Abstract

Radial junction nanopillar Si solar cells are interesting for cost effective efficiency improvement. Here, we address a convenient top-down fabrication of Si nanopillar solar cells using spin-on doping and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) for conformal PN junction formation. Broadband suppressed reflection as low as an average of 5% in the 300-1100 nm wavelength range and un-optimized cell efficiency of 7.3% are achieved. The solar cell performance can be improved by optimization of spin-on-doping and suitable surface passivation. Overall, the all RTA processed, spin-on doped nanopillar radial junction solar cell shows a very promising route for low cost and high efficiency thin film solar cell perspectives.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. M. M. Adachi, M. P. Anantram, and K. S. Karim, “Core-shell silicon nanowire solar cells,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1546 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

R. Elbersen, W. Vijselaar, R. M. Tiggelaar, H. Gardeniers, and J. Huskens, “Fabrication and doping methods for silicon nano and micropillar Arrays for solar cell applications: A Review,” Adv. Mater. 27(43), 6781–6796 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

J. S. Sadhu, H. Tian, T. Spila, J. Kim, B. Azeredo, P. Ferreira, and S. Sinha, “Controllable doping and wrap-around contacts to electrolessly etched silicon nanowire arrays,” Nanotechnology 25(37), 375701 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. D. Choudhury, R. Casquel, M. J. Bañuls, F. J. Sanza, M. F. Laguna, M. Holgado, R. Puchades, A. Maquieira, C. A. Barrios, and S. Anand, “Silicon nanopillar arrays with SiO2 overlayer for biosensing application,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(7), 1345 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

O. Breitenstein, “Understanding the current-voltage characteristics of industrial crystalline silicon solar cells by considering inhomogeneous current distributions,” Opto-Electro. Rev. 21(3), 259–282 (2013).

M. M. Adachi, M. P. Anantram, and K. S. Karim, “Core-shell silicon nanowire solar cells,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1546 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Lee, H. Kim, H. M. Li, A. R. Jang, Y. D. Lim, S. N. Cha, Y. J. Park, D. J. Kang, and W. J. Yoo, “Hybrid energy harvester based on nanopillar solar cells and PVDF nanogenerator,” Nanotechnology 24(17), 175402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

J. Oh, H. C. Yuan, and H. M. Branz, “An 18.2%-efficient black-silicon solar cell achieved through control of carrier recombination in nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 743–748 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Wang and P. W. Leu, “Enhanced absorption in silicon nanocone arrays for photovoltaics,” Nanotechnology 23(19), 194003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

E. C. Garnett, M. L. Brongersma, Y. Cui, and M. D. McGehee, “Nanowire solar cells,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 41(1), 269–295 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. R. Catchpole, S. Mokkapati, and F. J. Beck, “Comparing nanowire, multijunction, and single junction solar cells in the presence of light trapping,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084519 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Kumar, S. K. Srivastava, P. K. Singh, M. Husain, and V. Kumar, “Fabrication of Silicon nanowire arrays based solar cell with improved performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 215–218 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Dan, K. Seo, K. Takei, J. H. Meza, A. Javey, and K. B. Crozier, “Dramatic reduction of surface recombination by in situ surface passivation of silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2527–2532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

E. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lu and A. Lal, “High-Efficiency ordered silicon nano-conical-frustum array solar cells by self-powered parallel electron lithography,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4651–4656 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

J. C. Ho, R. Yerushalmi, Z. A. Jacobson, Z. Fan, R. L. Alley, and A. Javey, “Controlled nanoscale doping of semiconductors via molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 62–67 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 133108 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
[Crossref]

Z. T. Zhu, E. Menard, K. Hurley, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Spin on dopants for high-performance single-crystal silicon transistors on flexible plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 133507 (2005).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. F. Nijs, J. Szlufcik, J. Poortmans, S. Sivoththaman, and R. P. Mertens, “Advanced manufacturing concepts for crystalline silicon Solar Cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 46(10), 1948–1969 (1999).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

B. Hartiti, A. Slaoui, J. C. Muller, R. Stuck, and P. Siffert, “Phosphorus diffusion into silicon from a spin-on source using rapid thermal processing,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(11), 5474–5478 (1992).
[Crossref]

A. Usami, M. Ando, M. Tsunekane, and T. Wada, “Shallow junction formation on silicon by rapid thermal diffusion of impurities from a spin-on source,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 39(1), 105–110 (1992).
[Crossref]

Adachi, M. M.

M. M. Adachi, M. P. Anantram, and K. S. Karim, “Core-shell silicon nanowire solar cells,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1546 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alley, R. L.

J. C. Ho, R. Yerushalmi, Z. A. Jacobson, Z. Fan, R. L. Alley, and A. Javey, “Controlled nanoscale doping of semiconductors via molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 62–67 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anand, S.

Anantram, M. P.

M. M. Adachi, M. P. Anantram, and K. S. Karim, “Core-shell silicon nanowire solar cells,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1546 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ando, M.

A. Usami, M. Ando, M. Tsunekane, and T. Wada, “Shallow junction formation on silicon by rapid thermal diffusion of impurities from a spin-on source,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 39(1), 105–110 (1992).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
[Crossref]

Azeredo, B.

J. S. Sadhu, H. Tian, T. Spila, J. Kim, B. Azeredo, P. Ferreira, and S. Sinha, “Controllable doping and wrap-around contacts to electrolessly etched silicon nanowire arrays,” Nanotechnology 25(37), 375701 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bagnall, D. M.

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 133108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bañuls, M. J.

Barrios, C. A.

Beck, F. J.

K. R. Catchpole, S. Mokkapati, and F. J. Beck, “Comparing nanowire, multijunction, and single junction solar cells in the presence of light trapping,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084519 (2011).
[Crossref]

Boden, S. A.

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 133108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Boettcher, S. W.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Branz, H. M.

J. Oh, H. C. Yuan, and H. M. Branz, “An 18.2%-efficient black-silicon solar cell achieved through control of carrier recombination in nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 743–748 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Breitenstein, O.

O. Breitenstein, “Understanding the current-voltage characteristics of industrial crystalline silicon solar cells by considering inhomogeneous current distributions,” Opto-Electro. Rev. 21(3), 259–282 (2013).

Briggs, R. M.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

E. C. Garnett, M. L. Brongersma, Y. Cui, and M. D. McGehee, “Nanowire solar cells,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 41(1), 269–295 (2011).
[Crossref]

Casquel, R.

Catchpole, K. R.

K. R. Catchpole, S. Mokkapati, and F. J. Beck, “Comparing nanowire, multijunction, and single junction solar cells in the presence of light trapping,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084519 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cha, S. N.

D. Y. Lee, H. Kim, H. M. Li, A. R. Jang, Y. D. Lim, S. N. Cha, Y. J. Park, D. J. Kang, and W. J. Yoo, “Hybrid energy harvester based on nanopillar solar cells and PVDF nanogenerator,” Nanotechnology 24(17), 175402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choudhury, B. D.

Crozier, K. B.

Y. Dan, K. Seo, K. Takei, J. H. Meza, A. Javey, and K. B. Crozier, “Dramatic reduction of surface recombination by in situ surface passivation of silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2527–2532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, Y.

E. C. Garnett, M. L. Brongersma, Y. Cui, and M. D. McGehee, “Nanowire solar cells,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 41(1), 269–295 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dan, Y.

Y. Dan, K. Seo, K. Takei, J. H. Meza, A. Javey, and K. B. Crozier, “Dramatic reduction of surface recombination by in situ surface passivation of silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2527–2532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elbersen, R.

R. Elbersen, W. Vijselaar, R. M. Tiggelaar, H. Gardeniers, and J. Huskens, “Fabrication and doping methods for silicon nano and micropillar Arrays for solar cell applications: A Review,” Adv. Mater. 27(43), 6781–6796 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, Z.

J. C. Ho, R. Yerushalmi, Z. A. Jacobson, Z. Fan, R. L. Alley, and A. Javey, “Controlled nanoscale doping of semiconductors via molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 62–67 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferreira, P.

J. S. Sadhu, H. Tian, T. Spila, J. Kim, B. Azeredo, P. Ferreira, and S. Sinha, “Controllable doping and wrap-around contacts to electrolessly etched silicon nanowire arrays,” Nanotechnology 25(37), 375701 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gardeniers, H.

R. Elbersen, W. Vijselaar, R. M. Tiggelaar, H. Gardeniers, and J. Huskens, “Fabrication and doping methods for silicon nano and micropillar Arrays for solar cell applications: A Review,” Adv. Mater. 27(43), 6781–6796 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garnett, E.

E. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garnett, E. C.

E. C. Garnett, M. L. Brongersma, Y. Cui, and M. D. McGehee, “Nanowire solar cells,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 41(1), 269–295 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hartiti, B.

B. Hartiti, A. Slaoui, J. C. Muller, R. Stuck, and P. Siffert, “Phosphorus diffusion into silicon from a spin-on source using rapid thermal processing,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(11), 5474–5478 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ho, J. C.

J. C. Ho, R. Yerushalmi, Z. A. Jacobson, Z. Fan, R. L. Alley, and A. Javey, “Controlled nanoscale doping of semiconductors via molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 62–67 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holgado, M.

Hu, L.

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hurley, K.

Z. T. Zhu, E. Menard, K. Hurley, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Spin on dopants for high-performance single-crystal silicon transistors on flexible plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 133507 (2005).
[Crossref]

Husain, M.

D. Kumar, S. K. Srivastava, P. K. Singh, M. Husain, and V. Kumar, “Fabrication of Silicon nanowire arrays based solar cell with improved performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 215–218 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huskens, J.

R. Elbersen, W. Vijselaar, R. M. Tiggelaar, H. Gardeniers, and J. Huskens, “Fabrication and doping methods for silicon nano and micropillar Arrays for solar cell applications: A Review,” Adv. Mater. 27(43), 6781–6796 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacobson, Z. A.

J. C. Ho, R. Yerushalmi, Z. A. Jacobson, Z. Fan, R. L. Alley, and A. Javey, “Controlled nanoscale doping of semiconductors via molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 62–67 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jang, A. R.

D. Y. Lee, H. Kim, H. M. Li, A. R. Jang, Y. D. Lim, S. N. Cha, Y. J. Park, D. J. Kang, and W. J. Yoo, “Hybrid energy harvester based on nanopillar solar cells and PVDF nanogenerator,” Nanotechnology 24(17), 175402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Javey, A.

Y. Dan, K. Seo, K. Takei, J. H. Meza, A. Javey, and K. B. Crozier, “Dramatic reduction of surface recombination by in situ surface passivation of silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2527–2532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Ho, R. Yerushalmi, Z. A. Jacobson, Z. Fan, R. L. Alley, and A. Javey, “Controlled nanoscale doping of semiconductors via molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 62–67 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, D. J.

D. Y. Lee, H. Kim, H. M. Li, A. R. Jang, Y. D. Lim, S. N. Cha, Y. J. Park, D. J. Kang, and W. J. Yoo, “Hybrid energy harvester based on nanopillar solar cells and PVDF nanogenerator,” Nanotechnology 24(17), 175402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karim, K. S.

M. M. Adachi, M. P. Anantram, and K. S. Karim, “Core-shell silicon nanowire solar cells,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1546 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kayes, B. M.

B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kelzenberg, M. D.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Kim, H.

D. Y. Lee, H. Kim, H. M. Li, A. R. Jang, Y. D. Lim, S. N. Cha, Y. J. Park, D. J. Kang, and W. J. Yoo, “Hybrid energy harvester based on nanopillar solar cells and PVDF nanogenerator,” Nanotechnology 24(17), 175402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

J. S. Sadhu, H. Tian, T. Spila, J. Kim, B. Azeredo, P. Ferreira, and S. Sinha, “Controllable doping and wrap-around contacts to electrolessly etched silicon nanowire arrays,” Nanotechnology 25(37), 375701 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar, D.

D. Kumar, S. K. Srivastava, P. K. Singh, M. Husain, and V. Kumar, “Fabrication of Silicon nanowire arrays based solar cell with improved performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 215–218 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kumar, V.

D. Kumar, S. K. Srivastava, P. K. Singh, M. Husain, and V. Kumar, “Fabrication of Silicon nanowire arrays based solar cell with improved performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 215–218 (2011).
[Crossref]

Laguna, M. F.

Lal, A.

Y. Lu and A. Lal, “High-Efficiency ordered silicon nano-conical-frustum array solar cells by self-powered parallel electron lithography,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4651–4656 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, D. Y.

D. Y. Lee, H. Kim, H. M. Li, A. R. Jang, Y. D. Lim, S. N. Cha, Y. J. Park, D. J. Kang, and W. J. Yoo, “Hybrid energy harvester based on nanopillar solar cells and PVDF nanogenerator,” Nanotechnology 24(17), 175402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leu, P. W.

B. Wang and P. W. Leu, “Enhanced absorption in silicon nanocone arrays for photovoltaics,” Nanotechnology 23(19), 194003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lewis, N. S.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
[Crossref]

Li, H. M.

D. Y. Lee, H. Kim, H. M. Li, A. R. Jang, Y. D. Lim, S. N. Cha, Y. J. Park, D. J. Kang, and W. J. Yoo, “Hybrid energy harvester based on nanopillar solar cells and PVDF nanogenerator,” Nanotechnology 24(17), 175402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, Y. D.

D. Y. Lee, H. Kim, H. M. Li, A. R. Jang, Y. D. Lim, S. N. Cha, Y. J. Park, D. J. Kang, and W. J. Yoo, “Hybrid energy harvester based on nanopillar solar cells and PVDF nanogenerator,” Nanotechnology 24(17), 175402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C.

Lu, Y.

Y. Lu and A. Lal, “High-Efficiency ordered silicon nano-conical-frustum array solar cells by self-powered parallel electron lithography,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4651–4656 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maquieira, A.

McGehee, M. D.

E. C. Garnett, M. L. Brongersma, Y. Cui, and M. D. McGehee, “Nanowire solar cells,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 41(1), 269–295 (2011).
[Crossref]

Menard, E.

Z. T. Zhu, E. Menard, K. Hurley, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Spin on dopants for high-performance single-crystal silicon transistors on flexible plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 133507 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mertens, R. P.

J. F. Nijs, J. Szlufcik, J. Poortmans, S. Sivoththaman, and R. P. Mertens, “Advanced manufacturing concepts for crystalline silicon Solar Cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 46(10), 1948–1969 (1999).
[Crossref]

Meza, J. H.

Y. Dan, K. Seo, K. Takei, J. H. Meza, A. Javey, and K. B. Crozier, “Dramatic reduction of surface recombination by in situ surface passivation of silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2527–2532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mokkapati, S.

K. R. Catchpole, S. Mokkapati, and F. J. Beck, “Comparing nanowire, multijunction, and single junction solar cells in the presence of light trapping,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084519 (2011).
[Crossref]

Muller, J. C.

B. Hartiti, A. Slaoui, J. C. Muller, R. Stuck, and P. Siffert, “Phosphorus diffusion into silicon from a spin-on source using rapid thermal processing,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(11), 5474–5478 (1992).
[Crossref]

Nijs, J. F.

J. F. Nijs, J. Szlufcik, J. Poortmans, S. Sivoththaman, and R. P. Mertens, “Advanced manufacturing concepts for crystalline silicon Solar Cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 46(10), 1948–1969 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nuzzo, R. G.

Z. T. Zhu, E. Menard, K. Hurley, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Spin on dopants for high-performance single-crystal silicon transistors on flexible plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 133507 (2005).
[Crossref]

Oh, J.

J. Oh, H. C. Yuan, and H. M. Branz, “An 18.2%-efficient black-silicon solar cell achieved through control of carrier recombination in nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 743–748 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, Y. J.

D. Y. Lee, H. Kim, H. M. Li, A. R. Jang, Y. D. Lim, S. N. Cha, Y. J. Park, D. J. Kang, and W. J. Yoo, “Hybrid energy harvester based on nanopillar solar cells and PVDF nanogenerator,” Nanotechnology 24(17), 175402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petykiewicz, J. A.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Poortmans, J.

J. F. Nijs, J. Szlufcik, J. Poortmans, S. Sivoththaman, and R. P. Mertens, “Advanced manufacturing concepts for crystalline silicon Solar Cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 46(10), 1948–1969 (1999).
[Crossref]

Povinelli, M. L.

Puchades, R.

Putnam, M. C.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Rogers, J. A.

Z. T. Zhu, E. Menard, K. Hurley, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Spin on dopants for high-performance single-crystal silicon transistors on flexible plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 133507 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sadhu, J. S.

J. S. Sadhu, H. Tian, T. Spila, J. Kim, B. Azeredo, P. Ferreira, and S. Sinha, “Controllable doping and wrap-around contacts to electrolessly etched silicon nanowire arrays,” Nanotechnology 25(37), 375701 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanza, F. J.

Seo, K.

Y. Dan, K. Seo, K. Takei, J. H. Meza, A. Javey, and K. B. Crozier, “Dramatic reduction of surface recombination by in situ surface passivation of silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2527–2532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siffert, P.

B. Hartiti, A. Slaoui, J. C. Muller, R. Stuck, and P. Siffert, “Phosphorus diffusion into silicon from a spin-on source using rapid thermal processing,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(11), 5474–5478 (1992).
[Crossref]

Singh, P. K.

D. Kumar, S. K. Srivastava, P. K. Singh, M. Husain, and V. Kumar, “Fabrication of Silicon nanowire arrays based solar cell with improved performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 215–218 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sinha, S.

J. S. Sadhu, H. Tian, T. Spila, J. Kim, B. Azeredo, P. Ferreira, and S. Sinha, “Controllable doping and wrap-around contacts to electrolessly etched silicon nanowire arrays,” Nanotechnology 25(37), 375701 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sivoththaman, S.

J. F. Nijs, J. Szlufcik, J. Poortmans, S. Sivoththaman, and R. P. Mertens, “Advanced manufacturing concepts for crystalline silicon Solar Cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 46(10), 1948–1969 (1999).
[Crossref]

Slaoui, A.

B. Hartiti, A. Slaoui, J. C. Muller, R. Stuck, and P. Siffert, “Phosphorus diffusion into silicon from a spin-on source using rapid thermal processing,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(11), 5474–5478 (1992).
[Crossref]

Spila, T.

J. S. Sadhu, H. Tian, T. Spila, J. Kim, B. Azeredo, P. Ferreira, and S. Sinha, “Controllable doping and wrap-around contacts to electrolessly etched silicon nanowire arrays,” Nanotechnology 25(37), 375701 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spurgeon, J. M.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Srivastava, S. K.

D. Kumar, S. K. Srivastava, P. K. Singh, M. Husain, and V. Kumar, “Fabrication of Silicon nanowire arrays based solar cell with improved performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 215–218 (2011).
[Crossref]

Stuck, R.

B. Hartiti, A. Slaoui, J. C. Muller, R. Stuck, and P. Siffert, “Phosphorus diffusion into silicon from a spin-on source using rapid thermal processing,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(11), 5474–5478 (1992).
[Crossref]

Szlufcik, J.

J. F. Nijs, J. Szlufcik, J. Poortmans, S. Sivoththaman, and R. P. Mertens, “Advanced manufacturing concepts for crystalline silicon Solar Cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 46(10), 1948–1969 (1999).
[Crossref]

Takei, K.

Y. Dan, K. Seo, K. Takei, J. H. Meza, A. Javey, and K. B. Crozier, “Dramatic reduction of surface recombination by in situ surface passivation of silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2527–2532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, H.

J. S. Sadhu, H. Tian, T. Spila, J. Kim, B. Azeredo, P. Ferreira, and S. Sinha, “Controllable doping and wrap-around contacts to electrolessly etched silicon nanowire arrays,” Nanotechnology 25(37), 375701 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tiggelaar, R. M.

R. Elbersen, W. Vijselaar, R. M. Tiggelaar, H. Gardeniers, and J. Huskens, “Fabrication and doping methods for silicon nano and micropillar Arrays for solar cell applications: A Review,” Adv. Mater. 27(43), 6781–6796 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsunekane, M.

A. Usami, M. Ando, M. Tsunekane, and T. Wada, “Shallow junction formation on silicon by rapid thermal diffusion of impurities from a spin-on source,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 39(1), 105–110 (1992).
[Crossref]

Turner-Evans, D. B.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Usami, A.

A. Usami, M. Ando, M. Tsunekane, and T. Wada, “Shallow junction formation on silicon by rapid thermal diffusion of impurities from a spin-on source,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 39(1), 105–110 (1992).
[Crossref]

Vijselaar, W.

R. Elbersen, W. Vijselaar, R. M. Tiggelaar, H. Gardeniers, and J. Huskens, “Fabrication and doping methods for silicon nano and micropillar Arrays for solar cell applications: A Review,” Adv. Mater. 27(43), 6781–6796 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wada, T.

A. Usami, M. Ando, M. Tsunekane, and T. Wada, “Shallow junction formation on silicon by rapid thermal diffusion of impurities from a spin-on source,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 39(1), 105–110 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wang, B.

B. Wang and P. W. Leu, “Enhanced absorption in silicon nanocone arrays for photovoltaics,” Nanotechnology 23(19), 194003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Warren, E. L.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Yang, P.

E. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yerushalmi, R.

J. C. Ho, R. Yerushalmi, Z. A. Jacobson, Z. Fan, R. L. Alley, and A. Javey, “Controlled nanoscale doping of semiconductors via molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 62–67 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoo, W. J.

D. Y. Lee, H. Kim, H. M. Li, A. R. Jang, Y. D. Lim, S. N. Cha, Y. J. Park, D. J. Kang, and W. J. Yoo, “Hybrid energy harvester based on nanopillar solar cells and PVDF nanogenerator,” Nanotechnology 24(17), 175402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, H. C.

J. Oh, H. C. Yuan, and H. M. Branz, “An 18.2%-efficient black-silicon solar cell achieved through control of carrier recombination in nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 743–748 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, Z. T.

Z. T. Zhu, E. Menard, K. Hurley, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Spin on dopants for high-performance single-crystal silicon transistors on flexible plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 133507 (2005).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

R. Elbersen, W. Vijselaar, R. M. Tiggelaar, H. Gardeniers, and J. Huskens, “Fabrication and doping methods for silicon nano and micropillar Arrays for solar cell applications: A Review,” Adv. Mater. 27(43), 6781–6796 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (1)

E. C. Garnett, M. L. Brongersma, Y. Cui, and M. D. McGehee, “Nanowire solar cells,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 41(1), 269–295 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Z. T. Zhu, E. Menard, K. Hurley, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Spin on dopants for high-performance single-crystal silicon transistors on flexible plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 133507 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 133108 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. (2)

A. Usami, M. Ando, M. Tsunekane, and T. Wada, “Shallow junction formation on silicon by rapid thermal diffusion of impurities from a spin-on source,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 39(1), 105–110 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. F. Nijs, J. Szlufcik, J. Poortmans, S. Sivoththaman, and R. P. Mertens, “Advanced manufacturing concepts for crystalline silicon Solar Cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 46(10), 1948–1969 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. R. Catchpole, S. Mokkapati, and F. J. Beck, “Comparing nanowire, multijunction, and single junction solar cells in the presence of light trapping,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084519 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Hartiti, A. Slaoui, J. C. Muller, R. Stuck, and P. Siffert, “Phosphorus diffusion into silicon from a spin-on source using rapid thermal processing,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(11), 5474–5478 (1992).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (4)

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lu and A. Lal, “High-Efficiency ordered silicon nano-conical-frustum array solar cells by self-powered parallel electron lithography,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4651–4656 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Dan, K. Seo, K. Takei, J. H. Meza, A. Javey, and K. B. Crozier, “Dramatic reduction of surface recombination by in situ surface passivation of silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2527–2532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (3)

D. Y. Lee, H. Kim, H. M. Li, A. R. Jang, Y. D. Lim, S. N. Cha, Y. J. Park, D. J. Kang, and W. J. Yoo, “Hybrid energy harvester based on nanopillar solar cells and PVDF nanogenerator,” Nanotechnology 24(17), 175402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Sadhu, H. Tian, T. Spila, J. Kim, B. Azeredo, P. Ferreira, and S. Sinha, “Controllable doping and wrap-around contacts to electrolessly etched silicon nanowire arrays,” Nanotechnology 25(37), 375701 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Wang and P. W. Leu, “Enhanced absorption in silicon nanocone arrays for photovoltaics,” Nanotechnology 23(19), 194003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (2)

J. C. Ho, R. Yerushalmi, Z. A. Jacobson, Z. Fan, R. L. Alley, and A. Javey, “Controlled nanoscale doping of semiconductors via molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 62–67 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

J. Oh, H. C. Yuan, and H. M. Branz, “An 18.2%-efficient black-silicon solar cell achieved through control of carrier recombination in nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 743–748 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Opto-Electro. Rev. (1)

O. Breitenstein, “Understanding the current-voltage characteristics of industrial crystalline silicon solar cells by considering inhomogeneous current distributions,” Opto-Electro. Rev. 21(3), 259–282 (2013).

Sci. Rep. (1)

M. M. Adachi, M. P. Anantram, and K. S. Karim, “Core-shell silicon nanowire solar cells,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1546 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

D. Kumar, S. K. Srivastava, P. K. Singh, M. Husain, and V. Kumar, “Fabrication of Silicon nanowire arrays based solar cell with improved performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 215–218 (2011).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) 2D Contour plot of AM1.5 weighted average absorption for different average diameter and period combinations. The inset shows the reflection (MR) and transmission monitor (MT) positions; (b) Weighted average absorption (WAA) for different pillar height (or for different substrate thickness) at fixed substrate thickness (or at fixed pillar height).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic illustration of radial junction solar cell with top and bottom contacts; (b) 25° tilted scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of fabricated radial junction Si pillar with ITO contact.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) measurements of P diffusion profile for three different temperatures on planar cell; (b) Measured and simulated total reflectivity for Si pillar and measured total reflectivity for planar samples, with and without ITO coating

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Current –voltage measurement under solar AM 1.5 illumination conditions for SOD planar cell, standard planar cell and SOD radial junction nanopillar cell

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Solar cell efficiency and J-V parameters of three different fabricated Si solar cells

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

WAA= 300nm 1100nm I AM1.5 (λ)A(λ) 300nm 1100nm I AM1.5 (λ)
A(λ)=1R(λ)T(λ)

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