Abstract

Inelastic scattering plays an important role in ocean optics. The main inelastic scattering mechanisms include Raman scattering, fluorescence by colored dissolved organic matter (FDOM), and fluorescence by chlorophyll. This paper reports an implementation of all three inelastic scattering mechanisms in the exact vector radiative transfer model for coupled atmosphere and ocean Systems (CAOS). Simulation shows that FDOM contributes to the water radiation field in the broad visible spectral region, while chlorophyll fluorescence is limited in a narrow band centered at 685 nm. This is consistent with previous findings in the literature. The fluorescence distribution as a function of depth and viewing angle is presented. The impacts of fluorescence to the degree of linear polarization (DoLP) and orientation of the polarization ellipse (OPE) are studied. The DoLP is strongly influenced by inelastic scattering at wavelengths with strong inelastic scattering contribution. The OPE is less affected by inelastic scattering but it has a noticeable impact, in terms of the angular region of positive polarization, in the backward direction. This effect is more apparent for deeper water depth.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (4)

2015 (6)

2013 (2)

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. K. Westberry, E. Boss, and Z.-P. Lee, “Influence of Raman scattering on ocean color inversion models,” Appl. Opt. 52, 5552–5561 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

A. Ibrahim, A. Gilerson, T. Harmel, A. Tonizzo, J. Chowdhary, and S. Ahmed, “The relationship between upwelling underwater polarization and attenuation/absorption ratio,” Opt. Express 20, 25662–25680 (2012)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Hollstein and J. Fischer., “Radiative Transfer Solutions for Coupled Atmosphere Ocean Systems Using the Matrix Operator Technique,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 536–548 (2012)
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

P. Eriksson, S. A. Buehler, C. P. Davis, C. Emde, and O. Lemke, “ARTS, the atmospheric radiative transfer simulator, Version 2,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112, 1551–1558 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

P. Zhai, Y. Hu, J. Chowdhary, C. R. Trepte, P. L. Lucker, and D. B. Josset, “A vector radiative transfer model for coupled atmosphere and ocean systems with a rough interface,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 1025–1040 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (5)

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescence reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosciences 6, 779–794, (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Morel and B. Gentili, “A simple band ratio technique to quantify the colored dissolved and detrital organic material from ocean color remotely sensed data,” Rem. Sens. Environ. 113, 998–1011 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Zhai, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, and P. L. Lucker, “A vector radiative transfer model for coupled atmosphere and ocean systems based on successive order of scattering method,” Opt. Express 17, 2057–2079 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang and L. Hu, “Scattering by pure seawater at high salinity,” Opt. Express 17, 12685–12691 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, M. R. Lewis, S. D. McLean, M. S. Twardowski, S. A. Freeman, K. J. Voss, and G. C. Boynton, “Spectra of particulate backscattering in natural waters,” Opt. Express 17, 16192–16208 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. S. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences 5, 495–507 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. J. D. Spurr, “LIDORT and VLIDORT. Linearized pseudo-spherical scalar and vector discrete ordinate radiative transfer models for use in remote sensing retrieval problems,” Light Scattering Rev. 3, 229–271 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

2005 (1)

2003 (4)

A. A. Kokhanovsky, “Parameterization of the Mueller matrix of oceanic waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3175 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Schroeder, H. Barth, and R. Reuter, “Effect of inelastic scattering on underwater daylight in the ocean: model evaluation, validation, and first results,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4244–4260 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, S. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P.C. Simon, and H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by SOLSPEC Spectrometer from the ATLAS 123 and EURECA missions,” Solar Phys. 214, 1–22 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. R. Morrison, “In situ determination of the quantum yield of phytoplankton chlorophyll a fluorescence: A simple algorithm, observations, and a model,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 618–631 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

2001 (3)

1999 (2)

G. Fournier and M. Jonasz, “Computer-based underwater imaging analysis,” Proc. SPIE 3761, 62–70 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gordon, “Contribution of Raman scattering to water-leaving radiance: a reexamination,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3166–3174 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

J. S. Bartlett, K. J. Voss, S. Sathyendranath, and A. Vodacek, “Raman scattering by pure water and seawater,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3324–3332 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J Geophys. Res. 103, 31033–31044 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (3)

R. M. Pope and E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II Integrating measurements,” Appl Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, M. D. DeGrandpre, E. T. Peltzer, and R. K. Nelson, “Seasonal variation of CDOM and DOC in the Middle Atlantic Bight: terrestrial inputs and photooxidation,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 674–686 (1997)
[Crossref]

C. M. Hu and K. J. Voss, “In situ measurements of Raman scattering in clear ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6962–6967 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

Y. Ge, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, “In situ measurements of inelastic scattering in Monterey Bay using solar Fraunhofer lines,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13227–13236 (1995).
[Crossref]

K. J. Waters, “Effects of Raman scattering on water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13151–13161 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (3)

S. A. Green and N. V. Blough, “Optical absorption and fluorescence properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1903–1916 (1994)
[Crossref]

G. W. Kattawar and X. Xu, “Detecting Raman scattering in the ocean by use of polarimetry,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 222–233 (1994).
[Crossref]

G. Fourier and J. L. Forand, “Analytic phase function for ocean water,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 194–201 (1994).
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1993 (2)

1992 (3)

G. W. Kattawar and X. Xu, “Filling in of Fraunhofer lines in the ocean by Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6491–6500 (1992).
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K. J. Voss, “A spectral model of the beam attenuation coefficient in the ocean and coastal areas,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 501–509 (1992).
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S. K. Hawes, C. K. Carder, and G. R. Harvey, “Quantum fluorescence efficiencies of fulvic and humic acids: effects on ocean color and fluorometric detection,” Proc. SPIE 1750, 212–223 (1992).
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1990 (2)

A. M. Kouassi, R. G. Zika, and J. M. C. Plane, “Light-induced alteration of the photophysical properties of dissolved organic matter in sea water,” Neth. J. Sea Res. 27, 33–41 (1990).
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B. R. Marshall and R. C. Smith, “Raman scattering and in- water ocean optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 29, 71–84 (1990).
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1989 (2)

G. W. Kattawar and C. N. Adams, “Stokes vector calculations of the submarine light field in an atmosphere-ocean with scattering according to a Rayleigh phase matrix: effect of interface refractive index on radiance and polarization,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1453–1472 (1989).
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A. Morel and J. F. Berthon, “Surface pigments, algal biomass profiles, and potential production of the euphotic layer: Relationships reinvestigated in view of remote-sensing applications,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1545–1562 (1989).
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1988 (2)

R. W. Preisendorfer and C. D. Mobley, “Theory of fluorescent irradiance fields in natural waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 93D, 10831–10855 (1988).
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R. H. Stavn and A. D. Weidemann, “Optical modeling of clear ocean light fields: Raman scattering effects,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4002–4011 (1988).
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1986 (1)

K. Masuda and T. Takashima, “Computational accuracy of radiation emerging from the ocean surface in the model atmosphere - ocean system,” Pap. Met. Geophys. 37, 1–13 (1986).
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1984 (3)

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, and N. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward irradiance in the sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397–404 (1984).
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K. J. Voss and E. S. Fry, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water,” Appl Opt. 23, 4427–4439 (1984).
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J. Fischer and H. Grassl, “Radiative transfer in an atmosphere-ocean system: an azimuthally dependent matrix operator approach,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1032–1039 (1984).
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1983 (1)

T. Nakajima and M. Tanaka, “Effect of wind-generated waves on the transfer of solar radiation in the atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 29, 521–537 (1983).
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1982 (1)

Z. Ahmad and R. S. Fraser, “An iterative radiative transfer code for ocean-atmosphere systems,” J. Atmos. Sci. 39, 656–665 (1982).
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1981 (1)

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53, (1981).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

1974 (1)

J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

N. Braslau and J. V. Dave, “Effect of aerosols on the transfer of solar energy through realistic model atmospheres. Part I: non-absorbing aerosols,” J. Appl. Meteor. 12, 601–615 (1973).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

G. E. Walrafen, “Raman spectral studies of effects of temperature on water structure,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 114–126 (1967).
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1954 (1)

Adams, C. N.

G. W. Kattawar and C. N. Adams, “Stokes vector calculations of the submarine light field in an atmosphere-ocean with scattering according to a Rayleigh phase matrix: effect of interface refractive index on radiance and polarization,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1453–1472 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, Z.

Z. Ahmad and R. S. Fraser, “An iterative radiative transfer code for ocean-atmosphere systems,” J. Atmos. Sci. 39, 656–665 (1982).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, S.

Allali, K.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J Geophys. Res. 103, 31033–31044 (1998).
[Crossref]

Babikov, Y.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Babin, M.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J Geophys. Res. 103, 31033–31044 (1998).
[Crossref]

Barbe, A.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barth, H.

Bartlett, J. S.

Behrenfeld, M. J.

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescence reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosciences 6, 779–794, (2009).
[Crossref]

Bernath, P.F.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Berthon, J. F.

A. Morel and J. F. Berthon, “Surface pigments, algal biomass profiles, and potential production of the euphotic layer: Relationships reinvestigated in view of remote-sensing applications,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1545–1562 (1989).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bizzocchi, L.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Blough, N. V.

A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, M. D. DeGrandpre, E. T. Peltzer, and R. K. Nelson, “Seasonal variation of CDOM and DOC in the Middle Atlantic Bight: terrestrial inputs and photooxidation,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 674–686 (1997)
[Crossref]

S. A. Green and N. V. Blough, “Optical absorption and fluorescence properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1903–1916 (1994)
[Crossref]

Boss, E.

Boss, E. S.

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescence reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosciences 6, 779–794, (2009).
[Crossref]

Boudon, V.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bovchaliuk, A.

F. Xu, O. Dubovik, P. Zhai, D. J. Diner, O.V. Kalashnikova, F. C. Seidel, P. Litvinov, A. Bovchaliuk, M. J. Garay, G. van Harten, and A. B. Davis, “Joint retrieval of aerosol and water-leaving radiance from multispectral, multiangular and polarimetric measurements over ocean,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 9, 2877–2907 (2016).
[Crossref]

Boynton, G. C.

Bracher, A.

A. Wolanin, V. Rozanov, T. Dinter, and A. Bracher, “Detecting CDOM fluorescence using high spectrally resolved satellite data: a model study,” in Towards an Interdisciplinary Approach in Earth System Science, G. Lohmann, H. Meggers, V. Unnithan, D. Wolf-Gladrow, J. Notholt, and A. Bracher, eds. (Springer Earth System Sciences, 2015).

Braslau, N.

N. Braslau and J. V. Dave, “Effect of aerosols on the transfer of solar energy through realistic model atmospheres. Part I: non-absorbing aerosols,” J. Appl. Meteor. 12, 601–615 (1973).
[Crossref]

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J Geophys. Res. 103, 31033–31044 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53, (1981).
[Crossref]

Brown, L.R.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Buehler, S. A.

P. Eriksson, S. A. Buehler, C. P. Davis, C. Emde, and O. Lemke, “ARTS, the atmospheric radiative transfer simulator, Version 2,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112, 1551–1558 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cacciari, A.

Cairns, B.

Campargue, A.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Carder, C. K.

S. K. Hawes, C. K. Carder, and G. R. Harvey, “Quantum fluorescence efficiencies of fulvic and humic acids: effects on ocean color and fluorometric detection,” Proc. SPIE 1750, 212–223 (1992).
[Crossref]

Chaikovskaya, L. I.

Chami, M.

Chance, K.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Charlock, T. P.

Chowdhary, J.

Chris Benner, D.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Claustre, H.

J. Uitz, H. Claustre, A. Morel, and S. B. Hooker, “Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: An assessment based on surface chlorophyll,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C08005 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J Geophys. Res. 103, 31033–31044 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cohen, E.A.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Coudert, L.H.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cox, C.

Dall’Olmo, G.

M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, E. S. Boss, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, J. D. Wiggert, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. C. Doney, J. K. Moore, G. Dall’Olmo, A. J. Milligan, I. Lima, and N. Mahowald, “Satellite-detected fluorescence reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton,” Biogeosciences 6, 779–794, (2009).
[Crossref]

Dave, J. V.

N. Braslau and J. V. Dave, “Effect of aerosols on the transfer of solar energy through realistic model atmospheres. Part I: non-absorbing aerosols,” J. Appl. Meteor. 12, 601–615 (1973).
[Crossref]

Davis, A. B.

F. Xu, O. Dubovik, P. Zhai, D. J. Diner, O.V. Kalashnikova, F. C. Seidel, P. Litvinov, A. Bovchaliuk, M. J. Garay, G. van Harten, and A. B. Davis, “Joint retrieval of aerosol and water-leaving radiance from multispectral, multiangular and polarimetric measurements over ocean,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 9, 2877–2907 (2016).
[Crossref]

Davis, C. P.

P. Eriksson, S. A. Buehler, C. P. Davis, C. Emde, and O. Lemke, “ARTS, the atmospheric radiative transfer simulator, Version 2,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112, 1551–1558 (2011).
[Crossref]

DeGrandpre, M. D.

A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, M. D. DeGrandpre, E. T. Peltzer, and R. K. Nelson, “Seasonal variation of CDOM and DOC in the Middle Atlantic Bight: terrestrial inputs and photooxidation,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 674–686 (1997)
[Crossref]

Devi, V.M.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Single scattering albedo of ocean waters for a set of [Chla] values

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Chlorophyll concentration profile for a set of [Chla]surf values

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absolute and relative inelastic scattering contribution to a detector just below the ocean surface for a set of [Chla]surf values. The Y-axis labels denote the different quantities plotted. The subscript R, Y, and C denotes Raman, FDOM, and chlorophyll fluorescence, respectively. The legend in Fig. 3(a) applies to all figures in Fig. 3. Note the different wavelength range in Figs. 3(e) and 3(f).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fraction of inelastic scattering just below the ocean surface as a function of viewing zenith angle in the principal plane.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fraction of CDOM fluorescence and Raman scattering at nadir as a function of detector depth.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fraction of chlorophyll a fluorescence at 685 nm at nadir as a function of detector depth.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Angular distribution of DoLP at 685 nm for elastic scattering and total (elastic + inelastic) scattering at two different detector locations. [Chla]surf =0.1 mg m−3. (a) Elastic scattering for a detector just below ocean surface. (b) Total scattering for a detector just below the ocean surface. (c) Elastic scattering for a detector 30 meters below the ocean surface. (d) Total scattering for a detector 30 meters below the ocean surface.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

DoLP at 685 nm as a function of viewing zenith angle for three azimuth plane at two different detector locations. [Chla]surf =0.1 mg m−3. (a) Detector just below ocean surface. (b) Detector 30 m below ocean surface

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Angular distribution of the orientation of the polarization ellipse (OPE) for elastic scattering and total (elastic + inelastic) scattering at two different detector locations. [Chla]surf =0.1 mg m−3. (a) Elastic scattering for a detector just below ocean surface. (b) Total scattering for a detector just below ocean surface. (c) Elastic scattering for a detector 30 meters below the ocean surface. (d) Total scattering for a detector 30 meters below the ocean surface.

Equations (26)

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μ d L ( z , μ , ϕ , λ ) d z = c ( z , λ ) L ( z , μ , ϕ , λ ) + S ( z , μ 0 , μ , ϕ , λ ) + S i ( z , μ 0 , μ , ϕ , λ ) ,
S i = S R + S Y + S C ,
S F ( z , μ , ϕ , λ ) = 0 0 2 π 1 1 b F ( z , λ , λ e ) P F ( z , μ , ϕ , μ , ϕ , λ , λ e ) L ( z , μ , ϕ , λ e ) d μ d ϕ d λ e ,
P F , i j = { 1 / ( 4 π ) , i j = 11 , 0 , i 1 or j 1 .
b F ( z , λ , λ e ) = a F ( z , λ e ) f F ( z , λ , λ e ) ,
f F ( z , λ , λ e ) = η F ( z , λ , λ e ) λ e / λ ,
η Y ( λ , λ e ) = g Y ( λ e ) A 0 ( λ e ) exp { [ 1 / λ A 1 / λ e B 1 0.6 ( A 2 / λ e + B 2 ) ] 2 } ,
g Y = { 1 , 310 λ e 490 nm ; 0 , λ 3 > 490 or λ e < 310 nm .
η C ( λ , λ e ) = Φ C ( λ e ) g C ( λ e ) h C ( λ ) ,
Φ C ( λ e ) = 0 η C ( λ , λ e ) d λ ;
g C = { 1 , 370 λ e 690 nm ; 0 , λ e > 690 or λ e < 370 nm .
h C ( λ ) = 1 2 π σ C exp [ ( λ λ C , 0 ) 2 2 σ C 2 ] ,
c ( λ , [ Chla ] ) = c w ( λ ) + c p ( λ , [ Chla ] ) + c Y ( λ , [ Chla ] ) ,
c w ( λ ) = a w ( λ ) + b w ( λ ) , c p ( λ , [ Chla ] ) = a p ( λ , [ Chla ] ) + b p ( λ , [ Chla ] ) , c Y ( λ , [ Chla ] ) = a Y ( λ , [ Chla ] ) + b Y ( λ , [ Chla ] ) .
b w ( λ ) = 0.00193 ( 550 / λ ) 4.32 .
c p ( λ , [ Chla ] ) = c p ( 550 , [ Chla ] ) ( 550 / λ ) n 1 , c p ( 550 , [ Chla ] ) = p 1 [ Chla ] 0.57 , n 1 = 0.4 + 1.6 + 1.2 R 1 1 + [ Chla ] 0.5 ,
a Y ( λ , [ Chla ] ) = a Y ( 440 , [ Chla ] ) exp ( 0.014 ( λ 440 ) ) , a Y ( 440 , [ Chla ] ) = p 2 a p ( 440 , [ Chla ] ) , p 2 = 0.3 + 5.7 R 2 a p ( 440 , [ Chla ] ) 0.02 + a p ( 440 , [ Chla ] ) .
B b p ( [ Chla ] ) = 0.002 + 0.01 ( 0.5 0.25 log 10 [ Chla ] ) .
P 11 = ( b p P 11 , p ( Θ ) + b w P 11 , w ( Θ ) ) / ( b p + b w ) ,
[ Chla ] Zeu = A [ Chla ] surf B ,
Z eu = 568.2 ( [ Chla ] Zeu ) 0.746 .
ζ = z / Z eu , [ Chla ] Zeu ¯ = [ Chla ] Zeu / Z eu , χ = [ Chla ] / [ Chla ] Zeu ¯ .
χ ( ζ ) = χ b s ζ + χ max exp { [ ( ζ ζ max ) / Δ ζ ] 2 } ,
[ Chla ] ( ζ ) = [ Chla ] surf χ ( ζ ) χ ( ζ = 0 ) ,
DoLP = Q 2 + U 2 / I .
OPE = arctan ( U / Q ) 2 ,

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