Abstract

A key challenge in photovoltaics today is to develop cell technologies with both higher efficiencies and lower fabrication costs than incumbent crystalline silicon (c-Si) single-junction cells. While tandem cells have higher efficiencies than c-Si alone, it is generally challenging to find a low-cost, high-performance material to pair with c-Si. However, the recent emergence of 22% efficient perovskite photovoltaics has created a tremendous opportunity for high-performance, low-cost perovskite / crystalline silicon tandem photovoltaic cells. Nonetheless, two key challenges remain. First, integrating perovskites into tandem structures has not yet been demonstrated to yield performance exceeding commercially available crystalline silicon modules. Second, the stability of perovskites is inconsistent with the needs of most end-users, who install photovoltaic modules to produce power for 25 years or more. Making these cells viable thus requires innovation in materials processing, device design, fabrication, and yield. We will address these two gaps in the photovoltaic literature by investigating new types of 2D perovskite materials with n-butylammonium spacer layers, and integrating these materials into bifacial tandem solar cells providing at least 30% normalized power production. We find that an optimized 2D perovskite ((BA)2(MA)3(Sn0.6Pb0.4)4I13)/silicon bifacial tandem cell, given a globally average albedo of 30%, yields a normalized power production of 30.31%, which should be stable for extended time periods without further change in materials or encapsulation.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (14)

Y. Zhou and K. Zhu, “Perovskite solar cells shine in the valley of the sun,” ACS Energy Lett. 1, 64–67 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. J. Lee, S. S. Shin, Y. C. Kim, D. Kim, T. K. Ahn, J. H. Noh, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “Fabrication of efficient formamidinium tin iodide perovskite solar cells through snf2–pyrazine complex,” J. American Chem. Soc. 138, 3974–3977 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Nie, J.-C. Blancon, A. J. Neukirch, K. Appavoo, H. Tsai, M. Chhowalla, M. A. Alam, M. Y. Sfeir, C. Katan, J. Even, S. Tretiak, J. J. Crochet, G. Gupta, and A. D. Mohite, “Light-activated photocurrent degradation and self-healing in perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11574 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Tsai, W. Nie, J.-C. Blancon, C. C. Stoumpos, R. Asadpour, B. Harutyunyan, A. J. Neukirch, R. Verduzco, J. J. Crochet, S. Tretiak, L. Pedesseau, J. Even, M. A. Alam, G. Gupta, J. Lou, P. M. Ajayan, M. J. Bedzyk, M. G. Kanatzidis, and A. D. Mohite, “High-efficiency two-dimensional ruddlesden–popper perovskite solar cells,” Nature 536, 312–316 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Bush, C. D. Bailie, Y. Chen, A. R. Bowring, W. Wang, W. Ma, T. Leijtens, F. Moghadam, and M. D. McGehee, “Thermal and environmental stability of semi-transparent perovskite solar cells for tandems enabled by a solution-processed nanoparticle buffer layer and sputtered ito electrode,” Adv. Mat. 28, 3937–3943 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Albrecht, M. Saliba, J. P. C. Baena, F. Lang, L. Kegelmann, M. Mews, L. Steier, A. Abate, J. Rappich, L. Korte, R. Schlatmann, M. K. Nazeeruddin, A. Hagfeldt, M. Grätzeld, and B. Recha, “Monolithic perovskite/silicon-heterojunction tandem solar cells processed at low temperature,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9, 81–88 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Werner, L. Barraud, A. Walter, M. Bräuninger, F. Sahli, D. Sacchetto, N. Tétreault, B. Paviet-Salomon, S.-J. Moon, C. Allebé, M. Despeisse, S. Nicolay, S. De Wolf, B. Niesen, and C. Ballif, “Efficient near-infrared-transparent perovskite solar cells enabling direct comparison of 4-terminal and monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem cells,” ACS Energy Lett. 1, 474–480 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Chung, X. Sun, and P. Bermel, “Optical approaches to improving perovskite/si tandem cells,” MRS Adv. 1, 901–910 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Chen, Y. Bai, Z. Yu, T. Li, X. Zheng, Q. Dong, L. Shen, M. Boccard, A. Gruverman, and Z. Holman, “Efficient semitransparent perovskite solar cells for 23.0%-efficiency perovskite/silicon four-terminal tandem cells,” Adv. Energy Mat. 6, 1601128 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Zhao, M. Abdi-Jalebi, M. Tabachnyk, H. Glass, V. S. Kamboj, W. A. Nie, J. Pearson, Y. Puttisong, K. C. Gödel, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, A. D. Mohite, S. E. Dutton, R. H. Friend, and A. Sadhanala, “High open-circuit voltages in tin-rich low-bandgap perovskite-based planar heterojunction photovoltaics,” Adv. Mat. 29(2), 1604744 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 47),” Progress Photovolt.: Res. Appl. 24, 3–11 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang and Y. Xuan, “Comprehensive design of omnidirectional high-performance perovskite solar cells,” Sci. Rep. 6, 29705 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chung, C. Zhou, X. Tee, K. Jung, and P. Bermel, “Hybrid dielectric light trapping designs for thin-film cdznte/si tandem cells,” Opt. Express 24, A1008–A1020 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Grant, K. Catchpole, K. Weber, and T. White, “Design guidelines for perovskite/silicon 2-terminal tandem solar cells: an optical study,” Opt. Express 24, A1454–A1470 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (16)

M. Filipič, P. Löper, B. Niesen, S. De Wolf, J. Krč, C. Ballif, and M. Topič, “Ch 3 nh 3 pbi 3 perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells: characterization based optical simulations,” Opt. Express 23, A263–A278 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Cai, Y. Peng, Y.-B. Cheng, and M. Gu, “4-fold photocurrent enhancement in ultrathin nanoplasmonic perovskite solar cells,” Opt. Express 23, A1700–A1706 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. V. K. Chavali, S. Khatavkar, C. Kannan, V. Kumar, P. R. Nair, J. L. Gray, and M. A. Alam, “Multiprobe characterization of inversion charge for self-consistent parameterization of hit cells,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 5, 725–735 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Sun, R. Asadpour, W. Nie, A. D. Mohite, and M. A. Alam, “A physics-based analytical model for perovskite solar cells,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 5, 1389–1394 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. R. Khan and M. A. Alam, “Thermodynamic limit of bifacial double-junction tandem solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 223502 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Uzu, M. Ichikawa, M. Hino, K. Nakano, T. Meguro, J. L. Hernández, H.-S. Kim, N.-G. Park, and K. Yamamoto, “High efficiency solar cells combining a perovskite and a silicon heterojunction solar cells via an optical splitting system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 013506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Jiang, M. A. Green, R. Sheng, and A. Ho-Baillie, “Room temperature optical properties of organic–inorganic lead halide perovskites,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 137, 253–257 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Chung, S.-G. Ha, J. Choi, and K.-Y. Jung, “Accurate fdtd modelling for dispersive media using rational function and particle swarm optimisation,” Int. J. Electronics 102, 1218–1228 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Z. Dai Shi and W. Shen, “Perovskite/c-si tandem solar cell with inverted nanopyramids: realizing high efficiency by controllable light trapping,” Sci. Rep. 5, 16504 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Löper, S.-J. Moon, S. M. De Nicolas, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, S. Nicolay, J. Bailat, J.-H. Yum, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Organic–inorganic halide perovskite/crystalline silicon four-terminal tandem solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17, 1619–1629 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. D. Bailie, M. G. Christoforo, J. P. Mailoa, A. R. Bowring, E. L. Unger, W. H. Nguyen, J. Burschka, N. Pellet, J. Z. Lee, M. Grätzel, R. Noufi, T. Buonassisi, A. Salleoa, and M. D. McGehee, “Semi-transparent perovskite solar cells for tandems with silicon and cigs,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8, 956–963 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Almansouri, A. Ho-Baillie, and M. A. Green, “Ultimate efficiency limit of single-junction perovskite and dual-junction perovskite/silicon two-terminal devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54, 08KD04 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Asadpour, R. V. Chavali, M. R. Khan, and M. A. Alam, “Bifacial si heterojunction-perovskite organic-inorganic tandem to produce highly efficient (ηt* 33%) solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 243902 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Nie, H. Tsai, R. Asadpour, J.-C. Blancon, A. J. Neukirch, G. Gupta, J. J. Crochet, M. Chhowalla, S. Tretiak, M. A. Alam, H.-L. Wang, and A. D. Mohite, “High-efficiency solution-processed perovskite solar cells with millimeter-scale grains,” Science 347, 522–525 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Mailoa, C. D. Bailie, E. C. Johlin, E. T. Hoke, A. J. Akey, W. H. Nguyen, M. D. McGehee, and T. Buonassisi, “A 2-terminal perovskite/silicon multijunction solar cell enabled by a silicon tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 121105 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Werner, C.-H. Weng, A. Walter, L. Fesquet, J. P. Seif, S. De Wolf, B. Niesen, and C. Ballif, “Efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cell with cell area> 1 cm2,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7, 161–166 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T.-b. Song, H.-S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345, 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Brennan, A. Abramase, R. W. Andrews, and J. M. Pearce, “Effects of spectral albedo on solar photovoltaic devices,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 124, 111–116 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Taguchi, A. Yano, S. Tohoda, K. Matsuyama, Y. Nakamura, T. Nishiwaki, K. Fujita, and E. Maruyama, “24.7% record efficiency hit solar cell on thin silicon wafer,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 4, 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Chung, K. Jung, X. Tee, and P. Bermel, “Time domain simulation of tandem silicon solar cells with optimal textured light trapping enabled by the quadratic complex rational function,” Opt. Express 22, A818–A832 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. W. Schneider, N. N. Lal, S. Baker-Finch, and T. P. White, “Pyramidal surface textures for light trapping and antireflection in perovskite-on-silicon tandem solar cells,” Opt. Express 22, A1422–A1430 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Cho, S.-G. Ha, Y. B. Park, H. Kim, and K.-Y. Jung, “On the numerical stability of finite-difference time-domain for wave propagation in dispersive media using quadratic complex rational function,” Electromagnetics 34, 625–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

S. A. Gevorgyan, M. V. Madsen, H. F. Dam, M. Jørgensen, C. J. Fell, K. F. Anderson, B. C. Duck, A. Mescheloff, E. A. Katz, A. Elschner, R. Roeschf, H. Hoppef, M. Hermenaug, M. Riedeg, and F. C. Krebsa, “Interlaboratory outdoor stability studies of flexible roll-to-roll coated organic photovoltaic modules: Stability over 10,000 h,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 116, 187–196 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

H.-S. Kim, C.-R. Lee, J.-H. Im, K.-B. Lee, T. Moehl, A. Marchioro, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, J.-H. Yum, J. E. Moser, M. Grätzel, and N.-G. Park, “Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%,” Sci. Rep. 2, 591 (2012).
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M. M. Lee, J. Teuscher, T. Miyasaka, T. N. Murakami, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient hybrid solar cells based on meso-superstructured organometal halide perovskites,” Science 338, 643–647 (2012).
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2007 (1)

A. J. Moulé and K. Meerholz, “Interference method for the determination of the complex refractive index of thin polymer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061901 (2007).
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2005 (1)

B. A. Wielicki, T. Wong, N. Loeb, P. Minnis, K. Priestley, and R. Kandel, “Changes in earth’s albedo measured by satellite,” Science 308, 825 (2005).
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1996 (1)

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Abate, A.

S. Albrecht, M. Saliba, J. P. C. Baena, F. Lang, L. Kegelmann, M. Mews, L. Steier, A. Abate, J. Rappich, L. Korte, R. Schlatmann, M. K. Nazeeruddin, A. Hagfeldt, M. Grätzeld, and B. Recha, “Monolithic perovskite/silicon-heterojunction tandem solar cells processed at low temperature,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9, 81–88 (2016).
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Abdi-Jalebi, M.

B. Zhao, M. Abdi-Jalebi, M. Tabachnyk, H. Glass, V. S. Kamboj, W. A. Nie, J. Pearson, Y. Puttisong, K. C. Gödel, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, A. D. Mohite, S. E. Dutton, R. H. Friend, and A. Sadhanala, “High open-circuit voltages in tin-rich low-bandgap perovskite-based planar heterojunction photovoltaics,” Adv. Mat. 29(2), 1604744 (2016).
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Abramase, A.

M. Brennan, A. Abramase, R. W. Andrews, and J. M. Pearce, “Effects of spectral albedo on solar photovoltaic devices,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 124, 111–116 (2014).
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Ahn, T. K.

S. J. Lee, S. S. Shin, Y. C. Kim, D. Kim, T. K. Ahn, J. H. Noh, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “Fabrication of efficient formamidinium tin iodide perovskite solar cells through snf2–pyrazine complex,” J. American Chem. Soc. 138, 3974–3977 (2016).
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H. Tsai, W. Nie, J.-C. Blancon, C. C. Stoumpos, R. Asadpour, B. Harutyunyan, A. J. Neukirch, R. Verduzco, J. J. Crochet, S. Tretiak, L. Pedesseau, J. Even, M. A. Alam, G. Gupta, J. Lou, P. M. Ajayan, M. J. Bedzyk, M. G. Kanatzidis, and A. D. Mohite, “High-efficiency two-dimensional ruddlesden–popper perovskite solar cells,” Nature 536, 312–316 (2016).
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Akey, A. J.

J. P. Mailoa, C. D. Bailie, E. C. Johlin, E. T. Hoke, A. J. Akey, W. H. Nguyen, M. D. McGehee, and T. Buonassisi, “A 2-terminal perovskite/silicon multijunction solar cell enabled by a silicon tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 121105 (2015).
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Alam, M. A.

H. Tsai, W. Nie, J.-C. Blancon, C. C. Stoumpos, R. Asadpour, B. Harutyunyan, A. J. Neukirch, R. Verduzco, J. J. Crochet, S. Tretiak, L. Pedesseau, J. Even, M. A. Alam, G. Gupta, J. Lou, P. M. Ajayan, M. J. Bedzyk, M. G. Kanatzidis, and A. D. Mohite, “High-efficiency two-dimensional ruddlesden–popper perovskite solar cells,” Nature 536, 312–316 (2016).
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W. Nie, J.-C. Blancon, A. J. Neukirch, K. Appavoo, H. Tsai, M. Chhowalla, M. A. Alam, M. Y. Sfeir, C. Katan, J. Even, S. Tretiak, J. J. Crochet, G. Gupta, and A. D. Mohite, “Light-activated photocurrent degradation and self-healing in perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11574 (2016).
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X. Sun, R. Asadpour, W. Nie, A. D. Mohite, and M. A. Alam, “A physics-based analytical model for perovskite solar cells,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 5, 1389–1394 (2015).
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M. R. Khan and M. A. Alam, “Thermodynamic limit of bifacial double-junction tandem solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 223502 (2015).
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R. V. K. Chavali, S. Khatavkar, C. Kannan, V. Kumar, P. R. Nair, J. L. Gray, and M. A. Alam, “Multiprobe characterization of inversion charge for self-consistent parameterization of hit cells,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 5, 725–735 (2015).
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W. Nie, H. Tsai, R. Asadpour, J.-C. Blancon, A. J. Neukirch, G. Gupta, J. J. Crochet, M. Chhowalla, S. Tretiak, M. A. Alam, H.-L. Wang, and A. D. Mohite, “High-efficiency solution-processed perovskite solar cells with millimeter-scale grains,” Science 347, 522–525 (2015).
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R. Asadpour, R. V. Chavali, M. R. Khan, and M. A. Alam, “Bifacial si heterojunction-perovskite organic-inorganic tandem to produce highly efficient (ηt* 33%) solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 243902 (2015).
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Albrecht, S.

S. Albrecht, M. Saliba, J. P. C. Baena, F. Lang, L. Kegelmann, M. Mews, L. Steier, A. Abate, J. Rappich, L. Korte, R. Schlatmann, M. K. Nazeeruddin, A. Hagfeldt, M. Grätzeld, and B. Recha, “Monolithic perovskite/silicon-heterojunction tandem solar cells processed at low temperature,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9, 81–88 (2016).
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Allebé, C.

J. Werner, L. Barraud, A. Walter, M. Bräuninger, F. Sahli, D. Sacchetto, N. Tétreault, B. Paviet-Salomon, S.-J. Moon, C. Allebé, M. Despeisse, S. Nicolay, S. De Wolf, B. Niesen, and C. Ballif, “Efficient near-infrared-transparent perovskite solar cells enabling direct comparison of 4-terminal and monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem cells,” ACS Energy Lett. 1, 474–480 (2016).
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I. Almansouri, A. Ho-Baillie, and M. A. Green, “Ultimate efficiency limit of single-junction perovskite and dual-junction perovskite/silicon two-terminal devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54, 08KD04 (2015).
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Andrews, R. W.

M. Brennan, A. Abramase, R. W. Andrews, and J. M. Pearce, “Effects of spectral albedo on solar photovoltaic devices,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 124, 111–116 (2014).
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Appavoo, K.

W. Nie, J.-C. Blancon, A. J. Neukirch, K. Appavoo, H. Tsai, M. Chhowalla, M. A. Alam, M. Y. Sfeir, C. Katan, J. Even, S. Tretiak, J. J. Crochet, G. Gupta, and A. D. Mohite, “Light-activated photocurrent degradation and self-healing in perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11574 (2016).
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Asadpour, R.

H. Tsai, W. Nie, J.-C. Blancon, C. C. Stoumpos, R. Asadpour, B. Harutyunyan, A. J. Neukirch, R. Verduzco, J. J. Crochet, S. Tretiak, L. Pedesseau, J. Even, M. A. Alam, G. Gupta, J. Lou, P. M. Ajayan, M. J. Bedzyk, M. G. Kanatzidis, and A. D. Mohite, “High-efficiency two-dimensional ruddlesden–popper perovskite solar cells,” Nature 536, 312–316 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Asadpour, R. V. Chavali, M. R. Khan, and M. A. Alam, “Bifacial si heterojunction-perovskite organic-inorganic tandem to produce highly efficient (ηt* 33%) solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 243902 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Nie, H. Tsai, R. Asadpour, J.-C. Blancon, A. J. Neukirch, G. Gupta, J. J. Crochet, M. Chhowalla, S. Tretiak, M. A. Alam, H.-L. Wang, and A. D. Mohite, “High-efficiency solution-processed perovskite solar cells with millimeter-scale grains,” Science 347, 522–525 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Sun, R. Asadpour, W. Nie, A. D. Mohite, and M. A. Alam, “A physics-based analytical model for perovskite solar cells,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 5, 1389–1394 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baena, J. P. C.

S. Albrecht, M. Saliba, J. P. C. Baena, F. Lang, L. Kegelmann, M. Mews, L. Steier, A. Abate, J. Rappich, L. Korte, R. Schlatmann, M. K. Nazeeruddin, A. Hagfeldt, M. Grätzeld, and B. Recha, “Monolithic perovskite/silicon-heterojunction tandem solar cells processed at low temperature,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9, 81–88 (2016).
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Bai, Y.

B. Chen, Y. Bai, Z. Yu, T. Li, X. Zheng, Q. Dong, L. Shen, M. Boccard, A. Gruverman, and Z. Holman, “Efficient semitransparent perovskite solar cells for 23.0%-efficiency perovskite/silicon four-terminal tandem cells,” Adv. Energy Mat. 6, 1601128 (2016).
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Bailat, J.

P. Löper, S.-J. Moon, S. M. De Nicolas, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, S. Nicolay, J. Bailat, J.-H. Yum, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Organic–inorganic halide perovskite/crystalline silicon four-terminal tandem solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17, 1619–1629 (2015).
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Bailie, C. D.

K. A. Bush, C. D. Bailie, Y. Chen, A. R. Bowring, W. Wang, W. Ma, T. Leijtens, F. Moghadam, and M. D. McGehee, “Thermal and environmental stability of semi-transparent perovskite solar cells for tandems enabled by a solution-processed nanoparticle buffer layer and sputtered ito electrode,” Adv. Mat. 28, 3937–3943 (2016).
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J. P. Mailoa, C. D. Bailie, E. C. Johlin, E. T. Hoke, A. J. Akey, W. H. Nguyen, M. D. McGehee, and T. Buonassisi, “A 2-terminal perovskite/silicon multijunction solar cell enabled by a silicon tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 121105 (2015).
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C. D. Bailie, M. G. Christoforo, J. P. Mailoa, A. R. Bowring, E. L. Unger, W. H. Nguyen, J. Burschka, N. Pellet, J. Z. Lee, M. Grätzel, R. Noufi, T. Buonassisi, A. Salleoa, and M. D. McGehee, “Semi-transparent perovskite solar cells for tandems with silicon and cigs,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8, 956–963 (2015).
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Baker-Finch, S.

Ballif, C.

J. Werner, L. Barraud, A. Walter, M. Bräuninger, F. Sahli, D. Sacchetto, N. Tétreault, B. Paviet-Salomon, S.-J. Moon, C. Allebé, M. Despeisse, S. Nicolay, S. De Wolf, B. Niesen, and C. Ballif, “Efficient near-infrared-transparent perovskite solar cells enabling direct comparison of 4-terminal and monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem cells,” ACS Energy Lett. 1, 474–480 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Löper, S.-J. Moon, S. M. De Nicolas, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, S. Nicolay, J. Bailat, J.-H. Yum, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Organic–inorganic halide perovskite/crystalline silicon four-terminal tandem solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17, 1619–1629 (2015).
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M. Filipič, P. Löper, B. Niesen, S. De Wolf, J. Krč, C. Ballif, and M. Topič, “Ch 3 nh 3 pbi 3 perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells: characterization based optical simulations,” Opt. Express 23, A263–A278 (2015).
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J. Werner, C.-H. Weng, A. Walter, L. Fesquet, J. P. Seif, S. De Wolf, B. Niesen, and C. Ballif, “Efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cell with cell area> 1 cm2,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7, 161–166 (2015).
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Barraud, L.

J. Werner, L. Barraud, A. Walter, M. Bräuninger, F. Sahli, D. Sacchetto, N. Tétreault, B. Paviet-Salomon, S.-J. Moon, C. Allebé, M. Despeisse, S. Nicolay, S. De Wolf, B. Niesen, and C. Ballif, “Efficient near-infrared-transparent perovskite solar cells enabling direct comparison of 4-terminal and monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem cells,” ACS Energy Lett. 1, 474–480 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bedzyk, M. J.

H. Tsai, W. Nie, J.-C. Blancon, C. C. Stoumpos, R. Asadpour, B. Harutyunyan, A. J. Neukirch, R. Verduzco, J. J. Crochet, S. Tretiak, L. Pedesseau, J. Even, M. A. Alam, G. Gupta, J. Lou, P. M. Ajayan, M. J. Bedzyk, M. G. Kanatzidis, and A. D. Mohite, “High-efficiency two-dimensional ruddlesden–popper perovskite solar cells,” Nature 536, 312–316 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beere, H. E.

B. Zhao, M. Abdi-Jalebi, M. Tabachnyk, H. Glass, V. S. Kamboj, W. A. Nie, J. Pearson, Y. Puttisong, K. C. Gödel, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, A. D. Mohite, S. E. Dutton, R. H. Friend, and A. Sadhanala, “High open-circuit voltages in tin-rich low-bandgap perovskite-based planar heterojunction photovoltaics,” Adv. Mat. 29(2), 1604744 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bermel, P.

Blancon, J.-C.

W. Nie, J.-C. Blancon, A. J. Neukirch, K. Appavoo, H. Tsai, M. Chhowalla, M. A. Alam, M. Y. Sfeir, C. Katan, J. Even, S. Tretiak, J. J. Crochet, G. Gupta, and A. D. Mohite, “Light-activated photocurrent degradation and self-healing in perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11574 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Tsai, W. Nie, J.-C. Blancon, C. C. Stoumpos, R. Asadpour, B. Harutyunyan, A. J. Neukirch, R. Verduzco, J. J. Crochet, S. Tretiak, L. Pedesseau, J. Even, M. A. Alam, G. Gupta, J. Lou, P. M. Ajayan, M. J. Bedzyk, M. G. Kanatzidis, and A. D. Mohite, “High-efficiency two-dimensional ruddlesden–popper perovskite solar cells,” Nature 536, 312–316 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Nie, H. Tsai, R. Asadpour, J.-C. Blancon, A. J. Neukirch, G. Gupta, J. J. Crochet, M. Chhowalla, S. Tretiak, M. A. Alam, H.-L. Wang, and A. D. Mohite, “High-efficiency solution-processed perovskite solar cells with millimeter-scale grains,” Science 347, 522–525 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boccard, M.

B. Chen, Y. Bai, Z. Yu, T. Li, X. Zheng, Q. Dong, L. Shen, M. Boccard, A. Gruverman, and Z. Holman, “Efficient semitransparent perovskite solar cells for 23.0%-efficiency perovskite/silicon four-terminal tandem cells,” Adv. Energy Mat. 6, 1601128 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bowring, A. R.

K. A. Bush, C. D. Bailie, Y. Chen, A. R. Bowring, W. Wang, W. Ma, T. Leijtens, F. Moghadam, and M. D. McGehee, “Thermal and environmental stability of semi-transparent perovskite solar cells for tandems enabled by a solution-processed nanoparticle buffer layer and sputtered ito electrode,” Adv. Mat. 28, 3937–3943 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. D. Bailie, M. G. Christoforo, J. P. Mailoa, A. R. Bowring, E. L. Unger, W. H. Nguyen, J. Burschka, N. Pellet, J. Z. Lee, M. Grätzel, R. Noufi, T. Buonassisi, A. Salleoa, and M. D. McGehee, “Semi-transparent perovskite solar cells for tandems with silicon and cigs,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8, 956–963 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bräuninger, M.

J. Werner, L. Barraud, A. Walter, M. Bräuninger, F. Sahli, D. Sacchetto, N. Tétreault, B. Paviet-Salomon, S.-J. Moon, C. Allebé, M. Despeisse, S. Nicolay, S. De Wolf, B. Niesen, and C. Ballif, “Efficient near-infrared-transparent perovskite solar cells enabling direct comparison of 4-terminal and monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem cells,” ACS Energy Lett. 1, 474–480 (2016).
[Crossref]

Brennan, M.

M. Brennan, A. Abramase, R. W. Andrews, and J. M. Pearce, “Effects of spectral albedo on solar photovoltaic devices,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 124, 111–116 (2014).
[Crossref]

Buonassisi, T.

J. P. Mailoa, C. D. Bailie, E. C. Johlin, E. T. Hoke, A. J. Akey, W. H. Nguyen, M. D. McGehee, and T. Buonassisi, “A 2-terminal perovskite/silicon multijunction solar cell enabled by a silicon tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 121105 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. D. Bailie, M. G. Christoforo, J. P. Mailoa, A. R. Bowring, E. L. Unger, W. H. Nguyen, J. Burschka, N. Pellet, J. Z. Lee, M. Grätzel, R. Noufi, T. Buonassisi, A. Salleoa, and M. D. McGehee, “Semi-transparent perovskite solar cells for tandems with silicon and cigs,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8, 956–963 (2015).
[Crossref]

Burschka, J.

C. D. Bailie, M. G. Christoforo, J. P. Mailoa, A. R. Bowring, E. L. Unger, W. H. Nguyen, J. Burschka, N. Pellet, J. Z. Lee, M. Grätzel, R. Noufi, T. Buonassisi, A. Salleoa, and M. D. McGehee, “Semi-transparent perovskite solar cells for tandems with silicon and cigs,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8, 956–963 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bush, K. A.

K. A. Bush, C. D. Bailie, Y. Chen, A. R. Bowring, W. Wang, W. Ma, T. Leijtens, F. Moghadam, and M. D. McGehee, “Thermal and environmental stability of semi-transparent perovskite solar cells for tandems enabled by a solution-processed nanoparticle buffer layer and sputtered ito electrode,” Adv. Mat. 28, 3937–3943 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cai, B.

Catchpole, K.

Chavali, R. V.

R. Asadpour, R. V. Chavali, M. R. Khan, and M. A. Alam, “Bifacial si heterojunction-perovskite organic-inorganic tandem to produce highly efficient (ηt* 33%) solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 243902 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chavali, R. V. K.

R. V. K. Chavali, S. Khatavkar, C. Kannan, V. Kumar, P. R. Nair, J. L. Gray, and M. A. Alam, “Multiprobe characterization of inversion charge for self-consistent parameterization of hit cells,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 5, 725–735 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.

B. Chen, Y. Bai, Z. Yu, T. Li, X. Zheng, Q. Dong, L. Shen, M. Boccard, A. Gruverman, and Z. Holman, “Efficient semitransparent perovskite solar cells for 23.0%-efficiency perovskite/silicon four-terminal tandem cells,” Adv. Energy Mat. 6, 1601128 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T.-b. Song, H.-S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345, 542–546 (2014).
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Chen, Y.

K. A. Bush, C. D. Bailie, Y. Chen, A. R. Bowring, W. Wang, W. Ma, T. Leijtens, F. Moghadam, and M. D. McGehee, “Thermal and environmental stability of semi-transparent perovskite solar cells for tandems enabled by a solution-processed nanoparticle buffer layer and sputtered ito electrode,” Adv. Mat. 28, 3937–3943 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.-B.

Chhowalla, M.

W. Nie, J.-C. Blancon, A. J. Neukirch, K. Appavoo, H. Tsai, M. Chhowalla, M. A. Alam, M. Y. Sfeir, C. Katan, J. Even, S. Tretiak, J. J. Crochet, G. Gupta, and A. D. Mohite, “Light-activated photocurrent degradation and self-healing in perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11574 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Nie, H. Tsai, R. Asadpour, J.-C. Blancon, A. J. Neukirch, G. Gupta, J. J. Crochet, M. Chhowalla, S. Tretiak, M. A. Alam, H.-L. Wang, and A. D. Mohite, “High-efficiency solution-processed perovskite solar cells with millimeter-scale grains,” Science 347, 522–525 (2015).
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Cho, J.

J. Cho, S.-G. Ha, Y. B. Park, H. Kim, and K.-Y. Jung, “On the numerical stability of finite-difference time-domain for wave propagation in dispersive media using quadratic complex rational function,” Electromagnetics 34, 625–632 (2014).
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Choi, J.

H. Chung, S.-G. Ha, J. Choi, and K.-Y. Jung, “Accurate fdtd modelling for dispersive media using rational function and particle swarm optimisation,” Int. J. Electronics 102, 1218–1228 (2015).
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Christoforo, M. G.

C. D. Bailie, M. G. Christoforo, J. P. Mailoa, A. R. Bowring, E. L. Unger, W. H. Nguyen, J. Burschka, N. Pellet, J. Z. Lee, M. Grätzel, R. Noufi, T. Buonassisi, A. Salleoa, and M. D. McGehee, “Semi-transparent perovskite solar cells for tandems with silicon and cigs,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8, 956–963 (2015).
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Chung, H.

H. Chung, C. Zhou, X. Tee, K. Jung, and P. Bermel, “Hybrid dielectric light trapping designs for thin-film cdznte/si tandem cells,” Opt. Express 24, A1008–A1020 (2016).
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H. Chung, X. Sun, and P. Bermel, “Optical approaches to improving perovskite/si tandem cells,” MRS Adv. 1, 901–910 (2016).
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H. Chung, S.-G. Ha, J. Choi, and K.-Y. Jung, “Accurate fdtd modelling for dispersive media using rational function and particle swarm optimisation,” Int. J. Electronics 102, 1218–1228 (2015).
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H. Chung, K. Jung, X. Tee, and P. Bermel, “Time domain simulation of tandem silicon solar cells with optimal textured light trapping enabled by the quadratic complex rational function,” Opt. Express 22, A818–A832 (2014).
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Crochet, J. J.

W. Nie, J.-C. Blancon, A. J. Neukirch, K. Appavoo, H. Tsai, M. Chhowalla, M. A. Alam, M. Y. Sfeir, C. Katan, J. Even, S. Tretiak, J. J. Crochet, G. Gupta, and A. D. Mohite, “Light-activated photocurrent degradation and self-healing in perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11574 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Tsai, W. Nie, J.-C. Blancon, C. C. Stoumpos, R. Asadpour, B. Harutyunyan, A. J. Neukirch, R. Verduzco, J. J. Crochet, S. Tretiak, L. Pedesseau, J. Even, M. A. Alam, G. Gupta, J. Lou, P. M. Ajayan, M. J. Bedzyk, M. G. Kanatzidis, and A. D. Mohite, “High-efficiency two-dimensional ruddlesden–popper perovskite solar cells,” Nature 536, 312–316 (2016).
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S. Albrecht, M. Saliba, J. P. C. Baena, F. Lang, L. Kegelmann, M. Mews, L. Steier, A. Abate, J. Rappich, L. Korte, R. Schlatmann, M. K. Nazeeruddin, A. Hagfeldt, M. Grätzeld, and B. Recha, “Monolithic perovskite/silicon-heterojunction tandem solar cells processed at low temperature,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9, 81–88 (2016).
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H. Tsai, W. Nie, J.-C. Blancon, C. C. Stoumpos, R. Asadpour, B. Harutyunyan, A. J. Neukirch, R. Verduzco, J. J. Crochet, S. Tretiak, L. Pedesseau, J. Even, M. A. Alam, G. Gupta, J. Lou, P. M. Ajayan, M. J. Bedzyk, M. G. Kanatzidis, and A. D. Mohite, “High-efficiency two-dimensional ruddlesden–popper perovskite solar cells,” Nature 536, 312–316 (2016).
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H.-S. Kim, C.-R. Lee, J.-H. Im, K.-B. Lee, T. Moehl, A. Marchioro, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, J.-H. Yum, J. E. Moser, M. Grätzel, and N.-G. Park, “Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%,” Sci. Rep. 2, 591 (2012).
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R. V. K. Chavali, S. Khatavkar, C. Kannan, V. Kumar, P. R. Nair, J. L. Gray, and M. A. Alam, “Multiprobe characterization of inversion charge for self-consistent parameterization of hit cells,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 5, 725–735 (2015).
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H. Uzu, M. Ichikawa, M. Hino, K. Nakano, T. Meguro, J. L. Hernández, H.-S. Kim, N.-G. Park, and K. Yamamoto, “High efficiency solar cells combining a perovskite and a silicon heterojunction solar cells via an optical splitting system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 013506 (2015).
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W. Nie, H. Tsai, R. Asadpour, J.-C. Blancon, A. J. Neukirch, G. Gupta, J. J. Crochet, M. Chhowalla, S. Tretiak, M. A. Alam, H.-L. Wang, and A. D. Mohite, “High-efficiency solution-processed perovskite solar cells with millimeter-scale grains,” Science 347, 522–525 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, H.

H. Tsai, W. Nie, J.-C. Blancon, C. C. Stoumpos, R. Asadpour, B. Harutyunyan, A. J. Neukirch, R. Verduzco, J. J. Crochet, S. Tretiak, L. Pedesseau, J. Even, M. A. Alam, G. Gupta, J. Lou, P. M. Ajayan, M. J. Bedzyk, M. G. Kanatzidis, and A. D. Mohite, “High-efficiency two-dimensional ruddlesden–popper perovskite solar cells,” Nature 536, 312–316 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Nie, J.-C. Blancon, A. J. Neukirch, K. Appavoo, H. Tsai, M. Chhowalla, M. A. Alam, M. Y. Sfeir, C. Katan, J. Even, S. Tretiak, J. J. Crochet, G. Gupta, and A. D. Mohite, “Light-activated photocurrent degradation and self-healing in perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11574 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Nie, H. Tsai, R. Asadpour, J.-C. Blancon, A. J. Neukirch, G. Gupta, J. J. Crochet, M. Chhowalla, S. Tretiak, M. A. Alam, H.-L. Wang, and A. D. Mohite, “High-efficiency solution-processed perovskite solar cells with millimeter-scale grains,” Science 347, 522–525 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsaryova, O.

C. L. Uhrich, G. Schwartz, B. Maennig, W. M. Gnehr, S. Sonntag, O. Erfurth, E. Wollrab, K. Walzer, J. Foerster, A. Weiss, O. Tsaryova, K. Leo, M. K. Riede, and M. Pfeiffer, “Efficient and long-term stable organic vacuum deposited tandem solar cells,” in SPIE Photonics Europe (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2010), paper 77220G.

Uhrich, C. L.

C. L. Uhrich, G. Schwartz, B. Maennig, W. M. Gnehr, S. Sonntag, O. Erfurth, E. Wollrab, K. Walzer, J. Foerster, A. Weiss, O. Tsaryova, K. Leo, M. K. Riede, and M. Pfeiffer, “Efficient and long-term stable organic vacuum deposited tandem solar cells,” in SPIE Photonics Europe (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2010), paper 77220G.

Unger, E. L.

C. D. Bailie, M. G. Christoforo, J. P. Mailoa, A. R. Bowring, E. L. Unger, W. H. Nguyen, J. Burschka, N. Pellet, J. Z. Lee, M. Grätzel, R. Noufi, T. Buonassisi, A. Salleoa, and M. D. McGehee, “Semi-transparent perovskite solar cells for tandems with silicon and cigs,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8, 956–963 (2015).
[Crossref]

Uzu, H.

H. Uzu, M. Ichikawa, M. Hino, K. Nakano, T. Meguro, J. L. Hernández, H.-S. Kim, N.-G. Park, and K. Yamamoto, “High efficiency solar cells combining a perovskite and a silicon heterojunction solar cells via an optical splitting system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 013506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Verduzco, R.

H. Tsai, W. Nie, J.-C. Blancon, C. C. Stoumpos, R. Asadpour, B. Harutyunyan, A. J. Neukirch, R. Verduzco, J. J. Crochet, S. Tretiak, L. Pedesseau, J. Even, M. A. Alam, G. Gupta, J. Lou, P. M. Ajayan, M. J. Bedzyk, M. G. Kanatzidis, and A. D. Mohite, “High-efficiency two-dimensional ruddlesden–popper perovskite solar cells,” Nature 536, 312–316 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walter, A.

J. Werner, L. Barraud, A. Walter, M. Bräuninger, F. Sahli, D. Sacchetto, N. Tétreault, B. Paviet-Salomon, S.-J. Moon, C. Allebé, M. Despeisse, S. Nicolay, S. De Wolf, B. Niesen, and C. Ballif, “Efficient near-infrared-transparent perovskite solar cells enabling direct comparison of 4-terminal and monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem cells,” ACS Energy Lett. 1, 474–480 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Werner, C.-H. Weng, A. Walter, L. Fesquet, J. P. Seif, S. De Wolf, B. Niesen, and C. Ballif, “Efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cell with cell area> 1 cm2,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7, 161–166 (2015).
[Crossref]

Walzer, K.

C. L. Uhrich, G. Schwartz, B. Maennig, W. M. Gnehr, S. Sonntag, O. Erfurth, E. Wollrab, K. Walzer, J. Foerster, A. Weiss, O. Tsaryova, K. Leo, M. K. Riede, and M. Pfeiffer, “Efficient and long-term stable organic vacuum deposited tandem solar cells,” in SPIE Photonics Europe (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2010), paper 77220G.

Wang, H.-L.

W. Nie, H. Tsai, R. Asadpour, J.-C. Blancon, A. J. Neukirch, G. Gupta, J. J. Crochet, M. Chhowalla, S. Tretiak, M. A. Alam, H.-L. Wang, and A. D. Mohite, “High-efficiency solution-processed perovskite solar cells with millimeter-scale grains,” Science 347, 522–525 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, W.

K. A. Bush, C. D. Bailie, Y. Chen, A. R. Bowring, W. Wang, W. Ma, T. Leijtens, F. Moghadam, and M. D. McGehee, “Thermal and environmental stability of semi-transparent perovskite solar cells for tandems enabled by a solution-processed nanoparticle buffer layer and sputtered ito electrode,” Adv. Mat. 28, 3937–3943 (2016).
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M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 47),” Progress Photovolt.: Res. Appl. 24, 3–11 (2016).
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Weiss, A.

C. L. Uhrich, G. Schwartz, B. Maennig, W. M. Gnehr, S. Sonntag, O. Erfurth, E. Wollrab, K. Walzer, J. Foerster, A. Weiss, O. Tsaryova, K. Leo, M. K. Riede, and M. Pfeiffer, “Efficient and long-term stable organic vacuum deposited tandem solar cells,” in SPIE Photonics Europe (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2010), paper 77220G.

Weng, C.-H.

J. Werner, C.-H. Weng, A. Walter, L. Fesquet, J. P. Seif, S. De Wolf, B. Niesen, and C. Ballif, “Efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cell with cell area> 1 cm2,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7, 161–166 (2015).
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J. Werner, L. Barraud, A. Walter, M. Bräuninger, F. Sahli, D. Sacchetto, N. Tétreault, B. Paviet-Salomon, S.-J. Moon, C. Allebé, M. Despeisse, S. Nicolay, S. De Wolf, B. Niesen, and C. Ballif, “Efficient near-infrared-transparent perovskite solar cells enabling direct comparison of 4-terminal and monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem cells,” ACS Energy Lett. 1, 474–480 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Werner, C.-H. Weng, A. Walter, L. Fesquet, J. P. Seif, S. De Wolf, B. Niesen, and C. Ballif, “Efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cell with cell area> 1 cm2,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7, 161–166 (2015).
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White, T.

White, T. P.

Wielicki, B. A.

B. A. Wielicki, T. Wong, N. Loeb, P. Minnis, K. Priestley, and R. Kandel, “Changes in earth’s albedo measured by satellite,” Science 308, 825 (2005).
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Wollrab, E.

C. L. Uhrich, G. Schwartz, B. Maennig, W. M. Gnehr, S. Sonntag, O. Erfurth, E. Wollrab, K. Walzer, J. Foerster, A. Weiss, O. Tsaryova, K. Leo, M. K. Riede, and M. Pfeiffer, “Efficient and long-term stable organic vacuum deposited tandem solar cells,” in SPIE Photonics Europe (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2010), paper 77220G.

Wong, T.

B. A. Wielicki, T. Wong, N. Loeb, P. Minnis, K. Priestley, and R. Kandel, “Changes in earth’s albedo measured by satellite,” Science 308, 825 (2005).
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Xuan, Y.

Y. Zhang and Y. Xuan, “Comprehensive design of omnidirectional high-performance perovskite solar cells,” Sci. Rep. 6, 29705 (2016).
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H. Uzu, M. Ichikawa, M. Hino, K. Nakano, T. Meguro, J. L. Hernández, H.-S. Kim, N.-G. Park, and K. Yamamoto, “High efficiency solar cells combining a perovskite and a silicon heterojunction solar cells via an optical splitting system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 013506 (2015).
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Yang, Y.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T.-b. Song, H.-S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345, 542–546 (2014).
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M. Taguchi, A. Yano, S. Tohoda, K. Matsuyama, Y. Nakamura, T. Nishiwaki, K. Fujita, and E. Maruyama, “24.7% record efficiency hit solar cell on thin silicon wafer,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 4, 96–99 (2014).
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Yu, Z.

B. Chen, Y. Bai, Z. Yu, T. Li, X. Zheng, Q. Dong, L. Shen, M. Boccard, A. Gruverman, and Z. Holman, “Efficient semitransparent perovskite solar cells for 23.0%-efficiency perovskite/silicon four-terminal tandem cells,” Adv. Energy Mat. 6, 1601128 (2016).
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P. Löper, S.-J. Moon, S. M. De Nicolas, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, S. Nicolay, J. Bailat, J.-H. Yum, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Organic–inorganic halide perovskite/crystalline silicon four-terminal tandem solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17, 1619–1629 (2015).
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H. Tan, R. Santbergen, A. H. Smets, and M. Zeman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells with improved self-assembled silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 12, 4070–4076 (2012).
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Y. Zhang and Y. Xuan, “Comprehensive design of omnidirectional high-performance perovskite solar cells,” Sci. Rep. 6, 29705 (2016).
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B. Zhao, M. Abdi-Jalebi, M. Tabachnyk, H. Glass, V. S. Kamboj, W. A. Nie, J. Pearson, Y. Puttisong, K. C. Gödel, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, A. D. Mohite, S. E. Dutton, R. H. Friend, and A. Sadhanala, “High open-circuit voltages in tin-rich low-bandgap perovskite-based planar heterojunction photovoltaics,” Adv. Mat. 29(2), 1604744 (2016).
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B. Chen, Y. Bai, Z. Yu, T. Li, X. Zheng, Q. Dong, L. Shen, M. Boccard, A. Gruverman, and Z. Holman, “Efficient semitransparent perovskite solar cells for 23.0%-efficiency perovskite/silicon four-terminal tandem cells,” Adv. Energy Mat. 6, 1601128 (2016).
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Zhou, C.

Zhou, H.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T.-b. Song, H.-S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345, 542–546 (2014).
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Y. Zhou and K. Zhu, “Perovskite solar cells shine in the valley of the sun,” ACS Energy Lett. 1, 64–67 (2016).
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Y. Zhou and K. Zhu, “Perovskite solar cells shine in the valley of the sun,” ACS Energy Lett. 1, 64–67 (2016).
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J. Werner, L. Barraud, A. Walter, M. Bräuninger, F. Sahli, D. Sacchetto, N. Tétreault, B. Paviet-Salomon, S.-J. Moon, C. Allebé, M. Despeisse, S. Nicolay, S. De Wolf, B. Niesen, and C. Ballif, “Efficient near-infrared-transparent perovskite solar cells enabling direct comparison of 4-terminal and monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem cells,” ACS Energy Lett. 1, 474–480 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Energy Mat. (1)

B. Chen, Y. Bai, Z. Yu, T. Li, X. Zheng, Q. Dong, L. Shen, M. Boccard, A. Gruverman, and Z. Holman, “Efficient semitransparent perovskite solar cells for 23.0%-efficiency perovskite/silicon four-terminal tandem cells,” Adv. Energy Mat. 6, 1601128 (2016).
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B. Zhao, M. Abdi-Jalebi, M. Tabachnyk, H. Glass, V. S. Kamboj, W. A. Nie, J. Pearson, Y. Puttisong, K. C. Gödel, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, A. D. Mohite, S. E. Dutton, R. H. Friend, and A. Sadhanala, “High open-circuit voltages in tin-rich low-bandgap perovskite-based planar heterojunction photovoltaics,” Adv. Mat. 29(2), 1604744 (2016).
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K. A. Bush, C. D. Bailie, Y. Chen, A. R. Bowring, W. Wang, W. Ma, T. Leijtens, F. Moghadam, and M. D. McGehee, “Thermal and environmental stability of semi-transparent perovskite solar cells for tandems enabled by a solution-processed nanoparticle buffer layer and sputtered ito electrode,” Adv. Mat. 28, 3937–3943 (2016).
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J. Werner, C.-H. Weng, A. Walter, L. Fesquet, J. P. Seif, S. De Wolf, B. Niesen, and C. Ballif, “Efficient monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cell with cell area> 1 cm2,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7, 161–166 (2015).
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H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T.-b. Song, H.-S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345, 542–546 (2014).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

For each of the modeled photovoltaic materials in Fig. 1, a 300 nm-thick dielectric slab is created; then, the analytical (symbol) and FDTD-simulated (line) absorption (2D, 3D perovskites and Spiro-OMeTAD) and reflection (TiO2 only) spectra are given above. A close fit is found for all materials across a broad bandwidth, with the exception of Spiro-OMeTAD at short wavelengths.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Optical loss analysis of the world-record experimental perovskite/silicon tandem cells [5]. Reflection and Spiro-OMeTAD parasitic absorption are the major loss components over wavelengths ranging from 400–1127 nm. Ideal quantum efficiency is assumed for quantifying photo-current. The dashed lines indicate total absorption (= 1 − R) for both experiment [5] and simulation. (b) The calculated Absorber Light Harvesting Efficiency (ALHE) shows that the perovskite layer does not suffer much electrical losses, while the c-Si layer has recombination losses. The inset figure indicates a simulated perovskite/silicon tandem structure. Note that ALHE slightly exceeds 100 % at the shorter wavelengths due to a modeling error of Spiro-OMeTAD shown in Fig. 1(a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

3D FDTD simulation geometry. The front and rear sides have pyramidal texturing with 1 μm periodicity and 54.7 degree opening angle. Material thicknesses for glass/ITO/Spiro-OMeTAD/2D perovskite/PCBM/IZO/a-Si/c-Si/a-Si/ITO are 2μm/90 nm/160 nm/200 nm– 450 nm/20 nm/30 nm/20 nm/270 μm/20 nm/70 nm, respectively. The dashed line indicates an actually simulated region. The fractional absorption of a c-Si wafer is computed by a physics-based approximation [21].

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Optical loss analysis for (BA)2(MA)3Pb4I13/silicon bifacial tandem cells. The integrated Jph for 2D perovskite, c-Si(from front) and c-Si(from rear) are 17.32 mA/cm2, 18.38 mA/cm2, 11.65 mA/cm2, respectively. Normalized power output for this bifacial tandem is 23.13%. (b) I–V characteristics, as calculated by a combination of the optical loss analysis in (a), plus a validated physics-based compact model [41].

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Jph versus both 2-D perovskite thickness and Sn ratio. The three Jph peaks are found at 60 % Sn ratio with a 350-nm-thick perovskite(23.83mA/cm2), 80 % Sn ratio with a 250-nm-thick perovskite(23.90mA/cm2), 100 % Sn ratio with a 350-nm-thick perovskite(23.83mA/cm2). (b) Efficiency versus both 2-D perovskite thickness and Sn ratio. The detailed method for calculating normalized power output is discussed in the main text.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Optical loss analysis for (BA)2(MA)3(Sn0.6Pb0.4)4I13/silicon bifacial tandem cells. The integrated Jph for 2D perovskite, c-Si (from front) and c-Si (from rear) are 23.95 mA/cm2, 12.28 mA/cm2, and 11.65 mA/cm2, respectively. Normalized power output for this bifacial tandem is 30.31%. (b) I–V characteristics, as calculated by a combination of the optical loss analysis in (a), plus a validated physics-based compact model [41].

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Optical loss analysis for (BA)2(MA)3(Sn0.8Pb0.2)4I13 /silicon bifacial tandem cells. The integrated Jph for 2D perovskite, c-Si(from front) and c-Si(from rear) are 24.28 mA/cm2, 12.25 mA/cm2, and 11.65 mA/cm2, respectively. The normalized power output for this bifacial tandem is 28.41%. (b) I–V characteristics calculated by combining the optical loss analysis in (a) and a validated physics-based compact model [41].

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Optical losses in terms of Jph [mA/cm2]

Equations (1)

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J ph = 300 nm 1100 nm d λ [ e λ h c d I d λ A ( λ ) ] ,

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