Abstract

To capitalise on the colour tuning capabilities of LED lighting, a model for converting device-specific control signals to chromaticity coordinates was used in a psychophysical experiment evaluating the usability of three colour control interfaces based on RGB (red, green, blue), HSB (hue, saturation, brightness) and opponent colour mixing systems. Although common and well accepted, the RGB interface had lowest usability based on both psychophysical results and subjective ratings. The usability of HSB and opponent colour interfaces was not significantly different. These findings can guide the development of useful and efficient colour control interfaces for tunable LED lighting systems.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Dimming curve based on the detectability and acceptability of illuminance differences

Wenye Hu and Wendy Davis
Opt. Express 24(10) A885-A897 (2016)

Memory colours and colour quality evaluation of conventional and solid-state lamps

Kevin A. G. Smet, Wouter R. Ryckaert, Michael R. Pointer, Geert Deconinck, and Peter Hanselaer
Opt. Express 18(25) 26229-26244 (2010)

Perception of saturation in natural scenes

Florian Schiller and Karl R. Gegenfurtner
J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 33(3) A194-A206 (2016)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. O. Marberry and L. Zagon, The Power of Color: Creating Healthy Interior Spaces (Wiley, 1995).
  2. F. Viénot, G. Coron, and B. Lavédrine, “LEDs as a tool to enhance faded colours of museums artefacts,” J. Cult. Herit. 12(4), 431–440 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  3. D. Abdalla, A. Duis, D. Durmus, and W. Davis, “Customization of light source spectrum to minimize light absorbed by artwork,” in Proceedings of CIE Lighting Quality and Energy Efficiency Conference 2016 (Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage, 2016), pp. 22–31.
  4. M. Wood, “Many shades of white,” Stage Directions 23 (9), (2010).
  5. T. A. LeGates, D. C. Fernandez, and S. Hattar, “Light as a central modulator of circadian rhythms, sleep and affect,” Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 15(7), 443–454 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. W. Julian, “The Sydney opera house concert hall celebrates two years of LEDs,” Lighting 36(4), 26–27 (2016).
  7. A. R. Smith, “Colour gamut transform pairs,” Comput Graph (ACM). SIGGRAPH 12(3), 12–19 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. W. Schwarz, W. B. Cowan, and J. C. Beatty, “An experimental comparison of RGB, YIQ, LAB, HSV, and opponent color models,” ACM Trans. Graph. 6(2), 123–158 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. Beigpour and M. Pedersen, “Color Play: Gamification for Color Vision Study,” in Proceedings of Color and Image, Midterm Meeting of the International Colour Association (AIC, 2015).
  10. J. Schanda, Colorimetry: Understanding the CIE System (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007).
  11. C. V. R. Labs, Colour and Vision Database: Colour Matching Functions. Available: http://www.cvrl.org/ (2016)
  12. D. B. Judd, Colorimetry (U.S. Govt Print Off., 1950).
  13. K. Witt, “CIE Color Difference Metrics,” in Colorimetry: Understanding the CIE system, J. n. Schanda, Ed., (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007).
  14. R. L. De Valois and K. K. De Valois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vision Res. 33(8), 1053–1065 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. I.-s. C. C. The Subcommittee on Color Blindness Studies, HRR Pseudoisochromatic Plates, (2002)
  16. ISO, Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) (ISO, 1998)
  17. M. Hassenzahl, “The Interplay of Beauty, Goodness, and Usability in Interactive Products,” Hum. Comput. Interact. 19(4), 319–349 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. Nielsen and J. Levy, “Measuring usability: preference vs. performance,” Commun. ACM 37(4), 66–75 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. R. Lewis, “Psychometric evaluation of an after-scenario questionnaire for computer usability studies- the ASQ,” SIGCHI Bulletin 23(1), 78–81 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  20. F. Wilcoxon, “Individual comparisons by ranking methods,” Biom. Bull. 1(6), 80–83 (1945).
    [Crossref]
  21. W. J. Conover, “On methods of handling ties in the Wilcoxon signed-rank test,” J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 68(344), 985–988 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  22. J. W. Pratt, “Remarks on Zeros and Ties in the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Procedures,” J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 54(287), 655–667 (1959).
    [Crossref]
  23. A. J. Rahe, “Tables of critical values for the Pratt matched pair signed rank statistic,” J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 69(346), 368–373 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  24. W. Hu and W. Davis, “Dimming curve based on the detectability and acceptability of illuminance differences,” Opt. Express 24(10), A885–A897 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. W. Hu and W. Davis, “Luminance resolution of lighting control systems: usability and energy conservation,” in Proceedings of CIE 2016 ”Lighting Quality and Energy Efficiency (CIE, 2016), pp. 253–263.

2016 (2)

W. Julian, “The Sydney opera house concert hall celebrates two years of LEDs,” Lighting 36(4), 26–27 (2016).

W. Hu and W. Davis, “Dimming curve based on the detectability and acceptability of illuminance differences,” Opt. Express 24(10), A885–A897 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

T. A. LeGates, D. C. Fernandez, and S. Hattar, “Light as a central modulator of circadian rhythms, sleep and affect,” Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 15(7), 443–454 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

F. Viénot, G. Coron, and B. Lavédrine, “LEDs as a tool to enhance faded colours of museums artefacts,” J. Cult. Herit. 12(4), 431–440 (2011).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. Hassenzahl, “The Interplay of Beauty, Goodness, and Usability in Interactive Products,” Hum. Comput. Interact. 19(4), 319–349 (2004).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. Nielsen and J. Levy, “Measuring usability: preference vs. performance,” Commun. ACM 37(4), 66–75 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

R. L. De Valois and K. K. De Valois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vision Res. 33(8), 1053–1065 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

J. R. Lewis, “Psychometric evaluation of an after-scenario questionnaire for computer usability studies- the ASQ,” SIGCHI Bulletin 23(1), 78–81 (1990).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

M. W. Schwarz, W. B. Cowan, and J. C. Beatty, “An experimental comparison of RGB, YIQ, LAB, HSV, and opponent color models,” ACM Trans. Graph. 6(2), 123–158 (1987).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

A. R. Smith, “Colour gamut transform pairs,” Comput Graph (ACM). SIGGRAPH 12(3), 12–19 (1978).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

A. J. Rahe, “Tables of critical values for the Pratt matched pair signed rank statistic,” J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 69(346), 368–373 (1974).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

W. J. Conover, “On methods of handling ties in the Wilcoxon signed-rank test,” J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 68(344), 985–988 (1973).
[Crossref]

1959 (1)

J. W. Pratt, “Remarks on Zeros and Ties in the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Procedures,” J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 54(287), 655–667 (1959).
[Crossref]

1945 (1)

F. Wilcoxon, “Individual comparisons by ranking methods,” Biom. Bull. 1(6), 80–83 (1945).
[Crossref]

Beatty, J. C.

M. W. Schwarz, W. B. Cowan, and J. C. Beatty, “An experimental comparison of RGB, YIQ, LAB, HSV, and opponent color models,” ACM Trans. Graph. 6(2), 123–158 (1987).
[Crossref]

Conover, W. J.

W. J. Conover, “On methods of handling ties in the Wilcoxon signed-rank test,” J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 68(344), 985–988 (1973).
[Crossref]

Coron, G.

F. Viénot, G. Coron, and B. Lavédrine, “LEDs as a tool to enhance faded colours of museums artefacts,” J. Cult. Herit. 12(4), 431–440 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cowan, W. B.

M. W. Schwarz, W. B. Cowan, and J. C. Beatty, “An experimental comparison of RGB, YIQ, LAB, HSV, and opponent color models,” ACM Trans. Graph. 6(2), 123–158 (1987).
[Crossref]

Davis, W.

W. Hu and W. Davis, “Dimming curve based on the detectability and acceptability of illuminance differences,” Opt. Express 24(10), A885–A897 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Hu and W. Davis, “Luminance resolution of lighting control systems: usability and energy conservation,” in Proceedings of CIE 2016 ”Lighting Quality and Energy Efficiency (CIE, 2016), pp. 253–263.

De Valois, K. K.

R. L. De Valois and K. K. De Valois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vision Res. 33(8), 1053–1065 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Valois, R. L.

R. L. De Valois and K. K. De Valois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vision Res. 33(8), 1053–1065 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fernandez, D. C.

T. A. LeGates, D. C. Fernandez, and S. Hattar, “Light as a central modulator of circadian rhythms, sleep and affect,” Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 15(7), 443–454 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hassenzahl, M.

M. Hassenzahl, “The Interplay of Beauty, Goodness, and Usability in Interactive Products,” Hum. Comput. Interact. 19(4), 319–349 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hattar, S.

T. A. LeGates, D. C. Fernandez, and S. Hattar, “Light as a central modulator of circadian rhythms, sleep and affect,” Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 15(7), 443–454 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, W.

W. Hu and W. Davis, “Dimming curve based on the detectability and acceptability of illuminance differences,” Opt. Express 24(10), A885–A897 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Hu and W. Davis, “Luminance resolution of lighting control systems: usability and energy conservation,” in Proceedings of CIE 2016 ”Lighting Quality and Energy Efficiency (CIE, 2016), pp. 253–263.

Julian, W.

W. Julian, “The Sydney opera house concert hall celebrates two years of LEDs,” Lighting 36(4), 26–27 (2016).

Lavédrine, B.

F. Viénot, G. Coron, and B. Lavédrine, “LEDs as a tool to enhance faded colours of museums artefacts,” J. Cult. Herit. 12(4), 431–440 (2011).
[Crossref]

LeGates, T. A.

T. A. LeGates, D. C. Fernandez, and S. Hattar, “Light as a central modulator of circadian rhythms, sleep and affect,” Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 15(7), 443–454 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levy, J.

J. Nielsen and J. Levy, “Measuring usability: preference vs. performance,” Commun. ACM 37(4), 66–75 (1994).
[Crossref]

Lewis, J. R.

J. R. Lewis, “Psychometric evaluation of an after-scenario questionnaire for computer usability studies- the ASQ,” SIGCHI Bulletin 23(1), 78–81 (1990).
[Crossref]

Nielsen, J.

J. Nielsen and J. Levy, “Measuring usability: preference vs. performance,” Commun. ACM 37(4), 66–75 (1994).
[Crossref]

Pratt, J. W.

J. W. Pratt, “Remarks on Zeros and Ties in the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Procedures,” J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 54(287), 655–667 (1959).
[Crossref]

Rahe, A. J.

A. J. Rahe, “Tables of critical values for the Pratt matched pair signed rank statistic,” J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 69(346), 368–373 (1974).
[Crossref]

Schwarz, M. W.

M. W. Schwarz, W. B. Cowan, and J. C. Beatty, “An experimental comparison of RGB, YIQ, LAB, HSV, and opponent color models,” ACM Trans. Graph. 6(2), 123–158 (1987).
[Crossref]

Smith, A. R.

A. R. Smith, “Colour gamut transform pairs,” Comput Graph (ACM). SIGGRAPH 12(3), 12–19 (1978).
[Crossref]

Viénot, F.

F. Viénot, G. Coron, and B. Lavédrine, “LEDs as a tool to enhance faded colours of museums artefacts,” J. Cult. Herit. 12(4), 431–440 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wilcoxon, F.

F. Wilcoxon, “Individual comparisons by ranking methods,” Biom. Bull. 1(6), 80–83 (1945).
[Crossref]

ACM Trans. Graph. (1)

M. W. Schwarz, W. B. Cowan, and J. C. Beatty, “An experimental comparison of RGB, YIQ, LAB, HSV, and opponent color models,” ACM Trans. Graph. 6(2), 123–158 (1987).
[Crossref]

Biom. Bull. (1)

F. Wilcoxon, “Individual comparisons by ranking methods,” Biom. Bull. 1(6), 80–83 (1945).
[Crossref]

Commun. ACM (1)

J. Nielsen and J. Levy, “Measuring usability: preference vs. performance,” Commun. ACM 37(4), 66–75 (1994).
[Crossref]

Comput Graph (ACM). SIGGRAPH (1)

A. R. Smith, “Colour gamut transform pairs,” Comput Graph (ACM). SIGGRAPH 12(3), 12–19 (1978).
[Crossref]

Hum. Comput. Interact. (1)

M. Hassenzahl, “The Interplay of Beauty, Goodness, and Usability in Interactive Products,” Hum. Comput. Interact. 19(4), 319–349 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Stat. Assoc. (3)

W. J. Conover, “On methods of handling ties in the Wilcoxon signed-rank test,” J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 68(344), 985–988 (1973).
[Crossref]

J. W. Pratt, “Remarks on Zeros and Ties in the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Procedures,” J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 54(287), 655–667 (1959).
[Crossref]

A. J. Rahe, “Tables of critical values for the Pratt matched pair signed rank statistic,” J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 69(346), 368–373 (1974).
[Crossref]

J. Cult. Herit. (1)

F. Viénot, G. Coron, and B. Lavédrine, “LEDs as a tool to enhance faded colours of museums artefacts,” J. Cult. Herit. 12(4), 431–440 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lighting (1)

W. Julian, “The Sydney opera house concert hall celebrates two years of LEDs,” Lighting 36(4), 26–27 (2016).

Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (1)

T. A. LeGates, D. C. Fernandez, and S. Hattar, “Light as a central modulator of circadian rhythms, sleep and affect,” Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 15(7), 443–454 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

SIGCHI Bulletin (1)

J. R. Lewis, “Psychometric evaluation of an after-scenario questionnaire for computer usability studies- the ASQ,” SIGCHI Bulletin 23(1), 78–81 (1990).
[Crossref]

Vision Res. (1)

R. L. De Valois and K. K. De Valois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vision Res. 33(8), 1053–1065 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (11)

I.-s. C. C. The Subcommittee on Color Blindness Studies, HRR Pseudoisochromatic Plates, (2002)

ISO, Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) (ISO, 1998)

W. Hu and W. Davis, “Luminance resolution of lighting control systems: usability and energy conservation,” in Proceedings of CIE 2016 ”Lighting Quality and Energy Efficiency (CIE, 2016), pp. 253–263.

S. O. Marberry and L. Zagon, The Power of Color: Creating Healthy Interior Spaces (Wiley, 1995).

D. Abdalla, A. Duis, D. Durmus, and W. Davis, “Customization of light source spectrum to minimize light absorbed by artwork,” in Proceedings of CIE Lighting Quality and Energy Efficiency Conference 2016 (Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage, 2016), pp. 22–31.

M. Wood, “Many shades of white,” Stage Directions 23 (9), (2010).

S. Beigpour and M. Pedersen, “Color Play: Gamification for Color Vision Study,” in Proceedings of Color and Image, Midterm Meeting of the International Colour Association (AIC, 2015).

J. Schanda, Colorimetry: Understanding the CIE System (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007).

C. V. R. Labs, Colour and Vision Database: Colour Matching Functions. Available: http://www.cvrl.org/ (2016)

D. B. Judd, Colorimetry (U.S. Govt Print Off., 1950).

K. Witt, “CIE Color Difference Metrics,” in Colorimetry: Understanding the CIE system, J. n. Schanda, Ed., (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. The left booth was the reference booth and the test booth was on the right. Participants controlled the light in the test booth to match the light in the reference booth. General laboratory lights were only on to capture the photograph.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plan view of the experimental setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative power as a function of wavelength for the light used in the test booth. SPDs measured at every step (25 units) of the DMX values for each channel.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Luminance as a function of the DMX values for each primary light. Solid lines with triangle markers indicate the light used in test booth, while the dashed lines with circle markers indicate the light used in reference booth.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The button box used in the experiment. The control interface shown here was used for RGB control.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Six reference colours and colour gamut plotted on CIE 1976 (u’, v’) chromaticity diagram. (Background colours for illustration only). Solid dots show the chromaticities of the R, G, B primaries used in this experiment. Any chromaticity within the colour gamut (the white triangle) can be obtained by mixing three primaries.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Chromaticity matching error (Δ u’v’) using different colour control interfaces. Circles show the mean Δ u’v’ and error bars show standard error of the mean (SEM).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Luminance matching error (ΔL) for different colour control interfaces. Circles show the mean ΔL and error bars show standard error of the mean (SEM).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Completion time (in seconds) of the matching task using different interfaces. Circles show the mean time and error bars show standard error of the mean (SEM).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Label on the button box for RGB control.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Colour settings for HSB interface. (Background colours for illustration only).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Label on the button box for HSB control.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Label on the button box for opponent colour control.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Paired comparison of the subjective rating of three interfaces

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

X= 380nm 780nm ϕ λ (λ) x ¯ (λ)dλ, Y= 380nm 780nm ϕ λ (λ) y ¯ (λ)dλ, Z= 380nm 780nm ϕ λ (λ) z ¯ (λ)dλ
( X m Y m Z m )=( X R X G X B Y R Y G Y B Z R Z G Z B )( A R A G A B )
( X m Y m Z m )=(A)×( DM X R DM X G DM X B )
x= X X+Y+Z y= Y X+Y+Z z= Z X+Y+Z
u = 4X X+15Y+3Z v = 9Y X+15Y+3Z
hue= tan -1 ( b * a * ) chroma= a *2 + b *2
Δu'v'= (u ' test u ' reference ) 2 + (v ' test v ' reference ) 2

Metrics