilly, J. E.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

Owens, M. S.

W. R. Boynton, J. D. Hagy, J. C. Cornwell, W. M. Kemp, S. M. Greene, M. S. Owens, J. E. Baker, and R. K. Larsen, “Nutrient budgets and management actions in the Patuxent River estuary, Maryland,” Estuaries Coasts 31(4), 623–651 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pandeya, B.

W. Buytaert, Z. Zulkafli, S. Grainger, L. Acosta, T. C. Alemie, J. Bastiaensen, B. De Bièvre, J. Bhusal, J. Clark, A. Dewulf, M. Foggin, D. M. Hannah, C. Hergarten, A. Isaeva, T. Karpouzoglou, B. Pandeya, D. Paudel, K. Sharma, T. Steenhuis, S. Tilahun, G. Van Hecken, and M. Zhumanova, “Citizen science in hydrology and water resources: opportunities for knowledge generation, ecosystem service management, and sustainable development,” Front. Earth Sci. 2, 26 (2014).

Paudel, D.

W. Buytaert, Z. Zulkafli, S. Grainger, L. Acosta, T. C. Alemie, J. Bastiaensen, B. De Bièvre, J. Bhusal, J. Clark, A. Dewulf, M. Foggin, D. M. Hannah, C. Hergarten, A. Isaeva, T. Karpouzoglou, B. Pandeya, D. Paudel, K. Sharma, T. Steenhuis, S. Tilahun, G. Van Hecken, and M. Zhumanova, “Citizen science in hydrology and water resources: opportunities for knowledge generation, ecosystem service management, and sustainable development,” Front. Earth Sci. 2, 26 (2014).

Pennino, M. J.

S. S. Kaushal, P. M. Mayer, P. G. Vidon, R. M. Smith, M. J. Pennino, T. A. Newcomer, S. Duan, C. Welty, and K. T. Belt, “Land use and climate variability amplify carbon, nutrient, and contaminant pulses: a review with management implications,” J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 50(3), 585–614 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pierce, S. J.

J. L. Williams, S. J. Pierce, M. Fuentes, and M. Hamann, “Effectiveness of recreational divers for monitoring sea turtle populations,” Endanger. Species Res. 26(3), 209–219 (2015).
[Crossref]

Preisendorfer, R. W.

R. W. Preisendorfer, “Secchi disk science: visual optics of natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 31(5), 909–926 (1986).
[Crossref]

Price, I.

J. A. Busch, I. Price, E. Jeansou, O. Zielinski, and H. J. van der Woerd, “Citizens and satellites: Assessment of phytoplankton dynamics in a NW Mediterranean aquaculture zone,” Int. J. Appl. Earth. Obs. 47, 40–49 (2016).
[Crossref]

Roman, M. R.

W. M. Kemp, W. R. Boynton, J. E. Adolf, D. F. Boesch, W. C. Boicourt, G. Brush, J. C. Cornwell, T. R. Fisher, P. M. Glibert, J. D. Hagy, L. W. Harding, E. D. Houde, D. G. Kimmel, W. D. Miller, R. I. E. Newell, M. R. Roman, E. M. Smith, and J. C. Stevenson, “Eutrophication of Chesapeake Bay: historical trends and ecological interactions,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 303, 1–29 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sanders, J. G.

C. F. D’Elia, W. R. Boynton, and J. G. Sanders, “A watershed perspective on nutrient enrichment, science, and policy in the Patuxent River, Maryland: 1960-2000,” Estuaries 26(2), 171–185 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schaffelke, B.

S. Weeks, P. Werdell, B. Schaffelke, M. Canto, Z. Lee, J. Wilding, and G. Feldman, “Satellite-derived photic depth on the Great Barrier Reef: spatio-temporal patterns of water clarity,” Remote Sens. 4(12), 3781–3795 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shang, S.

Z. Lee, S. Shang, C. Hu, K. Du, A. Weidemann, W. Hou, J. Lin, and G. Lin, “Secchi disk depth: a new theory and mechanistic model for underwater visibility,” Remote Sens. Environ. 169, 139–149 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sharma, K.

W. Buytaert, Z. Zulkafli, S. Grainger, L. Acosta, T. C. Alemie, J. Bastiaensen, B. De Bièvre, J. Bhusal, J. Clark, A. Dewulf, M. Foggin, D. M. Hannah, C. Hergarten, A. Isaeva, T. Karpouzoglou, B. Pandeya, D. Paudel, K. Sharma, T. Steenhuis, S. Tilahun, G. Van Hecken, and M. Zhumanova, “Citizen science in hydrology and water resources: opportunities for knowledge generation, ecosystem service management, and sustainable development,” Front. Earth Sci. 2, 26 (2014).

Siegel, D. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

Smith, E. M.

W. M. Kemp, W. R. Boynton, J. E. Adolf, D. F. Boesch, W. C. Boicourt, G. Brush, J. C. Cornwell, T. R. Fisher, P. M. Glibert, J. D. Hagy, L. W. Harding, E. D. Houde, D. G. Kimmel, W. D. Miller, R. I. E. Newell, M. R. Roman, E. M. Smith, and J. C. Stevenson, “Eutrophication of Chesapeake Bay: historical trends and ecological interactions,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 303, 1–29 (2005).
[Crossref]

Smith, R. M.

S. S. Kaushal, P. M. Mayer, P. G. Vidon, R. M. Smith, M. J. Pennino, T. A. Newcomer, S. Duan, C. Welty, and K. T. Belt, “Land use and climate variability amplify carbon, nutrient, and contaminant pulses: a review with management implications,” J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 50(3), 585–614 (2014).
[Crossref]

Smyth, T. J.

Son, S.

M. Wang, S. Son, and L. W. Harding, “Retrieval of diffuse attenuation coefficient in the Chesapeake Bay and turbid ocean regions for satellite ocean color applications,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans 114, 1–15 (2009).

Steenhuis, T.

W. Buytaert, Z. Zulkafli, S. Grainger, L. Acosta, T. C. Alemie, J. Bastiaensen, B. De Bièvre, J. Bhusal, J. Clark, A. Dewulf, M. Foggin, D. M. Hannah, C. Hergarten, A. Isaeva, T. Karpouzoglou, B. Pandeya, D. Paudel, K. Sharma, T. Steenhuis, S. Tilahun, G. Van Hecken, and M. Zhumanova, “Citizen science in hydrology and water resources: opportunities for knowledge generation, ecosystem service management, and sustainable development,” Front. Earth Sci. 2, 26 (2014).

Stevenson, J. C.

W. M. Kemp, W. R. Boynton, J. E. Adolf, D. F. Boesch, W. C. Boicourt, G. Brush, J. C. Cornwell, T. R. Fisher, P. M. Glibert, J. D. Hagy, L. W. Harding, E. D. Houde, D. G. Kimmel, W. D. Miller, R. I. E. Newell, M. R. Roman, E. M. Smith, and J. C. Stevenson, “Eutrophication of Chesapeake Bay: historical trends and ecological interactions,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 303, 1–29 (2005).
[Crossref]

Testa, J. M.

J. M. Testa, W. M. Kemp, W. R. Boynton, and J. D. Hagy, “Long-term changes in water quality and productivity in the Patuxent River Estuary: 1985 to 2003,” Estuaries Coasts 31(6), 1021–1037 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tilahun, S.

W. Buytaert, Z. Zulkafli, S. Grainger, L. Acosta, T. C. Alemie, J. Bastiaensen, B. De Bièvre, J. Bhusal, J. Clark, A. Dewulf, M. Foggin, D. M. Hannah, C. Hergarten, A. Isaeva, T. Karpouzoglou, B. Pandeya, D. Paudel, K. Sharma, T. Steenhuis, S. Tilahun, G. Van Hecken, and M. Zhumanova, “Citizen science in hydrology and water resources: opportunities for knowledge generation, ecosystem service management, and sustainable development,” Front. Earth Sci. 2, 26 (2014).

van der Woerd, H. J.

J. A. Busch, I. Price, E. Jeansou, O. Zielinski, and H. J. van der Woerd, “Citizens and satellites: Assessment of phytoplankton dynamics in a NW Mediterranean aquaculture zone,” Int. J. Appl. Earth. Obs. 47, 40–49 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. R. Wernand, H. J. van der Woerd, and W. W. C. Gieskes, “Trends in ocean colour and chlorophyll concentration from 1889 to 2000, worldwide,” PLoS One 8(6), e63766 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Hecken, G.

W. Buytaert, Z. Zulkafli, S. Grainger, L. Acosta, T. C. Alemie, J. Bastiaensen, B. De Bièvre, J. Bhusal, J. Clark, A. Dewulf, M. Foggin, D. M. Hannah, C. Hergarten, A. Isaeva, T. Karpouzoglou, B. Pandeya, D. Paudel, K. Sharma, T. Steenhuis, S. Tilahun, G. Van Hecken, and M. Zhumanova, “Citizen science in hydrology and water resources: opportunities for knowledge generation, ecosystem service management, and sustainable development,” Front. Earth Sci. 2, 26 (2014).

Vidon, P. G.

S. S. Kaushal, P. M. Mayer, P. G. Vidon, R. M. Smith, M. J. Pennino, T. A. Newcomer, S. Duan, C. Welty, and K. T. Belt, “Land use and climate variability amplify carbon, nutrient, and contaminant pulses: a review with management implications,” J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 50(3), 585–614 (2014).
[Crossref]

Voß, D.

S. P. Garaba, A. Friedrichs, D. Voß, and O. Zielinski, “Classifying natural waters with the Forel-Ule Colour index system: results, applications, correlations and crowdsourcing,” Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 12(12), 16096–16109 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Voth, M. L.

J. F. Knight and M. L. Voth, “Application of MODIS imagery for intra-annual water clarity assessment of Minnesota lakes,” Remote Sens. 4(12), 2181–2198 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, M.

M. Wang, S. Son, and L. W. Harding, “Retrieval of diffuse attenuation coefficient in the Chesapeake Bay and turbid ocean regions for satellite ocean color applications,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans 114, 1–15 (2009).

Wang, P.

P. Wang, L. C. Linker, and R. A. Batiuk, “Monitored and modeled correlations of sediment and nutrients with Chesapeake Bay water clarity,” J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 49, 1103–1118 (2013).

Weeks, S.

S. Weeks, P. Werdell, B. Schaffelke, M. Canto, Z. Lee, J. Wilding, and G. Feldman, “Satellite-derived photic depth on the Great Barrier Reef: spatio-temporal patterns of water clarity,” Remote Sens. 4(12), 3781–3795 (2012).
[Crossref]

Weidemann, A.

Z. Lee, S. Shang, C. Hu, K. Du, A. Weidemann, W. Hou, J. Lin, and G. Lin, “Secchi disk depth: a new theory and mechanistic model for underwater visibility,” Remote Sens. Environ. 169, 139–149 (2015).
[Crossref]

Welty, C.

S. S. Kaushal, P. M. Mayer, P. G. Vidon, R. M. Smith, M. J. Pennino, T. A. Newcomer, S. Duan, C. Welty, and K. T. Belt, “Land use and climate variability amplify carbon, nutrient, and contaminant pulses: a review with management implications,” J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 50(3), 585–614 (2014).
[Crossref]

Werdell, P.

S. Weeks, P. Werdell, B. Schaffelke, M. Canto, Z. Lee, J. Wilding, and G. Feldman, “Satellite-derived photic depth on the Great Barrier Reef: spatio-temporal patterns of water clarity,” Remote Sens. 4(12), 3781–3795 (2012).
[Crossref]

Werdell, P. J.

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, N. Kuring, and P. J. Werdell, “Ocean color measurements with the Operational Land Imager on Landsat-8: implementation and evaluation in SeaDAS,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 9(1), 096070 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z. Lee, H. Loisel, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, T. S. Moore, T. J. Smyth, D. Antoine, E. Devred, O. H. d’Andon, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Gallegos, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, “Long-term changes in light scattering in Chesapeake Bay inferred from Secchi depth, light attenuation, and remote sensing measurements,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans 116, 7160 (2011).

Wernand, M. R.

M. R. Wernand, H. J. van der Woerd, and W. W. C. Gieskes, “Trends in ocean colour and chlorophyll concentration from 1889 to 2000, worldwide,” PLoS One 8(6), e63766 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilding, J.

S. Weeks, P. Werdell, B. Schaffelke, M. Canto, Z. Lee, J. Wilding, and G. Feldman, “Satellite-derived photic depth on the Great Barrier Reef: spatio-temporal patterns of water clarity,” Remote Sens. 4(12), 3781–3795 (2012).
[Crossref]

Williams, J. L.

J. L. Williams, S. J. Pierce, M. Fuentes, and M. Hamann, “Effectiveness of recreational divers for monitoring sea turtle populations,” Endanger. Species Res. 26(3), 209–219 (2015).
[Crossref]

Williams, M. R.

T. R. Fisher, J. I. D. Hagy, W. R. Boynton, and M. R. Williams, “Cultural eutrophication in the Choptank and Patuxent estuaries of Chesapeake Bay,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 51(1part2), 435–447 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yuen-Murphy, M. A.

G. Zheng, P. M. DiGiacomo, S. S. Kaushal, M. A. Yuen-Murphy, and S. Duan, “Evolution of sediment plumes in the Chesapeake Bay and implications of climate variability,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 49(11), 6494–6503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, G.

G. Zheng, P. M. DiGiacomo, S. S. Kaushal, M. A. Yuen-Murphy, and S. Duan, “Evolution of sediment plumes in the Chesapeake Bay and implications of climate variability,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 49(11), 6494–6503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhumanova, M.

W. Buytaert, Z. Zulkafli, S. Grainger, L. Acosta, T. C. Alemie, J. Bastiaensen, B. De Bièvre, J. Bhusal, J. Clark, A. Dewulf, M. Foggin, D. M. Hannah, C. Hergarten, A. Isaeva, T. Karpouzoglou, B. Pandeya, D. Paudel, K. Sharma, T. Steenhuis, S. Tilahun, G. Van Hecken, and M. Zhumanova, “Citizen science in hydrology and water resources: opportunities for knowledge generation, ecosystem service management, and sustainable development,” Front. Earth Sci. 2, 26 (2014).

Zielinski, O.

J. A. Busch, I. Price, E. Jeansou, O. Zielinski, and H. J. van der Woerd, “Citizens and satellites: Assessment of phytoplankton dynamics in a NW Mediterranean aquaculture zone,” Int. J. Appl. Earth. Obs. 47, 40–49 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. P. Garaba, A. Friedrichs, D. Voß, and O. Zielinski, “Classifying natural waters with the Forel-Ule Colour index system: results, applications, correlations and crowdsourcing,” Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 12(12), 16096–16109 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zimmerman, A. R.

A. R. Zimmerman and E. A. Canuel, “A geochemical record of eutrophication and anoxia in Chesapeake Bay sediments: anthropogenic influence on organic matter composition,” Mar. Chem. 69(1-2), 117–137 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zulkafli, Z.

W. Buytaert, Z. Zulkafli, S. Grainger, L. Acosta, T. C. Alemie, J. Bastiaensen, B. De Bièvre, J. Bhusal, J. Clark, A. Dewulf, M. Foggin, D. M. Hannah, C. Hergarten, A. Isaeva, T. Karpouzoglou, B. Pandeya, D. Paudel, K. Sharma, T. Steenhuis, S. Tilahun, G. Van Hecken, and M. Zhumanova, “Citizen science in hydrology and water resources: opportunities for knowledge generation, ecosystem service management, and sustainable development,” Front. Earth Sci. 2, 26 (2014).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Endanger. Species Res. (1)

J. L. Williams, S. J. Pierce, M. Fuentes, and M. Hamann, “Effectiveness of recreational divers for monitoring sea turtle populations,” Endanger. Species Res. 26(3), 209–219 (2015).
[Crossref]

Environ. Sci. Technol. (1)

G. Zheng, P. M. DiGiacomo, S. S. Kaushal, M. A. Yuen-Murphy, and S. Duan, “Evolution of sediment plumes in the Chesapeake Bay and implications of climate variability,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 49(11), 6494–6503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. (1)

C. Le, C. Hu, J. Cannizzaro, and H. Duan, “Long-term distribution patterns of remotely sensed water quality parameters in Chesapeake Bay,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 128, 93–103 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Retired Maryland State Senator Bernie Fowler in 2012 holding the white sneakers he wears at annual Patuxent River wade-in events. Image credit: Maryland Department of Planning [22].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Quasi-true color image of the Patuxent River estuary and adjacent Chesapeake Bay captured by Landsat-8 OLI on 18 September 2015. Waters near the river mouth appear greenish-yellow most likely due to an abundance of phytoplankton. Waters upstream from the river mouth are a distinct brown color, likely due to suspended mineral sediment. Annotated in red letters are the wade-in locations of Broomes Island (BI) and Jefferson Patterson Park (JPP), the monthly monitoring sites St Leonard (LEI.2) and Above Point Patience (LEI1.3), and the Chesapeake Bay Laboratory (CBL).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Panel A shows simulated Zsd (grey data points) varying with Rrs(645). A region-of-interest box, defined by dotted line, surrounds in-water FSD data (blue data points) plotted against coincident MODISA-observed Rrs(645). Panel B zooms in on the region-of-interest box showing the in-water FSD data points more clearly. A red line encircles two suspected outliers. In both panels, two best fit lines are displayed: a dashed line for Zsd depth vs. Rrs(645) and a solid line for FSD vs. Rrs(645).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Landsat-8 OLI imagery of the Patuxent River and adjacent Chesapeake Bay captured on 24 January 2016 following a severe winter storm. Panel A shows a quasi-true color image of the region. Highly turbid waters appear brown whilst clearer, less scattering waters are dark colored. Panel B shows FSD, the depth at which you can no longer see a pair of white sneakers, derived using Eq. (2). Black pixels in panel B correspond to invalid (bad data) pixels where atmospheric correction failure occurred.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Patuxent river time-series, panel A depicts FSD variability over the period of year and a half, for the sampling site (panel A), followed by the monthly variability of total suspended sediments on two monitoring stations in proximity of sampling site (panel B). Panel C is showing the chlorophyll variability on same monitoring stations (red and blue), and chlorophyll variability measured by the probe on CBL pier. Variability of the Patuxent River discharge is depicted on panel D.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Chesapeake Bay time-series, panel A depicts FSD variability over the MODISA mission, followed by the monthly variability of Chlorophyll a (blue) and backscattering (red) (panel B). FSD seems to co-vary with backscattering in the bay (Panel D), indicating that is more susceptible to the changes in sediment load than the chlorophyll concentration (Panel C).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Details of in-water FSD wade-ins and MODISA satellite overpass

Tables Icon

Table 2 Details of tide height on wade-in days and during MODISA satellite overpass

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

MR=median[ Z ^ i / Z i ].
Z SD = c 0 c 1 R rs (645) .

Metrics