Abstract

We report a CMOS integrated micro-LED array capable of generating discrete optical output power levels. A 16 × 16 array of individually addressable pixels are on-off controlled through parallel logic signals. With carefully selected groups of LEDs driven together, signals suitable for discrete transmission schemes are produced. The linearity of the device is assessed, and data transmission using pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is performed. Error-free transmission at a symbol rate of 100 MSamples/s is demonstrated with 4-PAM, yielding a data rate of 200 Mb/s. For 8-PAM, encoding is required to overcome the baseline wander from the receiver, reducing the data rate to 150 Mb/s. We also present an experimental proof-of-concept demonstration of discrete-level OFDM, achieving a spectral efficiency of 3.96 bits/s/Hz.

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References

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  1. S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. Mckendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O. Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of Gallium Nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 1–44 (2017).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  3. J. F. Li, Z. T. Huang, R. Q. Zhang, F. X. Zeng, M. Jiang, and Y. F. Ji, “Superposed pulse amplitude modulation for visible light communication,” Opt. Express 21, 31006–31011 (2013).
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  4. M. S. Islim and H. Haas, “Modulation Techniques for Li-Fi,” ZTE Commun. 14, 29–40 (2016).
  5. A. Yang, Y. Wu, M. Kavehrad, and G. Ni, “Grouped modulation scheme for LED array module in a visible light communication system,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22, 24–28 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible-Light Communications Using a CMOS-Controlled Micro-Light- Emitting-Diode Array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 61–67 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. V. N. Jalajakumari, E. Xie, J. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and R. K. Henderson, “High-speed integrated digital to light converter for short range visible light communication,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 118–121 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, M. Ijaz, Z. Chen, H. Haas, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “High-Speed Integrated Visible Light Communication System: Device Constraints and Design Considerations,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 33, 1750–1757 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, R. Ferreira, R. Henderson, S. Videv, S. Watson, H. Haas, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Single-chip discrete multitone generation,” in 2015 IEEE Summer Topicals Meeting Series, SUM 20152, 47–48 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photon. 3, 180–182 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  11. S. Zhang, S. Watson, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, A. Cogman, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “1.5 Gbit/s multi-channel visible light communications using CMOS-controlled GaN-based LEDs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 1211–1216 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 62, 1918–1925 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  13. D. Tsonev, S. Sinanovic, and H. Haas, “Pulse shaping in unipolar OFDM-based modulation schemes,” in “2012 IEEE Globecom Workshops,” (2012), pp. 1208–1212.
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    [Crossref]
  15. S. Lloyd, “Least squares quantization in PCM,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 28, 129–137 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  16. H. E. Levin, “A complete and optimal data allocation method for practical discrete multitone systems,” in “Global Telecommunications Conference, 2001. GLOBECOM ’01. IEEE,”, vol. 1 (2001), vol. 1, pp. 369–374 Vol.1.
  17. F. Xiong, F. Xiong, and F. Xiong, Digital modulation techniques, Vol. 633 (Artech HouseBoston, 2006), 2nd ed.

2017 (2)

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. Mckendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O. Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of Gallium Nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 1–44 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. V. N. Jalajakumari, E. Xie, J. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and R. K. Henderson, “High-speed integrated digital to light converter for short range visible light communication,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 118–121 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

M. S. Islim and H. Haas, “Modulation Techniques for Li-Fi,” ZTE Commun. 14, 29–40 (2016).

2015 (3)

A. Yang, Y. Wu, M. Kavehrad, and G. Ni, “Grouped modulation scheme for LED array module in a visible light communication system,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22, 24–28 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, M. Ijaz, Z. Chen, H. Haas, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “High-Speed Integrated Visible Light Communication System: Device Constraints and Design Considerations,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 33, 1750–1757 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 62, 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

2012 (1)

2009 (1)

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photon. 3, 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

S. Lloyd, “Least squares quantization in PCM,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 28, 129–137 (1982).
[Crossref]

Brien, D. O.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. Mckendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O. Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of Gallium Nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 1–44 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cameron, K.

S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, M. Ijaz, Z. Chen, H. Haas, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “High-Speed Integrated Visible Light Communication System: Device Constraints and Design Considerations,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 33, 1750–1757 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, M. Ijaz, Z. Chen, H. Haas, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “High-Speed Integrated Visible Light Communication System: Device Constraints and Design Considerations,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 33, 1750–1757 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chun, H.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. Mckendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O. Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of Gallium Nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 1–44 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, M. Ijaz, Z. Chen, H. Haas, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “High-Speed Integrated Visible Light Communication System: Device Constraints and Design Considerations,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 33, 1750–1757 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cogman, A.

Dawson, M. D.

A. V. N. Jalajakumari, E. Xie, J. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and R. K. Henderson, “High-speed integrated digital to light converter for short range visible light communication,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 118–121 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. Mckendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O. Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of Gallium Nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 1–44 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 62, 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, M. Ijaz, Z. Chen, H. Haas, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “High-Speed Integrated Visible Light Communication System: Device Constraints and Design Considerations,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 33, 1750–1757 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, S. Watson, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, A. Cogman, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “1.5 Gbit/s multi-channel visible light communications using CMOS-controlled GaN-based LEDs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 1211–1216 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible-Light Communications Using a CMOS-Controlled Micro-Light- Emitting-Diode Array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 61–67 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, R. Ferreira, R. Henderson, S. Videv, S. Watson, H. Haas, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Single-chip discrete multitone generation,” in 2015 IEEE Summer Topicals Meeting Series, SUM 20152, 47–48 (2015).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photon. 3, 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fath, T.

Faulkner, G.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. Mckendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O. Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of Gallium Nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 1–44 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, M. Ijaz, Z. Chen, H. Haas, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “High-Speed Integrated Visible Light Communication System: Device Constraints and Design Considerations,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 33, 1750–1757 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ferreira, R.

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 62, 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, R. Ferreira, R. Henderson, S. Videv, S. Watson, H. Haas, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Single-chip discrete multitone generation,” in 2015 IEEE Summer Topicals Meeting Series, SUM 20152, 47–48 (2015).
[Crossref]

Green, R. P.

Gu, E.

A. V. N. Jalajakumari, E. Xie, J. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and R. K. Henderson, “High-speed integrated digital to light converter for short range visible light communication,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 118–121 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, M. Ijaz, Z. Chen, H. Haas, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “High-Speed Integrated Visible Light Communication System: Device Constraints and Design Considerations,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 33, 1750–1757 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 62, 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, S. Watson, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, A. Cogman, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “1.5 Gbit/s multi-channel visible light communications using CMOS-controlled GaN-based LEDs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 1211–1216 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible-Light Communications Using a CMOS-Controlled Micro-Light- Emitting-Diode Array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 61–67 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, R. Ferreira, R. Henderson, S. Videv, S. Watson, H. Haas, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Single-chip discrete multitone generation,” in 2015 IEEE Summer Topicals Meeting Series, SUM 20152, 47–48 (2015).
[Crossref]

Haas, H.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. Mckendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O. Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of Gallium Nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 1–44 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. V. N. Jalajakumari, E. Xie, J. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and R. K. Henderson, “High-speed integrated digital to light converter for short range visible light communication,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 118–121 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. S. Islim and H. Haas, “Modulation Techniques for Li-Fi,” ZTE Commun. 14, 29–40 (2016).

S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, M. Ijaz, Z. Chen, H. Haas, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “High-Speed Integrated Visible Light Communication System: Device Constraints and Design Considerations,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 33, 1750–1757 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Fath, C. Heller, and H. Haas, “Optical wireless transmitter employing discrete power level stepping,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 1734–1743 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, R. Ferreira, R. Henderson, S. Videv, S. Watson, H. Haas, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Single-chip discrete multitone generation,” in 2015 IEEE Summer Topicals Meeting Series, SUM 20152, 47–48 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, S. Sinanovic, and H. Haas, “Pulse shaping in unipolar OFDM-based modulation schemes,” in “2012 IEEE Globecom Workshops,” (2012), pp. 1208–1212.

Heller, C.

Henderson, R.

S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, M. Ijaz, Z. Chen, H. Haas, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “High-Speed Integrated Visible Light Communication System: Device Constraints and Design Considerations,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 33, 1750–1757 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, R. Ferreira, R. Henderson, S. Videv, S. Watson, H. Haas, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Single-chip discrete multitone generation,” in 2015 IEEE Summer Topicals Meeting Series, SUM 20152, 47–48 (2015).
[Crossref]

Henderson, R. K.

A. V. N. Jalajakumari, E. Xie, J. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and R. K. Henderson, “High-speed integrated digital to light converter for short range visible light communication,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 118–121 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 62, 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, S. Watson, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, A. Cogman, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “1.5 Gbit/s multi-channel visible light communications using CMOS-controlled GaN-based LEDs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 1211–1216 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible-Light Communications Using a CMOS-Controlled Micro-Light- Emitting-Diode Array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 61–67 (2012).
[Crossref]

Herrnsdorf, J.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. Mckendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O. Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of Gallium Nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 1–44 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 62, 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, M. Ijaz, Z. Chen, H. Haas, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “High-Speed Integrated Visible Light Communication System: Device Constraints and Design Considerations,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 33, 1750–1757 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, R. Ferreira, R. Henderson, S. Videv, S. Watson, H. Haas, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Single-chip discrete multitone generation,” in 2015 IEEE Summer Topicals Meeting Series, SUM 20152, 47–48 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, Z. T.

Ijaz, M.

S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, M. Ijaz, Z. Chen, H. Haas, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “High-Speed Integrated Visible Light Communication System: Device Constraints and Design Considerations,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 33, 1750–1757 (2015).
[Crossref]

Islim, M. S.

M. S. Islim and H. Haas, “Modulation Techniques for Li-Fi,” ZTE Commun. 14, 29–40 (2016).

Jalajakumari, A. V. N.

A. V. N. Jalajakumari, E. Xie, J. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and R. K. Henderson, “High-speed integrated digital to light converter for short range visible light communication,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 118–121 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, M. Ijaz, Z. Chen, H. Haas, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “High-Speed Integrated Visible Light Communication System: Device Constraints and Design Considerations,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 33, 1750–1757 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ji, Y. F.

Jiang, M.

Kavehrad, M.

A. Yang, Y. Wu, M. Kavehrad, and G. Ni, “Grouped modulation scheme for LED array module in a visible light communication system,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22, 24–28 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kelly, A. E.

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 62, 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, S. Watson, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, A. Cogman, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “1.5 Gbit/s multi-channel visible light communications using CMOS-controlled GaN-based LEDs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 1211–1216 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible-Light Communications Using a CMOS-Controlled Micro-Light- Emitting-Diode Array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 61–67 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, R. Ferreira, R. Henderson, S. Videv, S. Watson, H. Haas, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Single-chip discrete multitone generation,” in 2015 IEEE Summer Topicals Meeting Series, SUM 20152, 47–48 (2015).
[Crossref]

Levin, H. E.

H. E. Levin, “A complete and optimal data allocation method for practical discrete multitone systems,” in “Global Telecommunications Conference, 2001. GLOBECOM ’01. IEEE,”, vol. 1 (2001), vol. 1, pp. 369–374 Vol.1.

Li, J. F.

Lloyd, S.

S. Lloyd, “Least squares quantization in PCM,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 28, 129–137 (1982).
[Crossref]

Martin, R.

P. Vary and R. Martin, Digital speech transmission: enhancement, coding and error concealment (John Wiley & Sons, 2006).
[Crossref]

Massoubre, D.

McKendry, J.

A. V. N. Jalajakumari, E. Xie, J. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and R. K. Henderson, “High-speed integrated digital to light converter for short range visible light communication,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 118–121 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mckendry, J. J. D.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. Mckendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O. Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of Gallium Nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 1–44 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 62, 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, M. Ijaz, Z. Chen, H. Haas, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “High-Speed Integrated Visible Light Communication System: Device Constraints and Design Considerations,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 33, 1750–1757 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, S. Watson, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, A. Cogman, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “1.5 Gbit/s multi-channel visible light communications using CMOS-controlled GaN-based LEDs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 1211–1216 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible-Light Communications Using a CMOS-Controlled Micro-Light- Emitting-Diode Array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 61–67 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, R. Ferreira, R. Henderson, S. Videv, S. Watson, H. Haas, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Single-chip discrete multitone generation,” in 2015 IEEE Summer Topicals Meeting Series, SUM 20152, 47–48 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photon. 3, 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ni, G.

A. Yang, Y. Wu, M. Kavehrad, and G. Ni, “Grouped modulation scheme for LED array module in a visible light communication system,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22, 24–28 (2015).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, D.

S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, M. Ijaz, Z. Chen, H. Haas, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “High-Speed Integrated Visible Light Communication System: Device Constraints and Design Considerations,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 33, 1750–1757 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pimputkar, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photon. 3, 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rae, B. R.

Rajbhandari, S.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. Mckendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O. Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of Gallium Nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 1–44 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, M. Ijaz, Z. Chen, H. Haas, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “High-Speed Integrated Visible Light Communication System: Device Constraints and Design Considerations,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 33, 1750–1757 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sinanovic, S.

D. Tsonev, S. Sinanovic, and H. Haas, “Pulse shaping in unipolar OFDM-based modulation schemes,” in “2012 IEEE Globecom Workshops,” (2012), pp. 1208–1212.

Speck, J. S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photon. 3, 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tsonev, D.

S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, M. Ijaz, Z. Chen, H. Haas, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “High-Speed Integrated Visible Light Communication System: Device Constraints and Design Considerations,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 33, 1750–1757 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, S. Sinanovic, and H. Haas, “Pulse shaping in unipolar OFDM-based modulation schemes,” in “2012 IEEE Globecom Workshops,” (2012), pp. 1208–1212.

Underwood, I.

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 62, 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vary, P.

P. Vary and R. Martin, Digital speech transmission: enhancement, coding and error concealment (John Wiley & Sons, 2006).
[Crossref]

Videv, S.

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, R. Ferreira, R. Henderson, S. Videv, S. Watson, H. Haas, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Single-chip discrete multitone generation,” in 2015 IEEE Summer Topicals Meeting Series, SUM 20152, 47–48 (2015).
[Crossref]

Watson, I. M.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. Mckendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O. Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of Gallium Nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 1–44 (2017).
[Crossref]

Watson, S.

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 62, 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, S. Watson, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, A. Cogman, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “1.5 Gbit/s multi-channel visible light communications using CMOS-controlled GaN-based LEDs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 1211–1216 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, R. Ferreira, R. Henderson, S. Videv, S. Watson, H. Haas, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Single-chip discrete multitone generation,” in 2015 IEEE Summer Topicals Meeting Series, SUM 20152, 47–48 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

A. Yang, Y. Wu, M. Kavehrad, and G. Ni, “Grouped modulation scheme for LED array module in a visible light communication system,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22, 24–28 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xie, E.

A. V. N. Jalajakumari, E. Xie, J. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and R. K. Henderson, “High-speed integrated digital to light converter for short range visible light communication,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 118–121 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, M. Ijaz, Z. Chen, H. Haas, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “High-Speed Integrated Visible Light Communication System: Device Constraints and Design Considerations,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 33, 1750–1757 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 62, 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiong, F.

F. Xiong, F. Xiong, and F. Xiong, Digital modulation techniques, Vol. 633 (Artech HouseBoston, 2006), 2nd ed.

F. Xiong, F. Xiong, and F. Xiong, Digital modulation techniques, Vol. 633 (Artech HouseBoston, 2006), 2nd ed.

F. Xiong, F. Xiong, and F. Xiong, Digital modulation techniques, Vol. 633 (Artech HouseBoston, 2006), 2nd ed.

Yang, A.

A. Yang, Y. Wu, M. Kavehrad, and G. Ni, “Grouped modulation scheme for LED array module in a visible light communication system,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22, 24–28 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zeng, F. X.

Zhang, R. Q.

Zhang, S.

Zuhdi, A. M.

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 62, 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, M. Ijaz, Z. Chen, H. Haas, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “High-Speed Integrated Visible Light Communication System: Device Constraints and Design Considerations,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 33, 1750–1757 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. V. N. Jalajakumari, E. Xie, J. McKendry, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and R. K. Henderson, “High-speed integrated digital to light converter for short range visible light communication,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 118–121 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Zhang, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, D. Massoubre, A. M. Zuhdi, R. K. Henderson, I. Underwood, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Active-matrix GaN micro light-emitting diode display with unprecedented brightness,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 62, 1918–1925 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

S. Lloyd, “Least squares quantization in PCM,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 28, 129–137 (1982).
[Crossref]

IEEE Wirel. Commun. (1)

A. Yang, Y. Wu, M. Kavehrad, and G. Ni, “Grouped modulation scheme for LED array module in a visible light communication system,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22, 24–28 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Nat. Photon. (1)

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photon. 3, 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. Mckendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O. Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of Gallium Nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 1–44 (2017).
[Crossref]

ZTE Commun. (1)

M. S. Islim and H. Haas, “Modulation Techniques for Li-Fi,” ZTE Commun. 14, 29–40 (2016).

Other (5)

J. Herrnsdorf, J. J. D. McKendry, R. Ferreira, R. Henderson, S. Videv, S. Watson, H. Haas, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Single-chip discrete multitone generation,” in 2015 IEEE Summer Topicals Meeting Series, SUM 20152, 47–48 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, S. Sinanovic, and H. Haas, “Pulse shaping in unipolar OFDM-based modulation schemes,” in “2012 IEEE Globecom Workshops,” (2012), pp. 1208–1212.

P. Vary and R. Martin, Digital speech transmission: enhancement, coding and error concealment (John Wiley & Sons, 2006).
[Crossref]

H. E. Levin, “A complete and optimal data allocation method for practical discrete multitone systems,” in “Global Telecommunications Conference, 2001. GLOBECOM ’01. IEEE,”, vol. 1 (2001), vol. 1, pp. 369–374 Vol.1.

F. Xiong, F. Xiong, and F. Xiong, Digital modulation techniques, Vol. 633 (Artech HouseBoston, 2006), 2nd ed.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of the system (left), with an example LED grouping for binary weighted signals. A micrograph image of LED array A (right) is shown with 15 active pixels.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Linearity of optical power output at 50% duty cycle for increasing numbers of pixels with array A.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Received 4-PAM optical signal at 100 MSamples/s, with the transmitted symbol. To the right are the eye diagrams for 50 MSamples/s (upper) and 100 MSamples/s (lower) symbol rates.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Received 8-PAM optical signal at 100 MSamples/s symbol rate, with eye diagrams for 50 MSamples/s (upper) and 100 MSamples/s (lower) symbol rates.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Probability distribution function of a typical analogue OFDM waveform, with the probability mass function of the uniform and Lloyd-Max 5 bit quantisations.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Levels used for generating OFDM signals with a) 3, b) 4 and c) 5 bit resolution using array B. Symbols were transmitted sequentially at a rate of 10 MHz.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

BER versus data rate for a) uniform and b) Lloyd-Max quantisation.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Average SNR for uniform and Lloyd-Max quantisation with 3, 4, 5 bit resolution.

Metrics