Abstract

Transparent electrodes based on an ultrathin Cu layer, embedded between two dielectrics, are optimized by simulations and experiments. Different dielectrics are screened in transfer matrix simulations for maximizing the broad-band transmittance. Based on this, sputtered electrodes were developed with the Cu embedded between TiOX-coated glass or PET substrate and an Al-doped ZnO (AZO) top layer. It is found that, for ultrathin Cu layers, increased sputter power fosters island coalescence, leading to superior optical and electrical performance compared to previously reported Cu-based electrodes. Simulations showed that the electrode design optimized with air as ambient medium has to be adapted in the case of electrode implementation in a hybrid perovskite solar cell of inverted architecture.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2016 (6)

K. Zilberberg and T. Riedl, “Metal-nanostructures - a modern and powerful platform to create transparent electrodes for thin-film photovoltaics,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 4(38), 14481–14508 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Bauch and T. Dimopoulos, “Design of ultrathin metal-based transparent electrodes including the impact of interface roughness,” Mater. Des. 104, 37–42 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. J. Moerland and J. P. Hoogenboom, “Subnanometer-accuracy optical distance ruler based on fluorescence quenching by transparent conductors,” Optica 3(2), 112–117 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Wu, S. Yu, L. He, and L. Yang, “Preparation and investigation of nano-thick BaSnO3/Cu/BaSnO3 multilayer structures for transparent electrodes,” Mater. Lett. 174, 201–203 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Zhao, S. M. Kim, S.-G. Lee, T.-S. Bae, C. Mun, S. Lee, H. Yu, G.-H. Lee, H.-S. Lee, M. Song, and J. Yun, “Bendable solar cells from stable, flexible, and transparent conducting electrodes fabricated using a nitrogen-doped ultrathin copper film,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(23), 4180–4191 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Bou, M. Chalh, S. Vedraine, B. Lucas, D. Barakel, L. Peres, P.-Y. Thoulon, M. Ricci, and P. Torchio, “Optical role of the thin metal layer in a TiOx/Ag/TiOx transparent and conductive electrode for organic solar cells,” RSC Advances 6(109), 108034 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

A. R. Gentle, S. D. Yambem, G. B. Smith, P. L. Burn, and P. Meredith, ““Optimized multilayer indium-free electrodes for organic photovoltaics,” Phys. Status Solidi -Appl,” Mater. Sci. 212, 348–355 (2015).

W. Qiu, M. Buffiere, G. Brammertz, U. W. Paetzold, L. Froyen, P. Heremans, and D. Cheyns, “High efficiency perovskite solar cells using a PCBM/ZnO double electron transport layer and a short air-aging step,” Org. Electron. 26, 30–35 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Zhao, W. Wang, T.-S. Bae, S.-G. Lee, C. Mun, S. Lee, H. Yu, G.-H. Lee, M. Song, and J. Yun, “Stable ultrathin partially oxidized copper film electrode for highly efficient flexible solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8830 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-W. Chen, S.-Y. Hsiao, C.-Y. Chen, H.-W. Kang, Z.-Y. Huang, and H.-W. Lin, “Optical properties of organometal halide perovskite thin films and general device structure design rules for perovskite single and tandem solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(17), 9152–9159 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Behrendt, C. Friedenberger, T. Gahlmann, S. Trost, T. Becker, K. Zilberberg, A. Polywka, P. Görrn, and T. Riedl, “Highly robust transparent and conductive gas diffusion barriers based on tin oxide,” Adv. Mater. 27(39), 5961–5967 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Dimopoulos, M. Bauch, R. A. Wibowo, N. Bansal, R. Hamid, M. Auer, M. Jäger, and E. J. W. List-Kratochvil, ““Properties of transparent and conductive Al:ZnO/Au/Al:ZnO multilayers on flexible PET substrates,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B-Adv. Funct,” Solid-State Mater. 200, 84–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

C. G. Granqvist, “Electrochromics for smart windows: Oxide-based thin films and devices,” Thin Solid Films 564, 1–38 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Bou, P. Torchio, S. Vedraine, D. Barakel, B. Lucas, J.-C. Bernede, P.-Y. Thoulon, and M. Ricci, “Numerical optimization of multilayer electrodes without indium for use in organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 125, 310–317 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Bou, P. Torchio, D. Barakel, F. Thierry, A. Sangar, P.-Y. Thoulon, and M. Ricci, “Indium tin oxide-free transparent and conductive electrode based on SnOx | Ag | SnOx for organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(2), 023105 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

M. M. A.-G. Jafar, “Comprehensive formulations forthe total normal-incidence optical reflectance and transmittance of thin films laid on thick substrates,” Eur. Int. J. Sci. Technol. 2, 214–274 (2013).

L. Gao, F. Lemarchand, and M. Lequime, “Refractive index determination of SiO2 layer in the UV/Vis/NIR range: spectrophotometric reverse engineering on single and bi-layer designs,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc.-Rapid Publ. 8, 1-8 (2013).

L. Lajaunie, F. Boucher, R. Dessapt, and P. Moreau, “Strong anisotropic influence of local-field effects on the dielectric response of alpha-MoO3,” Phys. Rev. B 88(11), 115141 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (6)

L. Gao, F. Lemarchand, and M. Lequime, “Exploitation of multiple incidences spectrometric measurements for thin film reverse engineering,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15734–15751 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Ghosh, T. L. Chen, N. Formica, J. Hwang, I. Bruder, and V. Pruneri, “High figure-of-merit Ag/Al:ZnO nano-thick transparent electrodes for indium-free flexible photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 107, 338–343 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Dimopoulos, G. Z. Radnoczi, Z. E. Horváth, and H. Brückl, “Increased thermal stability of Al-doped ZnO-based transparent conducting electrodes employing ultra-thin Au and Cu layers,” Thin Solid Films 520(16), 5222–5226 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Ellmer, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of optically transparent electrodes,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 809–817 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Girtan, “Comparison of ITO/metal/ITO and ZnO/metal/ZnO characteristics as transparent electrodes for third generation solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 100, 153–161 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. R. Kumar and T. S. Rao, “AFM studies on surface morphology, topography and texture of nanostructured zinc aluminum oxide thin films,” Dig. J. Nano-Mater. Biostructures 7, 1881–1889 (2012).

2011 (1)

C. Guillen and J. Herrero, “TCO/metal/TCO structures for energy and flexible electronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(1), 1–17 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

H. Liu, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “Transparent conducting oxides for electrode applications in light emitting and absorbing devices,” Superlattices Microstruct. 48(5), 458–484 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Dimopoulos, G. Z. Radnoczi, B. Pécz, and H. Brückl, “Characterization of ZnO:Al/Au/ZnO:Al trilayers for high performance transparent conducting electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 519(4), 1470–1474 (2010).
[Crossref]

M.-T. Le, Y.-U. Sohn, J.-W. Lim, and G.-S. Choi, “Effect of sputtering power on the nucleation and growth of cu films deposited by magnetron sputtering,” Mater. Trans. 51(1), 116–120 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Song, T. Yang, M. Lv, Y. Li, Y. Xin, L. Jiang, Z. Wu, and S. Han, “Effect of Cu layer thickness on the structural, optical and electrical properties of AZO/Cu/AZO tri-layer films,” Vacuum 85(1), 39–44 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J.-W. Park, K. N. Choi, S. H. Baek, K. S. Chung, and H. Lee, “Optical properties of NiO thin films grown by using sputtering deposition and studied with spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 52(6), 1868–1876 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

Y. Yang, X. Sun, B. Chen, C. Xu, T. Chen, C. Sun, B. Tay, and Z. Sun, “Refractive indices of textured indium tin oxide and zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 510(1-2), 95–101 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

P. Peumans, A. Yakimov, and S. Forrest, “Small molecular weight organic thin-film photodetectors and solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 3693–3723 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

H. Hoppe, N. Sariciftci, and D. Meissner, “Optical constants of conjugated polymer/fullerene based bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 385(1), 233–239 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

L. Pettersson, L. Roman, and O. Inganas, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 487–496 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Szczyrbowski, G. Brauer, M. Ruske, H. Schilling, and A. Zmelty, “New low emissivity coating based on TwinMag (R) sputtered TiO2 and Si3N4 layers,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 254–259 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

P. Grosse, R. Hertling, and T. Muggenburg, “Design of low emissivity systems based on a three-layer coating,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 218, 38–43 (1997).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

J. Szczyrbowski, A. Dietrich, and K. Hartig, “Bendable silver-based low emissivity coating on glass,” Sol. Energy Mater. 19(1-2), 43–53 (1989).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

R. T. Poole, “The colour of the noble metals,” Phys. Educ. 18(6), 280–283 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

H. Köstlin and G. Frank, “Optimization of transparent heat mirrors based on a thin silver film between antireflection films,” Thin Solid Films 89(3), 287–293 (1982).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

G. Haacke, “New figure of merit for transparent conductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 47(9), 4086–4089 (1976).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

N. Uchida, “Optical properties of single-crystal paratellurite (Te O 2),” Phys. Rev. B 4(10), 3736–3745 (1971).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

W. L. Bond, “Measurement of the refractive indices of several crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 36(5), 1674–1677 (1965).
[Crossref]

1952 (1)

R. E. Stephens and I. H. Malitson, “Index of refraction of magnesium oxide,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 49(4), 249–252 (1952).
[Crossref]

Auer, M.

T. Dimopoulos, M. Bauch, R. A. Wibowo, N. Bansal, R. Hamid, M. Auer, M. Jäger, and E. J. W. List-Kratochvil, ““Properties of transparent and conductive Al:ZnO/Au/Al:ZnO multilayers on flexible PET substrates,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B-Adv. Funct,” Solid-State Mater. 200, 84–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Avrutin, V.

H. Liu, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “Transparent conducting oxides for electrode applications in light emitting and absorbing devices,” Superlattices Microstruct. 48(5), 458–484 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bae, T.-S.

G. Zhao, S. M. Kim, S.-G. Lee, T.-S. Bae, C. Mun, S. Lee, H. Yu, G.-H. Lee, H.-S. Lee, M. Song, and J. Yun, “Bendable solar cells from stable, flexible, and transparent conducting electrodes fabricated using a nitrogen-doped ultrathin copper film,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(23), 4180–4191 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Zhao, W. Wang, T.-S. Bae, S.-G. Lee, C. Mun, S. Lee, H. Yu, G.-H. Lee, M. Song, and J. Yun, “Stable ultrathin partially oxidized copper film electrode for highly efficient flexible solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8830 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baek, S. H.

J.-W. Park, K. N. Choi, S. H. Baek, K. S. Chung, and H. Lee, “Optical properties of NiO thin films grown by using sputtering deposition and studied with spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 52(6), 1868–1876 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bansal, N.

T. Dimopoulos, M. Bauch, R. A. Wibowo, N. Bansal, R. Hamid, M. Auer, M. Jäger, and E. J. W. List-Kratochvil, ““Properties of transparent and conductive Al:ZnO/Au/Al:ZnO multilayers on flexible PET substrates,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B-Adv. Funct,” Solid-State Mater. 200, 84–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Barakel, D.

A. Bou, M. Chalh, S. Vedraine, B. Lucas, D. Barakel, L. Peres, P.-Y. Thoulon, M. Ricci, and P. Torchio, “Optical role of the thin metal layer in a TiOx/Ag/TiOx transparent and conductive electrode for organic solar cells,” RSC Advances 6(109), 108034 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Bou, P. Torchio, D. Barakel, F. Thierry, A. Sangar, P.-Y. Thoulon, and M. Ricci, “Indium tin oxide-free transparent and conductive electrode based on SnOx | Ag | SnOx for organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(2), 023105 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Bou, P. Torchio, S. Vedraine, D. Barakel, B. Lucas, J.-C. Bernede, P.-Y. Thoulon, and M. Ricci, “Numerical optimization of multilayer electrodes without indium for use in organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 125, 310–317 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bauch, M.

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M.-T. Le, Y.-U. Sohn, J.-W. Lim, and G.-S. Choi, “Effect of sputtering power on the nucleation and growth of cu films deposited by magnetron sputtering,” Mater. Trans. 51(1), 116–120 (2010).
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G. Zhao, S. M. Kim, S.-G. Lee, T.-S. Bae, C. Mun, S. Lee, H. Yu, G.-H. Lee, H.-S. Lee, M. Song, and J. Yun, “Bendable solar cells from stable, flexible, and transparent conducting electrodes fabricated using a nitrogen-doped ultrathin copper film,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(23), 4180–4191 (2016).
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G. Zhao, S. M. Kim, S.-G. Lee, T.-S. Bae, C. Mun, S. Lee, H. Yu, G.-H. Lee, H.-S. Lee, M. Song, and J. Yun, “Bendable solar cells from stable, flexible, and transparent conducting electrodes fabricated using a nitrogen-doped ultrathin copper film,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(23), 4180–4191 (2016).
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[Crossref]

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M.-T. Le, Y.-U. Sohn, J.-W. Lim, and G.-S. Choi, “Effect of sputtering power on the nucleation and growth of cu films deposited by magnetron sputtering,” Mater. Trans. 51(1), 116–120 (2010).
[Crossref]

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C.-W. Chen, S.-Y. Hsiao, C.-Y. Chen, H.-W. Kang, Z.-Y. Huang, and H.-W. Lin, “Optical properties of organometal halide perovskite thin films and general device structure design rules for perovskite single and tandem solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(17), 9152–9159 (2015).
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T. Dimopoulos, M. Bauch, R. A. Wibowo, N. Bansal, R. Hamid, M. Auer, M. Jäger, and E. J. W. List-Kratochvil, ““Properties of transparent and conductive Al:ZnO/Au/Al:ZnO multilayers on flexible PET substrates,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B-Adv. Funct,” Solid-State Mater. 200, 84–92 (2015).
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H. Liu, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “Transparent conducting oxides for electrode applications in light emitting and absorbing devices,” Superlattices Microstruct. 48(5), 458–484 (2010).
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A. Bou, M. Chalh, S. Vedraine, B. Lucas, D. Barakel, L. Peres, P.-Y. Thoulon, M. Ricci, and P. Torchio, “Optical role of the thin metal layer in a TiOx/Ag/TiOx transparent and conductive electrode for organic solar cells,” RSC Advances 6(109), 108034 (2016).
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A. Bou, P. Torchio, S. Vedraine, D. Barakel, B. Lucas, J.-C. Bernede, P.-Y. Thoulon, and M. Ricci, “Numerical optimization of multilayer electrodes without indium for use in organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 125, 310–317 (2014).
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S. Song, T. Yang, M. Lv, Y. Li, Y. Xin, L. Jiang, Z. Wu, and S. Han, “Effect of Cu layer thickness on the structural, optical and electrical properties of AZO/Cu/AZO tri-layer films,” Vacuum 85(1), 39–44 (2010).
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H. Hoppe, N. Sariciftci, and D. Meissner, “Optical constants of conjugated polymer/fullerene based bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 385(1), 233–239 (2002).
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A. R. Gentle, S. D. Yambem, G. B. Smith, P. L. Burn, and P. Meredith, ““Optimized multilayer indium-free electrodes for organic photovoltaics,” Phys. Status Solidi -Appl,” Mater. Sci. 212, 348–355 (2015).

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G. Zhao, W. Wang, T.-S. Bae, S.-G. Lee, C. Mun, S. Lee, H. Yu, G.-H. Lee, M. Song, and J. Yun, “Stable ultrathin partially oxidized copper film electrode for highly efficient flexible solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8830 (2015).
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A. Behrendt, C. Friedenberger, T. Gahlmann, S. Trost, T. Becker, K. Zilberberg, A. Polywka, P. Görrn, and T. Riedl, “Highly robust transparent and conductive gas diffusion barriers based on tin oxide,” Adv. Mater. 27(39), 5961–5967 (2015).
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A. Bou, M. Chalh, S. Vedraine, B. Lucas, D. Barakel, L. Peres, P.-Y. Thoulon, M. Ricci, and P. Torchio, “Optical role of the thin metal layer in a TiOx/Ag/TiOx transparent and conductive electrode for organic solar cells,” RSC Advances 6(109), 108034 (2016).
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A. Bou, P. Torchio, S. Vedraine, D. Barakel, B. Lucas, J.-C. Bernede, P.-Y. Thoulon, and M. Ricci, “Numerical optimization of multilayer electrodes without indium for use in organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 125, 310–317 (2014).
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K. Zilberberg and T. Riedl, “Metal-nanostructures - a modern and powerful platform to create transparent electrodes for thin-film photovoltaics,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 4(38), 14481–14508 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Behrendt, C. Friedenberger, T. Gahlmann, S. Trost, T. Becker, K. Zilberberg, A. Polywka, P. Görrn, and T. Riedl, “Highly robust transparent and conductive gas diffusion barriers based on tin oxide,” Adv. Mater. 27(39), 5961–5967 (2015).
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A. Bou, P. Torchio, D. Barakel, F. Thierry, A. Sangar, P.-Y. Thoulon, and M. Ricci, “Indium tin oxide-free transparent and conductive electrode based on SnOx | Ag | SnOx for organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(2), 023105 (2014).
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Sariciftci, N.

H. Hoppe, N. Sariciftci, and D. Meissner, “Optical constants of conjugated polymer/fullerene based bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 385(1), 233–239 (2002).
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J. Szczyrbowski, G. Brauer, M. Ruske, H. Schilling, and A. Zmelty, “New low emissivity coating based on TwinMag (R) sputtered TiO2 and Si3N4 layers,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 254–259 (1999).
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A. R. Gentle, S. D. Yambem, G. B. Smith, P. L. Burn, and P. Meredith, ““Optimized multilayer indium-free electrodes for organic photovoltaics,” Phys. Status Solidi -Appl,” Mater. Sci. 212, 348–355 (2015).

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G. Zhao, W. Wang, T.-S. Bae, S.-G. Lee, C. Mun, S. Lee, H. Yu, G.-H. Lee, M. Song, and J. Yun, “Stable ultrathin partially oxidized copper film electrode for highly efficient flexible solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8830 (2015).
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S. Song, T. Yang, M. Lv, Y. Li, Y. Xin, L. Jiang, Z. Wu, and S. Han, “Effect of Cu layer thickness on the structural, optical and electrical properties of AZO/Cu/AZO tri-layer films,” Vacuum 85(1), 39–44 (2010).
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Y. Yang, X. Sun, B. Chen, C. Xu, T. Chen, C. Sun, B. Tay, and Z. Sun, “Refractive indices of textured indium tin oxide and zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 510(1-2), 95–101 (2006).
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Y. Yang, X. Sun, B. Chen, C. Xu, T. Chen, C. Sun, B. Tay, and Z. Sun, “Refractive indices of textured indium tin oxide and zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 510(1-2), 95–101 (2006).
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Y. Yang, X. Sun, B. Chen, C. Xu, T. Chen, C. Sun, B. Tay, and Z. Sun, “Refractive indices of textured indium tin oxide and zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 510(1-2), 95–101 (2006).
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J. Szczyrbowski, G. Brauer, M. Ruske, H. Schilling, and A. Zmelty, “New low emissivity coating based on TwinMag (R) sputtered TiO2 and Si3N4 layers,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 254–259 (1999).
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A. Bou, P. Torchio, D. Barakel, F. Thierry, A. Sangar, P.-Y. Thoulon, and M. Ricci, “Indium tin oxide-free transparent and conductive electrode based on SnOx | Ag | SnOx for organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(2), 023105 (2014).
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A. Bou, M. Chalh, S. Vedraine, B. Lucas, D. Barakel, L. Peres, P.-Y. Thoulon, M. Ricci, and P. Torchio, “Optical role of the thin metal layer in a TiOx/Ag/TiOx transparent and conductive electrode for organic solar cells,” RSC Advances 6(109), 108034 (2016).
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A. Bou, P. Torchio, D. Barakel, F. Thierry, A. Sangar, P.-Y. Thoulon, and M. Ricci, “Indium tin oxide-free transparent and conductive electrode based on SnOx | Ag | SnOx for organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(2), 023105 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Bou, P. Torchio, S. Vedraine, D. Barakel, B. Lucas, J.-C. Bernede, P.-Y. Thoulon, and M. Ricci, “Numerical optimization of multilayer electrodes without indium for use in organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 125, 310–317 (2014).
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A. Bou, M. Chalh, S. Vedraine, B. Lucas, D. Barakel, L. Peres, P.-Y. Thoulon, M. Ricci, and P. Torchio, “Optical role of the thin metal layer in a TiOx/Ag/TiOx transparent and conductive electrode for organic solar cells,” RSC Advances 6(109), 108034 (2016).
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A. Bou, P. Torchio, D. Barakel, F. Thierry, A. Sangar, P.-Y. Thoulon, and M. Ricci, “Indium tin oxide-free transparent and conductive electrode based on SnOx | Ag | SnOx for organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(2), 023105 (2014).
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A. Bou, P. Torchio, S. Vedraine, D. Barakel, B. Lucas, J.-C. Bernede, P.-Y. Thoulon, and M. Ricci, “Numerical optimization of multilayer electrodes without indium for use in organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 125, 310–317 (2014).
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A. Bou, P. Torchio, S. Vedraine, D. Barakel, B. Lucas, J.-C. Bernede, P.-Y. Thoulon, and M. Ricci, “Numerical optimization of multilayer electrodes without indium for use in organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 125, 310–317 (2014).
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G. Zhao, W. Wang, T.-S. Bae, S.-G. Lee, C. Mun, S. Lee, H. Yu, G.-H. Lee, M. Song, and J. Yun, “Stable ultrathin partially oxidized copper film electrode for highly efficient flexible solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8830 (2015).
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S. Song, T. Yang, M. Lv, Y. Li, Y. Xin, L. Jiang, Z. Wu, and S. Han, “Effect of Cu layer thickness on the structural, optical and electrical properties of AZO/Cu/AZO tri-layer films,” Vacuum 85(1), 39–44 (2010).
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S. Song, T. Yang, M. Lv, Y. Li, Y. Xin, L. Jiang, Z. Wu, and S. Han, “Effect of Cu layer thickness on the structural, optical and electrical properties of AZO/Cu/AZO tri-layer films,” Vacuum 85(1), 39–44 (2010).
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Y. Yang, X. Sun, B. Chen, C. Xu, T. Chen, C. Sun, B. Tay, and Z. Sun, “Refractive indices of textured indium tin oxide and zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 510(1-2), 95–101 (2006).
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P. Peumans, A. Yakimov, and S. Forrest, “Small molecular weight organic thin-film photodetectors and solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 3693–3723 (2003).
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A. R. Gentle, S. D. Yambem, G. B. Smith, P. L. Burn, and P. Meredith, ““Optimized multilayer indium-free electrodes for organic photovoltaics,” Phys. Status Solidi -Appl,” Mater. Sci. 212, 348–355 (2015).

Yang, L.

M. Wu, S. Yu, L. He, and L. Yang, “Preparation and investigation of nano-thick BaSnO3/Cu/BaSnO3 multilayer structures for transparent electrodes,” Mater. Lett. 174, 201–203 (2016).
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S. Song, T. Yang, M. Lv, Y. Li, Y. Xin, L. Jiang, Z. Wu, and S. Han, “Effect of Cu layer thickness on the structural, optical and electrical properties of AZO/Cu/AZO tri-layer films,” Vacuum 85(1), 39–44 (2010).
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Y. Yang, X. Sun, B. Chen, C. Xu, T. Chen, C. Sun, B. Tay, and Z. Sun, “Refractive indices of textured indium tin oxide and zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 510(1-2), 95–101 (2006).
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G. Zhao, S. M. Kim, S.-G. Lee, T.-S. Bae, C. Mun, S. Lee, H. Yu, G.-H. Lee, H.-S. Lee, M. Song, and J. Yun, “Bendable solar cells from stable, flexible, and transparent conducting electrodes fabricated using a nitrogen-doped ultrathin copper film,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(23), 4180–4191 (2016).
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Yu, S.

M. Wu, S. Yu, L. He, and L. Yang, “Preparation and investigation of nano-thick BaSnO3/Cu/BaSnO3 multilayer structures for transparent electrodes,” Mater. Lett. 174, 201–203 (2016).
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G. Zhao, S. M. Kim, S.-G. Lee, T.-S. Bae, C. Mun, S. Lee, H. Yu, G.-H. Lee, H.-S. Lee, M. Song, and J. Yun, “Bendable solar cells from stable, flexible, and transparent conducting electrodes fabricated using a nitrogen-doped ultrathin copper film,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(23), 4180–4191 (2016).
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G. Zhao, W. Wang, T.-S. Bae, S.-G. Lee, C. Mun, S. Lee, H. Yu, G.-H. Lee, M. Song, and J. Yun, “Stable ultrathin partially oxidized copper film electrode for highly efficient flexible solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8830 (2015).
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G. Zhao, S. M. Kim, S.-G. Lee, T.-S. Bae, C. Mun, S. Lee, H. Yu, G.-H. Lee, H.-S. Lee, M. Song, and J. Yun, “Bendable solar cells from stable, flexible, and transparent conducting electrodes fabricated using a nitrogen-doped ultrathin copper film,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(23), 4180–4191 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Zhao, W. Wang, T.-S. Bae, S.-G. Lee, C. Mun, S. Lee, H. Yu, G.-H. Lee, M. Song, and J. Yun, “Stable ultrathin partially oxidized copper film electrode for highly efficient flexible solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8830 (2015).
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K. Zilberberg and T. Riedl, “Metal-nanostructures - a modern and powerful platform to create transparent electrodes for thin-film photovoltaics,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 4(38), 14481–14508 (2016).
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A. Behrendt, C. Friedenberger, T. Gahlmann, S. Trost, T. Becker, K. Zilberberg, A. Polywka, P. Görrn, and T. Riedl, “Highly robust transparent and conductive gas diffusion barriers based on tin oxide,” Adv. Mater. 27(39), 5961–5967 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. Szczyrbowski, G. Brauer, M. Ruske, H. Schilling, and A. Zmelty, “New low emissivity coating based on TwinMag (R) sputtered TiO2 and Si3N4 layers,” Thin Solid Films 351(1-2), 254–259 (1999).
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Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

G. Zhao, S. M. Kim, S.-G. Lee, T.-S. Bae, C. Mun, S. Lee, H. Yu, G.-H. Lee, H.-S. Lee, M. Song, and J. Yun, “Bendable solar cells from stable, flexible, and transparent conducting electrodes fabricated using a nitrogen-doped ultrathin copper film,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(23), 4180–4191 (2016).
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A. Behrendt, C. Friedenberger, T. Gahlmann, S. Trost, T. Becker, K. Zilberberg, A. Polywka, P. Görrn, and T. Riedl, “Highly robust transparent and conductive gas diffusion barriers based on tin oxide,” Adv. Mater. 27(39), 5961–5967 (2015).
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Dig. J. Nano-Mater. Biostructures (1)

B. R. Kumar and T. S. Rao, “AFM studies on surface morphology, topography and texture of nanostructured zinc aluminum oxide thin films,” Dig. J. Nano-Mater. Biostructures 7, 1881–1889 (2012).

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J. Appl. Phys. (5)

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J.-W. Park, K. N. Choi, S. H. Baek, K. S. Chung, and H. Lee, “Optical properties of NiO thin films grown by using sputtering deposition and studied with spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 52(6), 1868–1876 (2008).
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K. Zilberberg and T. Riedl, “Metal-nanostructures - a modern and powerful platform to create transparent electrodes for thin-film photovoltaics,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 4(38), 14481–14508 (2016).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Sketch of transparent electrode layer design. (b) Simulated average transmittance in the range from λ = 400 nm to 900 nm for various material combinations with optimized dielectric layer thicknesses. The materials are ordered with increasing refractive index value at λ = 550 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Layer thickness difference Δd = dMat 1dMat 2 of various material combinations for maximum average transmittance in the spectral range from 400 nm to 900 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Sketch of transparent electrode layer design used in this study. (b) Simulated average transmittance of a Cu7.5 electrode for different thicknesses of the TiOX and AZO layers in the wavelength range of 400-900 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulated (Sim.) and experimental (Exp.) transmittance T (solid) and reflectance R (dashed) spectra for two different sputter powers (P) and different Cu thicknesses for (a) TiOX;30/Cu5/AZO65, (b) TiOX;31/Cu7.5 /AZO60 and (c) TiOX;32/Cu10/AZO58.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Average transmittance T400-900, (b) sheet resistance RS and (c) Haake’s figure of merit for T400-900 as a function of Cu thickness for 40 W (green) and 100 W (orange) Cu sputter power. The measured values of commercial ITO are also depicted.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SEM images of TiOx;30/Cu5 bilayer samples at different Cu sputter powers and their respective sheet resistance.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Average transmittance from 400 nm to 900 nm (black circles) and sheet resistance (red squares) as a function of annealing temperature for TiOx;31/Cu7.5/AZO60.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Sketch of trilayer on different substrate configurations. (b) Direct transmittance (solid), total transmittance (circles) and specular reflectance (dashed) spectra of trilayer structure TiOx;31/Cu7.5/AZO60 on glass, PET and PET/AZO10 substrate.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

AFM images of (a) PET, (b) PET/TiOx;30 and (c) PET/AZO10/TiOx;30 including the RMS roughness, autocorrelation length (ACL) and kurtosis.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Sketch of the considered perovskite solar cell, (b) simulated absolute absorption in the perovskite layer of the cell in the wavelength range from 400 to 800 nm for a 7.5 nm Cu layer.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T(α)= T TM (α) T 0 (α) 1 R TM (α) R 0 (α)
R(α)= R 0 (α)+ T 0 2 (α) R TM (α) 1 R TM (α) R 0 (α) ,
Q j (x)= 2πc ε 0 n j k j λ | E j (x) | 2 ,

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