Abstract

Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) helps enhance the visibility for tumor imaging. When a high-Z contrast agent interacts with X-rays across its K-edge, X-ray photoelectric absorption would experience a sudden increment, resulting in a significant difference of the X-ray transmission intensity between the left and right energy windows of the K-edge. Using photon-counting detectors, the X-ray intensity data in the left and right windows of the K-edge can be measured simultaneously. The differential information of the two kinds of intensity data reflects the contrast-agent concentration distribution. K-edge differences between various matters allow opportunities for the identification of contrast agents in biomedical applications. In this paper, a general radon transform is established to link the contrast-agent concentration to X-ray intensity measurement data. An iterative algorithm is proposed to reconstruct a contrast-agent distribution and tissue attenuation background simultaneously. Comprehensive numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the merits of the proposed method over the existing K-edge imaging methods. Our results show that the proposed method accurately quantifies a distribution of a contrast agent, optimizing the contrast-to-noise ratio at a high dose efficiency.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (5)

K. B. Ghaghada, A. F. Sato, Z. A. Starosolski, J. Berg, and D. M. Vail, “Computed tomography imaging of solid tumors using a liposomal-Iodine contrast agent in companion dogs with naturally occurring cancer,” PLoS One 11(3), e0152718 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Meng, W. Cong, Y. Xi, B. De Man, and G. Wang, “Energy window optimization for X-ray K-edge tomographic imaging,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 63(8), 1623–1630 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Yang, W. Cong, Y. Xi, and G. Wang, “Spectral X-ray CT image reconstruction with a combination of energy-integrating and photon-counting detectors,” PLoS One 11(5), e0155374 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Akiba, J. Alozy, R. Aoude, M. van Beuzekom, J. Buytaert, P. Collins, A. D. Suárez, R. Dumps, A. Gallas, and C. Hombach, “Characterisation of Medipix3 silicon detectors in a charged-particle beam,” Physics (College Park Md.) 11(1), 262–265 (2016).

Y. Lee, A. C. Lee, and H.-J. Kim, “A Monte Carlo simulation study of an improved K-edge log-subtraction X-ray imaging using a photon counting CdTe detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A. 830, 381–390 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

W. Cong, Y. Xi, and G. Wang, “X-ray fluorescence computed tomography with polycapillary focusing,” IEEE Access 2, 1138–1142 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Meng, W. Cong, Y. Xi, and G. Wang, “Image reconstruction for X-ray K-edge imaging with photon counting detector,” Proc. SPIE 9212, 921219 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

L. F. N. D. Carramate, F. Nachtrab, M. Firsching, A. L. M. Silva, A. M. da Silva, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and N. Uhlmann, “Energy resolving CT systems using Medipix2 and MHSP detectors,” J. Instrum. 8(03), 101–109 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, L. Tlustos, and W. Wong, “Medipix3: A 64k pixel detector readout chip working in single photon counting mode with improved spectrometric performance,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 633(1), S15–S18 (2012).

Z. Yu, F. Noo, F. Dennerlein, A. Wunderlich, G. Lauritsch, and J. Hornegger, “Simulation tools for two-dimensional experiments in X-ray computed tomography using the FORBILD head phantom,” Phys. Med. Biol. 57(13), N237–N252 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Tanaka, N. Sato, H. Fujioka, Y. Takahashi, K. Kimura, M. Iwamoto, and K. Uchiyama, “Use of contrast-enhanced computed tomography in clinical staging of asymptomatic breast cancer patients to detect asymptomatic distant metastases,” Oncol. Lett. 3(4), 772–776 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011 (1)

Y. Xi, R. Tang, Y. Wang, and J. Zhao, “Microbubbles as contrast agent for in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(1), 011101 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

A. K. Carton, C. Ullberg, K. Lindman, R. Acciavatti, T. Francke, and A. D. A. Maidment, “Optimization of a dual-energy contrast-enhanced technique for a photon-counting digital breast tomosynthesis system: I. A theoretical model,” Med. Phys. 37(11), 5896–5907 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Bones, A. P. Butler, J. P. Ronaldson, and A. M. Opie, “Development of a CT scanner based on the Medipix family of detectors,” Proc. SPIE 7804, 780412 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Schültke, S. Fiedler, C. Nemoz, L. Ogieglo, M. E. Kelly, P. Crawford, F. Esteve, T. Brochard, M. Renier, H. Requardt, G. Le Duc, B. Juurlink, and K. Meguro, “Synchrotron-based intra-venous K-edge digital subtraction angiography in a pig model: A feasibility study,” Eur. J. Radiol. 73(3), 677–681 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

J. S. Iwanczyk, E. Nygård, O. Meirav, J. Arenson, W. C. Barber, N. E. Hartsough, N. Malakhov, and J. C. Wessel, “Photon counting energy dispersive detector arrays for X-ray imaging,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(3), 535–542 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. N. Primak, J. C. Ramirez Giraldo, X. Liu, L. Yu, and C. H. McCollough, “Improved dual-energy material discrimination for dual-source CT by means of additional spectral filtration,” Med. Phys. 36(4), 1359–1369 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, L. Yu, A. N. Primak, and C. H. McCollough, “Quantitative imaging of element composition and mass fraction using dual-energy CT: three-material decomposition,” Med. Phys. 36(5), 1602–1609 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. K. Udayasankar, J. Li, D. A. Baumgarten, W. C. Small, and M. K. Kalra, “Acute abdominal pain: value of non-contrast enhanced ultra-low-dose multi-detector row CT as a substitute for abdominal radiographs,” Emerg. Radiol. 16(1), 61–70 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Firsching, A. P. Butler, N. Scott, N. G. Anderson, T. Michel, and G. Anton, “Contrast agent recognition in small animal CT using the Medipix2 detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 607(1), 179–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J. P. Schlomka, E. Roessl, R. Dorscheid, S. Dill, G. Martens, T. Istel, C. Bäumer, C. Herrmann, R. Steadman, G. Zeitler, A. Livne, and R. Proksa, “Experimental feasibility of multi-energy photon-counting K-edge imaging in pre-clinical computed tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(15), 4031–4047 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, E. H. M. Heijne, X. Llopart, and L. Tlustos, “The Medipix3 prototype, a pixel readout chip working in single photon counting mode with improved spectrometric performance,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(5), 1824–1829 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. Roessl and R. Proksa, “K-edge imaging in x-ray computed tomography using multi-bin photon counting detectors,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(15), 4679–4696 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. D. Man, S. Basu, N. Chandra, B. Dunham, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, S. McOlash, P. Sainath, C. Shaughnessy, and B. Tower, “CatSim: a new computer assisted tomography simulation environment,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65102G (2007).

2006 (2)

A. Peterzol, A. Bravin, P. Coan, and H. Elleaume, “Performance of the K-edge digital subtraction angiography imaging system at the European synchrotron radiation facility,” Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry 117(1-3), 44–49 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Baldelli, A. Bravin, C. Di Maggio, G. Gennaro, A. Sarnelli, A. Taibi, and M. Gambaccini, “Evaluation of the minimum iodine concentration for contrast-enhanced subtraction mammography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(17), 4233–4251 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

B. Heismann, J. Leppert, and K. Stierstorfer, “Density and atomic number measurements with spectral X-ray attenuation method,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(3), 2073–2079 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. M. Lewin, P. K. Isaacs, V. Vance, and F. J. Larke, “Dual-energy contrast-enhanced digital subtraction mammography: Feasibility,” Radiology 229(1), 261–268 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. Skarpathiotakis, M. J. Yaffe, A. K. Bloomquist, D. Rico, S. Muller, A. Rick, and F. Jeunehomme, “Development of contrast digital mammography,” Med. Phys. 29(10), 2419–2426 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

D. S. Gierada and K. T. Bae, “Gadolinium as a CT contrast agent: Assessment in a porcine model,” Radiology 210(3), 829–834 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

E. Rubenstein, G. S. Brown, D. C. Harrison, R. Hofstadter, E. B. Hughes, R. S. Kernoff, J. N. Otis, A. C. Thompson, and H. D. Zeman, “Synchrotron radiation for transvenous coronary angiography,” Trans. Am. Clin. Climatol. Assoc. 97(1), 27–31 (1986).
[PubMed]

1976 (1)

R. E. Alvarez and A. Macovski, “Energy-selective reconstructions in X-ray computerized tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 21(5), 733–744 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1958 (1)

B. Jacobson and R. S. Mackay, “Radiological contrast enhancing methods,” Adv. Biol. Med. Phys. 6(6), 201–261 (1958).
[PubMed]

Acciavatti, R.

A. K. Carton, C. Ullberg, K. Lindman, R. Acciavatti, T. Francke, and A. D. A. Maidment, “Optimization of a dual-energy contrast-enhanced technique for a photon-counting digital breast tomosynthesis system: I. A theoretical model,” Med. Phys. 37(11), 5896–5907 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akiba, K.

K. Akiba, J. Alozy, R. Aoude, M. van Beuzekom, J. Buytaert, P. Collins, A. D. Suárez, R. Dumps, A. Gallas, and C. Hombach, “Characterisation of Medipix3 silicon detectors in a charged-particle beam,” Physics (College Park Md.) 11(1), 262–265 (2016).

Alozy, J.

K. Akiba, J. Alozy, R. Aoude, M. van Beuzekom, J. Buytaert, P. Collins, A. D. Suárez, R. Dumps, A. Gallas, and C. Hombach, “Characterisation of Medipix3 silicon detectors in a charged-particle beam,” Physics (College Park Md.) 11(1), 262–265 (2016).

Alvarez, R. E.

R. E. Alvarez and A. Macovski, “Energy-selective reconstructions in X-ray computerized tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 21(5), 733–744 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, N. G.

M. Firsching, A. P. Butler, N. Scott, N. G. Anderson, T. Michel, and G. Anton, “Contrast agent recognition in small animal CT using the Medipix2 detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 607(1), 179–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Anton, G.

M. Firsching, A. P. Butler, N. Scott, N. G. Anderson, T. Michel, and G. Anton, “Contrast agent recognition in small animal CT using the Medipix2 detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 607(1), 179–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Aoude, R.

K. Akiba, J. Alozy, R. Aoude, M. van Beuzekom, J. Buytaert, P. Collins, A. D. Suárez, R. Dumps, A. Gallas, and C. Hombach, “Characterisation of Medipix3 silicon detectors in a charged-particle beam,” Physics (College Park Md.) 11(1), 262–265 (2016).

Arenson, J.

J. S. Iwanczyk, E. Nygård, O. Meirav, J. Arenson, W. C. Barber, N. E. Hartsough, N. Malakhov, and J. C. Wessel, “Photon counting energy dispersive detector arrays for X-ray imaging,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(3), 535–542 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bae, K. T.

D. S. Gierada and K. T. Bae, “Gadolinium as a CT contrast agent: Assessment in a porcine model,” Radiology 210(3), 829–834 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baldelli, P.

P. Baldelli, A. Bravin, C. Di Maggio, G. Gennaro, A. Sarnelli, A. Taibi, and M. Gambaccini, “Evaluation of the minimum iodine concentration for contrast-enhanced subtraction mammography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(17), 4233–4251 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ballabriga, R.

R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, L. Tlustos, and W. Wong, “Medipix3: A 64k pixel detector readout chip working in single photon counting mode with improved spectrometric performance,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 633(1), S15–S18 (2012).

R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, E. H. M. Heijne, X. Llopart, and L. Tlustos, “The Medipix3 prototype, a pixel readout chip working in single photon counting mode with improved spectrometric performance,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(5), 1824–1829 (2007).
[Crossref]

Barber, W. C.

J. S. Iwanczyk, E. Nygård, O. Meirav, J. Arenson, W. C. Barber, N. E. Hartsough, N. Malakhov, and J. C. Wessel, “Photon counting energy dispersive detector arrays for X-ray imaging,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(3), 535–542 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Basu, S.

B. D. Man, S. Basu, N. Chandra, B. Dunham, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, S. McOlash, P. Sainath, C. Shaughnessy, and B. Tower, “CatSim: a new computer assisted tomography simulation environment,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65102G (2007).

Bäumer, C.

J. P. Schlomka, E. Roessl, R. Dorscheid, S. Dill, G. Martens, T. Istel, C. Bäumer, C. Herrmann, R. Steadman, G. Zeitler, A. Livne, and R. Proksa, “Experimental feasibility of multi-energy photon-counting K-edge imaging in pre-clinical computed tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(15), 4031–4047 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumgarten, D. A.

U. K. Udayasankar, J. Li, D. A. Baumgarten, W. C. Small, and M. K. Kalra, “Acute abdominal pain: value of non-contrast enhanced ultra-low-dose multi-detector row CT as a substitute for abdominal radiographs,” Emerg. Radiol. 16(1), 61–70 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bell, S.

S. Pani, S. C. Saifuddin, F. I. Ferreira, J. W. Scuffham, P. Stratmann, M. D. Wilson, M. C. Veale, S. Bell, P. Seller, and P. J. Sellin, “Optimization of K-edge subtraction imaging using a pixellated spectroscopic detector,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging (IEEE, 2012), pp. 3063–3066.
[Crossref]

Berg, J.

K. B. Ghaghada, A. F. Sato, Z. A. Starosolski, J. Berg, and D. M. Vail, “Computed tomography imaging of solid tumors using a liposomal-Iodine contrast agent in companion dogs with naturally occurring cancer,” PLoS One 11(3), e0152718 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bloomquist, A. K.

M. Skarpathiotakis, M. J. Yaffe, A. K. Bloomquist, D. Rico, S. Muller, A. Rick, and F. Jeunehomme, “Development of contrast digital mammography,” Med. Phys. 29(10), 2419–2426 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bones, P. J.

P. J. Bones, A. P. Butler, J. P. Ronaldson, and A. M. Opie, “Development of a CT scanner based on the Medipix family of detectors,” Proc. SPIE 7804, 780412 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bravin, A.

A. Peterzol, A. Bravin, P. Coan, and H. Elleaume, “Performance of the K-edge digital subtraction angiography imaging system at the European synchrotron radiation facility,” Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry 117(1-3), 44–49 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Baldelli, A. Bravin, C. Di Maggio, G. Gennaro, A. Sarnelli, A. Taibi, and M. Gambaccini, “Evaluation of the minimum iodine concentration for contrast-enhanced subtraction mammography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(17), 4233–4251 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brochard, T.

E. Schültke, S. Fiedler, C. Nemoz, L. Ogieglo, M. E. Kelly, P. Crawford, F. Esteve, T. Brochard, M. Renier, H. Requardt, G. Le Duc, B. Juurlink, and K. Meguro, “Synchrotron-based intra-venous K-edge digital subtraction angiography in a pig model: A feasibility study,” Eur. J. Radiol. 73(3), 677–681 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, G. S.

E. Rubenstein, G. S. Brown, D. C. Harrison, R. Hofstadter, E. B. Hughes, R. S. Kernoff, J. N. Otis, A. C. Thompson, and H. D. Zeman, “Synchrotron radiation for transvenous coronary angiography,” Trans. Am. Clin. Climatol. Assoc. 97(1), 27–31 (1986).
[PubMed]

Butler, A. P.

P. J. Bones, A. P. Butler, J. P. Ronaldson, and A. M. Opie, “Development of a CT scanner based on the Medipix family of detectors,” Proc. SPIE 7804, 780412 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Firsching, A. P. Butler, N. Scott, N. G. Anderson, T. Michel, and G. Anton, “Contrast agent recognition in small animal CT using the Medipix2 detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 607(1), 179–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Buytaert, J.

K. Akiba, J. Alozy, R. Aoude, M. van Beuzekom, J. Buytaert, P. Collins, A. D. Suárez, R. Dumps, A. Gallas, and C. Hombach, “Characterisation of Medipix3 silicon detectors in a charged-particle beam,” Physics (College Park Md.) 11(1), 262–265 (2016).

Campbell, M.

R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, L. Tlustos, and W. Wong, “Medipix3: A 64k pixel detector readout chip working in single photon counting mode with improved spectrometric performance,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 633(1), S15–S18 (2012).

R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, E. H. M. Heijne, X. Llopart, and L. Tlustos, “The Medipix3 prototype, a pixel readout chip working in single photon counting mode with improved spectrometric performance,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(5), 1824–1829 (2007).
[Crossref]

Carramate, L. F. N. D.

L. F. N. D. Carramate, F. Nachtrab, M. Firsching, A. L. M. Silva, A. M. da Silva, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and N. Uhlmann, “Energy resolving CT systems using Medipix2 and MHSP detectors,” J. Instrum. 8(03), 101–109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Carton, A. K.

A. K. Carton, C. Ullberg, K. Lindman, R. Acciavatti, T. Francke, and A. D. A. Maidment, “Optimization of a dual-energy contrast-enhanced technique for a photon-counting digital breast tomosynthesis system: I. A theoretical model,” Med. Phys. 37(11), 5896–5907 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chandra, N.

B. D. Man, S. Basu, N. Chandra, B. Dunham, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, S. McOlash, P. Sainath, C. Shaughnessy, and B. Tower, “CatSim: a new computer assisted tomography simulation environment,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65102G (2007).

Coan, P.

A. Peterzol, A. Bravin, P. Coan, and H. Elleaume, “Performance of the K-edge digital subtraction angiography imaging system at the European synchrotron radiation facility,” Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry 117(1-3), 44–49 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Collins, P.

K. Akiba, J. Alozy, R. Aoude, M. van Beuzekom, J. Buytaert, P. Collins, A. D. Suárez, R. Dumps, A. Gallas, and C. Hombach, “Characterisation of Medipix3 silicon detectors in a charged-particle beam,” Physics (College Park Md.) 11(1), 262–265 (2016).

Cong, W.

Q. Yang, W. Cong, Y. Xi, and G. Wang, “Spectral X-ray CT image reconstruction with a combination of energy-integrating and photon-counting detectors,” PLoS One 11(5), e0155374 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Meng, W. Cong, Y. Xi, B. De Man, and G. Wang, “Energy window optimization for X-ray K-edge tomographic imaging,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 63(8), 1623–1630 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Meng, W. Cong, Y. Xi, and G. Wang, “Image reconstruction for X-ray K-edge imaging with photon counting detector,” Proc. SPIE 9212, 921219 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Cong, Y. Xi, and G. Wang, “X-ray fluorescence computed tomography with polycapillary focusing,” IEEE Access 2, 1138–1142 (2014).
[Crossref]

Crawford, P.

E. Schültke, S. Fiedler, C. Nemoz, L. Ogieglo, M. E. Kelly, P. Crawford, F. Esteve, T. Brochard, M. Renier, H. Requardt, G. Le Duc, B. Juurlink, and K. Meguro, “Synchrotron-based intra-venous K-edge digital subtraction angiography in a pig model: A feasibility study,” Eur. J. Radiol. 73(3), 677–681 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

da Silva, A. M.

L. F. N. D. Carramate, F. Nachtrab, M. Firsching, A. L. M. Silva, A. M. da Silva, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and N. Uhlmann, “Energy resolving CT systems using Medipix2 and MHSP detectors,” J. Instrum. 8(03), 101–109 (2013).
[Crossref]

De Man, B.

B. Meng, W. Cong, Y. Xi, B. De Man, and G. Wang, “Energy window optimization for X-ray K-edge tomographic imaging,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 63(8), 1623–1630 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dennerlein, F.

Z. Yu, F. Noo, F. Dennerlein, A. Wunderlich, G. Lauritsch, and J. Hornegger, “Simulation tools for two-dimensional experiments in X-ray computed tomography using the FORBILD head phantom,” Phys. Med. Biol. 57(13), N237–N252 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Di Maggio, C.

P. Baldelli, A. Bravin, C. Di Maggio, G. Gennaro, A. Sarnelli, A. Taibi, and M. Gambaccini, “Evaluation of the minimum iodine concentration for contrast-enhanced subtraction mammography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(17), 4233–4251 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dill, S.

J. P. Schlomka, E. Roessl, R. Dorscheid, S. Dill, G. Martens, T. Istel, C. Bäumer, C. Herrmann, R. Steadman, G. Zeitler, A. Livne, and R. Proksa, “Experimental feasibility of multi-energy photon-counting K-edge imaging in pre-clinical computed tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(15), 4031–4047 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dorscheid, R.

J. P. Schlomka, E. Roessl, R. Dorscheid, S. Dill, G. Martens, T. Istel, C. Bäumer, C. Herrmann, R. Steadman, G. Zeitler, A. Livne, and R. Proksa, “Experimental feasibility of multi-energy photon-counting K-edge imaging in pre-clinical computed tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(15), 4031–4047 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dumps, R.

K. Akiba, J. Alozy, R. Aoude, M. van Beuzekom, J. Buytaert, P. Collins, A. D. Suárez, R. Dumps, A. Gallas, and C. Hombach, “Characterisation of Medipix3 silicon detectors in a charged-particle beam,” Physics (College Park Md.) 11(1), 262–265 (2016).

Dunham, B.

B. D. Man, S. Basu, N. Chandra, B. Dunham, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, S. McOlash, P. Sainath, C. Shaughnessy, and B. Tower, “CatSim: a new computer assisted tomography simulation environment,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65102G (2007).

Edic, P.

B. D. Man, S. Basu, N. Chandra, B. Dunham, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, S. McOlash, P. Sainath, C. Shaughnessy, and B. Tower, “CatSim: a new computer assisted tomography simulation environment,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65102G (2007).

Elleaume, H.

A. Peterzol, A. Bravin, P. Coan, and H. Elleaume, “Performance of the K-edge digital subtraction angiography imaging system at the European synchrotron radiation facility,” Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry 117(1-3), 44–49 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Esteve, F.

E. Schültke, S. Fiedler, C. Nemoz, L. Ogieglo, M. E. Kelly, P. Crawford, F. Esteve, T. Brochard, M. Renier, H. Requardt, G. Le Duc, B. Juurlink, and K. Meguro, “Synchrotron-based intra-venous K-edge digital subtraction angiography in a pig model: A feasibility study,” Eur. J. Radiol. 73(3), 677–681 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferreira, F. I.

S. Pani, S. C. Saifuddin, F. I. Ferreira, J. W. Scuffham, P. Stratmann, M. D. Wilson, M. C. Veale, S. Bell, P. Seller, and P. J. Sellin, “Optimization of K-edge subtraction imaging using a pixellated spectroscopic detector,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging (IEEE, 2012), pp. 3063–3066.
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Fiedler, S.

E. Schültke, S. Fiedler, C. Nemoz, L. Ogieglo, M. E. Kelly, P. Crawford, F. Esteve, T. Brochard, M. Renier, H. Requardt, G. Le Duc, B. Juurlink, and K. Meguro, “Synchrotron-based intra-venous K-edge digital subtraction angiography in a pig model: A feasibility study,” Eur. J. Radiol. 73(3), 677–681 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Firsching, M.

L. F. N. D. Carramate, F. Nachtrab, M. Firsching, A. L. M. Silva, A. M. da Silva, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and N. Uhlmann, “Energy resolving CT systems using Medipix2 and MHSP detectors,” J. Instrum. 8(03), 101–109 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Firsching, A. P. Butler, N. Scott, N. G. Anderson, T. Michel, and G. Anton, “Contrast agent recognition in small animal CT using the Medipix2 detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 607(1), 179–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Francke, T.

A. K. Carton, C. Ullberg, K. Lindman, R. Acciavatti, T. Francke, and A. D. A. Maidment, “Optimization of a dual-energy contrast-enhanced technique for a photon-counting digital breast tomosynthesis system: I. A theoretical model,” Med. Phys. 37(11), 5896–5907 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujioka, H.

S. Tanaka, N. Sato, H. Fujioka, Y. Takahashi, K. Kimura, M. Iwamoto, and K. Uchiyama, “Use of contrast-enhanced computed tomography in clinical staging of asymptomatic breast cancer patients to detect asymptomatic distant metastases,” Oncol. Lett. 3(4), 772–776 (2012).
[PubMed]

Gallas, A.

K. Akiba, J. Alozy, R. Aoude, M. van Beuzekom, J. Buytaert, P. Collins, A. D. Suárez, R. Dumps, A. Gallas, and C. Hombach, “Characterisation of Medipix3 silicon detectors in a charged-particle beam,” Physics (College Park Md.) 11(1), 262–265 (2016).

Gambaccini, M.

P. Baldelli, A. Bravin, C. Di Maggio, G. Gennaro, A. Sarnelli, A. Taibi, and M. Gambaccini, “Evaluation of the minimum iodine concentration for contrast-enhanced subtraction mammography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(17), 4233–4251 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gennaro, G.

P. Baldelli, A. Bravin, C. Di Maggio, G. Gennaro, A. Sarnelli, A. Taibi, and M. Gambaccini, “Evaluation of the minimum iodine concentration for contrast-enhanced subtraction mammography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(17), 4233–4251 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghaghada, K. B.

K. B. Ghaghada, A. F. Sato, Z. A. Starosolski, J. Berg, and D. M. Vail, “Computed tomography imaging of solid tumors using a liposomal-Iodine contrast agent in companion dogs with naturally occurring cancer,” PLoS One 11(3), e0152718 (2016).
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Gierada, D. S.

D. S. Gierada and K. T. Bae, “Gadolinium as a CT contrast agent: Assessment in a porcine model,” Radiology 210(3), 829–834 (1999).
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Harrison, D. C.

E. Rubenstein, G. S. Brown, D. C. Harrison, R. Hofstadter, E. B. Hughes, R. S. Kernoff, J. N. Otis, A. C. Thompson, and H. D. Zeman, “Synchrotron radiation for transvenous coronary angiography,” Trans. Am. Clin. Climatol. Assoc. 97(1), 27–31 (1986).
[PubMed]

Hartsough, N. E.

J. S. Iwanczyk, E. Nygård, O. Meirav, J. Arenson, W. C. Barber, N. E. Hartsough, N. Malakhov, and J. C. Wessel, “Photon counting energy dispersive detector arrays for X-ray imaging,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(3), 535–542 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heijne, E.

R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, L. Tlustos, and W. Wong, “Medipix3: A 64k pixel detector readout chip working in single photon counting mode with improved spectrometric performance,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 633(1), S15–S18 (2012).

Heijne, E. H. M.

R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, E. H. M. Heijne, X. Llopart, and L. Tlustos, “The Medipix3 prototype, a pixel readout chip working in single photon counting mode with improved spectrometric performance,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(5), 1824–1829 (2007).
[Crossref]

Heismann, B.

B. Heismann, J. Leppert, and K. Stierstorfer, “Density and atomic number measurements with spectral X-ray attenuation method,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(3), 2073–2079 (2003).
[Crossref]

Herrmann, C.

J. P. Schlomka, E. Roessl, R. Dorscheid, S. Dill, G. Martens, T. Istel, C. Bäumer, C. Herrmann, R. Steadman, G. Zeitler, A. Livne, and R. Proksa, “Experimental feasibility of multi-energy photon-counting K-edge imaging in pre-clinical computed tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(15), 4031–4047 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hofstadter, R.

E. Rubenstein, G. S. Brown, D. C. Harrison, R. Hofstadter, E. B. Hughes, R. S. Kernoff, J. N. Otis, A. C. Thompson, and H. D. Zeman, “Synchrotron radiation for transvenous coronary angiography,” Trans. Am. Clin. Climatol. Assoc. 97(1), 27–31 (1986).
[PubMed]

Hombach, C.

K. Akiba, J. Alozy, R. Aoude, M. van Beuzekom, J. Buytaert, P. Collins, A. D. Suárez, R. Dumps, A. Gallas, and C. Hombach, “Characterisation of Medipix3 silicon detectors in a charged-particle beam,” Physics (College Park Md.) 11(1), 262–265 (2016).

Hornegger, J.

Z. Yu, F. Noo, F. Dennerlein, A. Wunderlich, G. Lauritsch, and J. Hornegger, “Simulation tools for two-dimensional experiments in X-ray computed tomography using the FORBILD head phantom,” Phys. Med. Biol. 57(13), N237–N252 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hughes, E. B.

E. Rubenstein, G. S. Brown, D. C. Harrison, R. Hofstadter, E. B. Hughes, R. S. Kernoff, J. N. Otis, A. C. Thompson, and H. D. Zeman, “Synchrotron radiation for transvenous coronary angiography,” Trans. Am. Clin. Climatol. Assoc. 97(1), 27–31 (1986).
[PubMed]

Iatrou, M.

B. D. Man, S. Basu, N. Chandra, B. Dunham, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, S. McOlash, P. Sainath, C. Shaughnessy, and B. Tower, “CatSim: a new computer assisted tomography simulation environment,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65102G (2007).

Isaacs, P. K.

J. M. Lewin, P. K. Isaacs, V. Vance, and F. J. Larke, “Dual-energy contrast-enhanced digital subtraction mammography: Feasibility,” Radiology 229(1), 261–268 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Istel, T.

J. P. Schlomka, E. Roessl, R. Dorscheid, S. Dill, G. Martens, T. Istel, C. Bäumer, C. Herrmann, R. Steadman, G. Zeitler, A. Livne, and R. Proksa, “Experimental feasibility of multi-energy photon-counting K-edge imaging in pre-clinical computed tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(15), 4031–4047 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iwamoto, M.

S. Tanaka, N. Sato, H. Fujioka, Y. Takahashi, K. Kimura, M. Iwamoto, and K. Uchiyama, “Use of contrast-enhanced computed tomography in clinical staging of asymptomatic breast cancer patients to detect asymptomatic distant metastases,” Oncol. Lett. 3(4), 772–776 (2012).
[PubMed]

Iwanczyk, J. S.

J. S. Iwanczyk, E. Nygård, O. Meirav, J. Arenson, W. C. Barber, N. E. Hartsough, N. Malakhov, and J. C. Wessel, “Photon counting energy dispersive detector arrays for X-ray imaging,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(3), 535–542 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacobson, B.

B. Jacobson and R. S. Mackay, “Radiological contrast enhancing methods,” Adv. Biol. Med. Phys. 6(6), 201–261 (1958).
[PubMed]

Jeunehomme, F.

M. Skarpathiotakis, M. J. Yaffe, A. K. Bloomquist, D. Rico, S. Muller, A. Rick, and F. Jeunehomme, “Development of contrast digital mammography,” Med. Phys. 29(10), 2419–2426 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Juurlink, B.

E. Schültke, S. Fiedler, C. Nemoz, L. Ogieglo, M. E. Kelly, P. Crawford, F. Esteve, T. Brochard, M. Renier, H. Requardt, G. Le Duc, B. Juurlink, and K. Meguro, “Synchrotron-based intra-venous K-edge digital subtraction angiography in a pig model: A feasibility study,” Eur. J. Radiol. 73(3), 677–681 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kalra, M. K.

U. K. Udayasankar, J. Li, D. A. Baumgarten, W. C. Small, and M. K. Kalra, “Acute abdominal pain: value of non-contrast enhanced ultra-low-dose multi-detector row CT as a substitute for abdominal radiographs,” Emerg. Radiol. 16(1), 61–70 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kelly, M. E.

E. Schültke, S. Fiedler, C. Nemoz, L. Ogieglo, M. E. Kelly, P. Crawford, F. Esteve, T. Brochard, M. Renier, H. Requardt, G. Le Duc, B. Juurlink, and K. Meguro, “Synchrotron-based intra-venous K-edge digital subtraction angiography in a pig model: A feasibility study,” Eur. J. Radiol. 73(3), 677–681 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kernoff, R. S.

E. Rubenstein, G. S. Brown, D. C. Harrison, R. Hofstadter, E. B. Hughes, R. S. Kernoff, J. N. Otis, A. C. Thompson, and H. D. Zeman, “Synchrotron radiation for transvenous coronary angiography,” Trans. Am. Clin. Climatol. Assoc. 97(1), 27–31 (1986).
[PubMed]

Kim, H.-J.

Y. Lee, A. C. Lee, and H.-J. Kim, “A Monte Carlo simulation study of an improved K-edge log-subtraction X-ray imaging using a photon counting CdTe detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A. 830, 381–390 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kimura, K.

S. Tanaka, N. Sato, H. Fujioka, Y. Takahashi, K. Kimura, M. Iwamoto, and K. Uchiyama, “Use of contrast-enhanced computed tomography in clinical staging of asymptomatic breast cancer patients to detect asymptomatic distant metastases,” Oncol. Lett. 3(4), 772–776 (2012).
[PubMed]

Larke, F. J.

J. M. Lewin, P. K. Isaacs, V. Vance, and F. J. Larke, “Dual-energy contrast-enhanced digital subtraction mammography: Feasibility,” Radiology 229(1), 261–268 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lauritsch, G.

Z. Yu, F. Noo, F. Dennerlein, A. Wunderlich, G. Lauritsch, and J. Hornegger, “Simulation tools for two-dimensional experiments in X-ray computed tomography using the FORBILD head phantom,” Phys. Med. Biol. 57(13), N237–N252 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le Duc, G.

E. Schültke, S. Fiedler, C. Nemoz, L. Ogieglo, M. E. Kelly, P. Crawford, F. Esteve, T. Brochard, M. Renier, H. Requardt, G. Le Duc, B. Juurlink, and K. Meguro, “Synchrotron-based intra-venous K-edge digital subtraction angiography in a pig model: A feasibility study,” Eur. J. Radiol. 73(3), 677–681 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, A. C.

Y. Lee, A. C. Lee, and H.-J. Kim, “A Monte Carlo simulation study of an improved K-edge log-subtraction X-ray imaging using a photon counting CdTe detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A. 830, 381–390 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.

Y. Lee, A. C. Lee, and H.-J. Kim, “A Monte Carlo simulation study of an improved K-edge log-subtraction X-ray imaging using a photon counting CdTe detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A. 830, 381–390 (2016).
[Crossref]

Leppert, J.

B. Heismann, J. Leppert, and K. Stierstorfer, “Density and atomic number measurements with spectral X-ray attenuation method,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(3), 2073–2079 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lewin, J. M.

J. M. Lewin, P. K. Isaacs, V. Vance, and F. J. Larke, “Dual-energy contrast-enhanced digital subtraction mammography: Feasibility,” Radiology 229(1), 261–268 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

U. K. Udayasankar, J. Li, D. A. Baumgarten, W. C. Small, and M. K. Kalra, “Acute abdominal pain: value of non-contrast enhanced ultra-low-dose multi-detector row CT as a substitute for abdominal radiographs,” Emerg. Radiol. 16(1), 61–70 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lindman, K.

A. K. Carton, C. Ullberg, K. Lindman, R. Acciavatti, T. Francke, and A. D. A. Maidment, “Optimization of a dual-energy contrast-enhanced technique for a photon-counting digital breast tomosynthesis system: I. A theoretical model,” Med. Phys. 37(11), 5896–5907 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, L. Yu, A. N. Primak, and C. H. McCollough, “Quantitative imaging of element composition and mass fraction using dual-energy CT: three-material decomposition,” Med. Phys. 36(5), 1602–1609 (2009).
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A. N. Primak, J. C. Ramirez Giraldo, X. Liu, L. Yu, and C. H. McCollough, “Improved dual-energy material discrimination for dual-source CT by means of additional spectral filtration,” Med. Phys. 36(4), 1359–1369 (2009).
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Livne, A.

J. P. Schlomka, E. Roessl, R. Dorscheid, S. Dill, G. Martens, T. Istel, C. Bäumer, C. Herrmann, R. Steadman, G. Zeitler, A. Livne, and R. Proksa, “Experimental feasibility of multi-energy photon-counting K-edge imaging in pre-clinical computed tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(15), 4031–4047 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Llopart, X.

R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, L. Tlustos, and W. Wong, “Medipix3: A 64k pixel detector readout chip working in single photon counting mode with improved spectrometric performance,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 633(1), S15–S18 (2012).

R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, E. H. M. Heijne, X. Llopart, and L. Tlustos, “The Medipix3 prototype, a pixel readout chip working in single photon counting mode with improved spectrometric performance,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(5), 1824–1829 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mackay, R. S.

B. Jacobson and R. S. Mackay, “Radiological contrast enhancing methods,” Adv. Biol. Med. Phys. 6(6), 201–261 (1958).
[PubMed]

Macovski, A.

R. E. Alvarez and A. Macovski, “Energy-selective reconstructions in X-ray computerized tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 21(5), 733–744 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maidment, A. D. A.

A. K. Carton, C. Ullberg, K. Lindman, R. Acciavatti, T. Francke, and A. D. A. Maidment, “Optimization of a dual-energy contrast-enhanced technique for a photon-counting digital breast tomosynthesis system: I. A theoretical model,” Med. Phys. 37(11), 5896–5907 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malakhov, N.

J. S. Iwanczyk, E. Nygård, O. Meirav, J. Arenson, W. C. Barber, N. E. Hartsough, N. Malakhov, and J. C. Wessel, “Photon counting energy dispersive detector arrays for X-ray imaging,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(3), 535–542 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Man, B. D.

B. D. Man, S. Basu, N. Chandra, B. Dunham, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, S. McOlash, P. Sainath, C. Shaughnessy, and B. Tower, “CatSim: a new computer assisted tomography simulation environment,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65102G (2007).

Martens, G.

J. P. Schlomka, E. Roessl, R. Dorscheid, S. Dill, G. Martens, T. Istel, C. Bäumer, C. Herrmann, R. Steadman, G. Zeitler, A. Livne, and R. Proksa, “Experimental feasibility of multi-energy photon-counting K-edge imaging in pre-clinical computed tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(15), 4031–4047 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McCollough, C. H.

A. N. Primak, J. C. Ramirez Giraldo, X. Liu, L. Yu, and C. H. McCollough, “Improved dual-energy material discrimination for dual-source CT by means of additional spectral filtration,” Med. Phys. 36(4), 1359–1369 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, L. Yu, A. N. Primak, and C. H. McCollough, “Quantitative imaging of element composition and mass fraction using dual-energy CT: three-material decomposition,” Med. Phys. 36(5), 1602–1609 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McOlash, S.

B. D. Man, S. Basu, N. Chandra, B. Dunham, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, S. McOlash, P. Sainath, C. Shaughnessy, and B. Tower, “CatSim: a new computer assisted tomography simulation environment,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65102G (2007).

Meguro, K.

E. Schültke, S. Fiedler, C. Nemoz, L. Ogieglo, M. E. Kelly, P. Crawford, F. Esteve, T. Brochard, M. Renier, H. Requardt, G. Le Duc, B. Juurlink, and K. Meguro, “Synchrotron-based intra-venous K-edge digital subtraction angiography in a pig model: A feasibility study,” Eur. J. Radiol. 73(3), 677–681 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meirav, O.

J. S. Iwanczyk, E. Nygård, O. Meirav, J. Arenson, W. C. Barber, N. E. Hartsough, N. Malakhov, and J. C. Wessel, “Photon counting energy dispersive detector arrays for X-ray imaging,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(3), 535–542 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meng, B.

B. Meng, W. Cong, Y. Xi, B. De Man, and G. Wang, “Energy window optimization for X-ray K-edge tomographic imaging,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 63(8), 1623–1630 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Meng, W. Cong, Y. Xi, and G. Wang, “Image reconstruction for X-ray K-edge imaging with photon counting detector,” Proc. SPIE 9212, 921219 (2014).
[Crossref]

Michel, T.

M. Firsching, A. P. Butler, N. Scott, N. G. Anderson, T. Michel, and G. Anton, “Contrast agent recognition in small animal CT using the Medipix2 detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 607(1), 179–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Muller, S.

M. Skarpathiotakis, M. J. Yaffe, A. K. Bloomquist, D. Rico, S. Muller, A. Rick, and F. Jeunehomme, “Development of contrast digital mammography,” Med. Phys. 29(10), 2419–2426 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nachtrab, F.

L. F. N. D. Carramate, F. Nachtrab, M. Firsching, A. L. M. Silva, A. M. da Silva, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and N. Uhlmann, “Energy resolving CT systems using Medipix2 and MHSP detectors,” J. Instrum. 8(03), 101–109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nemoz, C.

E. Schültke, S. Fiedler, C. Nemoz, L. Ogieglo, M. E. Kelly, P. Crawford, F. Esteve, T. Brochard, M. Renier, H. Requardt, G. Le Duc, B. Juurlink, and K. Meguro, “Synchrotron-based intra-venous K-edge digital subtraction angiography in a pig model: A feasibility study,” Eur. J. Radiol. 73(3), 677–681 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noo, F.

Z. Yu, F. Noo, F. Dennerlein, A. Wunderlich, G. Lauritsch, and J. Hornegger, “Simulation tools for two-dimensional experiments in X-ray computed tomography using the FORBILD head phantom,” Phys. Med. Biol. 57(13), N237–N252 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nygård, E.

J. S. Iwanczyk, E. Nygård, O. Meirav, J. Arenson, W. C. Barber, N. E. Hartsough, N. Malakhov, and J. C. Wessel, “Photon counting energy dispersive detector arrays for X-ray imaging,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(3), 535–542 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ogieglo, L.

E. Schültke, S. Fiedler, C. Nemoz, L. Ogieglo, M. E. Kelly, P. Crawford, F. Esteve, T. Brochard, M. Renier, H. Requardt, G. Le Duc, B. Juurlink, and K. Meguro, “Synchrotron-based intra-venous K-edge digital subtraction angiography in a pig model: A feasibility study,” Eur. J. Radiol. 73(3), 677–681 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opie, A. M.

P. J. Bones, A. P. Butler, J. P. Ronaldson, and A. M. Opie, “Development of a CT scanner based on the Medipix family of detectors,” Proc. SPIE 7804, 780412 (2010).
[Crossref]

Otis, J. N.

E. Rubenstein, G. S. Brown, D. C. Harrison, R. Hofstadter, E. B. Hughes, R. S. Kernoff, J. N. Otis, A. C. Thompson, and H. D. Zeman, “Synchrotron radiation for transvenous coronary angiography,” Trans. Am. Clin. Climatol. Assoc. 97(1), 27–31 (1986).
[PubMed]

Pani, S.

S. Pani, S. C. Saifuddin, F. I. Ferreira, J. W. Scuffham, P. Stratmann, M. D. Wilson, M. C. Veale, S. Bell, P. Seller, and P. J. Sellin, “Optimization of K-edge subtraction imaging using a pixellated spectroscopic detector,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging (IEEE, 2012), pp. 3063–3066.
[Crossref]

Peterzol, A.

A. Peterzol, A. Bravin, P. Coan, and H. Elleaume, “Performance of the K-edge digital subtraction angiography imaging system at the European synchrotron radiation facility,” Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry 117(1-3), 44–49 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Primak, A. N.

X. Liu, L. Yu, A. N. Primak, and C. H. McCollough, “Quantitative imaging of element composition and mass fraction using dual-energy CT: three-material decomposition,” Med. Phys. 36(5), 1602–1609 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. N. Primak, J. C. Ramirez Giraldo, X. Liu, L. Yu, and C. H. McCollough, “Improved dual-energy material discrimination for dual-source CT by means of additional spectral filtration,” Med. Phys. 36(4), 1359–1369 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proksa, R.

J. P. Schlomka, E. Roessl, R. Dorscheid, S. Dill, G. Martens, T. Istel, C. Bäumer, C. Herrmann, R. Steadman, G. Zeitler, A. Livne, and R. Proksa, “Experimental feasibility of multi-energy photon-counting K-edge imaging in pre-clinical computed tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(15), 4031–4047 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Roessl and R. Proksa, “K-edge imaging in x-ray computed tomography using multi-bin photon counting detectors,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(15), 4679–4696 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramirez Giraldo, J. C.

A. N. Primak, J. C. Ramirez Giraldo, X. Liu, L. Yu, and C. H. McCollough, “Improved dual-energy material discrimination for dual-source CT by means of additional spectral filtration,” Med. Phys. 36(4), 1359–1369 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Renier, M.

E. Schültke, S. Fiedler, C. Nemoz, L. Ogieglo, M. E. Kelly, P. Crawford, F. Esteve, T. Brochard, M. Renier, H. Requardt, G. Le Duc, B. Juurlink, and K. Meguro, “Synchrotron-based intra-venous K-edge digital subtraction angiography in a pig model: A feasibility study,” Eur. J. Radiol. 73(3), 677–681 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Requardt, H.

E. Schültke, S. Fiedler, C. Nemoz, L. Ogieglo, M. E. Kelly, P. Crawford, F. Esteve, T. Brochard, M. Renier, H. Requardt, G. Le Duc, B. Juurlink, and K. Meguro, “Synchrotron-based intra-venous K-edge digital subtraction angiography in a pig model: A feasibility study,” Eur. J. Radiol. 73(3), 677–681 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rick, A.

M. Skarpathiotakis, M. J. Yaffe, A. K. Bloomquist, D. Rico, S. Muller, A. Rick, and F. Jeunehomme, “Development of contrast digital mammography,” Med. Phys. 29(10), 2419–2426 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rico, D.

M. Skarpathiotakis, M. J. Yaffe, A. K. Bloomquist, D. Rico, S. Muller, A. Rick, and F. Jeunehomme, “Development of contrast digital mammography,” Med. Phys. 29(10), 2419–2426 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roessl, E.

J. P. Schlomka, E. Roessl, R. Dorscheid, S. Dill, G. Martens, T. Istel, C. Bäumer, C. Herrmann, R. Steadman, G. Zeitler, A. Livne, and R. Proksa, “Experimental feasibility of multi-energy photon-counting K-edge imaging in pre-clinical computed tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(15), 4031–4047 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Roessl and R. Proksa, “K-edge imaging in x-ray computed tomography using multi-bin photon counting detectors,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(15), 4679–4696 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ronaldson, J. P.

P. J. Bones, A. P. Butler, J. P. Ronaldson, and A. M. Opie, “Development of a CT scanner based on the Medipix family of detectors,” Proc. SPIE 7804, 780412 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rubenstein, E.

E. Rubenstein, G. S. Brown, D. C. Harrison, R. Hofstadter, E. B. Hughes, R. S. Kernoff, J. N. Otis, A. C. Thompson, and H. D. Zeman, “Synchrotron radiation for transvenous coronary angiography,” Trans. Am. Clin. Climatol. Assoc. 97(1), 27–31 (1986).
[PubMed]

Saifuddin, S. C.

S. Pani, S. C. Saifuddin, F. I. Ferreira, J. W. Scuffham, P. Stratmann, M. D. Wilson, M. C. Veale, S. Bell, P. Seller, and P. J. Sellin, “Optimization of K-edge subtraction imaging using a pixellated spectroscopic detector,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging (IEEE, 2012), pp. 3063–3066.
[Crossref]

Sainath, P.

B. D. Man, S. Basu, N. Chandra, B. Dunham, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, S. McOlash, P. Sainath, C. Shaughnessy, and B. Tower, “CatSim: a new computer assisted tomography simulation environment,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65102G (2007).

Sarnelli, A.

P. Baldelli, A. Bravin, C. Di Maggio, G. Gennaro, A. Sarnelli, A. Taibi, and M. Gambaccini, “Evaluation of the minimum iodine concentration for contrast-enhanced subtraction mammography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(17), 4233–4251 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sato, A. F.

K. B. Ghaghada, A. F. Sato, Z. A. Starosolski, J. Berg, and D. M. Vail, “Computed tomography imaging of solid tumors using a liposomal-Iodine contrast agent in companion dogs with naturally occurring cancer,” PLoS One 11(3), e0152718 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sato, N.

S. Tanaka, N. Sato, H. Fujioka, Y. Takahashi, K. Kimura, M. Iwamoto, and K. Uchiyama, “Use of contrast-enhanced computed tomography in clinical staging of asymptomatic breast cancer patients to detect asymptomatic distant metastases,” Oncol. Lett. 3(4), 772–776 (2012).
[PubMed]

Schlomka, J. P.

J. P. Schlomka, E. Roessl, R. Dorscheid, S. Dill, G. Martens, T. Istel, C. Bäumer, C. Herrmann, R. Steadman, G. Zeitler, A. Livne, and R. Proksa, “Experimental feasibility of multi-energy photon-counting K-edge imaging in pre-clinical computed tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(15), 4031–4047 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schültke, E.

E. Schültke, S. Fiedler, C. Nemoz, L. Ogieglo, M. E. Kelly, P. Crawford, F. Esteve, T. Brochard, M. Renier, H. Requardt, G. Le Duc, B. Juurlink, and K. Meguro, “Synchrotron-based intra-venous K-edge digital subtraction angiography in a pig model: A feasibility study,” Eur. J. Radiol. 73(3), 677–681 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scott, N.

M. Firsching, A. P. Butler, N. Scott, N. G. Anderson, T. Michel, and G. Anton, “Contrast agent recognition in small animal CT using the Medipix2 detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 607(1), 179–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Scuffham, J. W.

S. Pani, S. C. Saifuddin, F. I. Ferreira, J. W. Scuffham, P. Stratmann, M. D. Wilson, M. C. Veale, S. Bell, P. Seller, and P. J. Sellin, “Optimization of K-edge subtraction imaging using a pixellated spectroscopic detector,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging (IEEE, 2012), pp. 3063–3066.
[Crossref]

Seller, P.

S. Pani, S. C. Saifuddin, F. I. Ferreira, J. W. Scuffham, P. Stratmann, M. D. Wilson, M. C. Veale, S. Bell, P. Seller, and P. J. Sellin, “Optimization of K-edge subtraction imaging using a pixellated spectroscopic detector,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging (IEEE, 2012), pp. 3063–3066.
[Crossref]

Sellin, P. J.

S. Pani, S. C. Saifuddin, F. I. Ferreira, J. W. Scuffham, P. Stratmann, M. D. Wilson, M. C. Veale, S. Bell, P. Seller, and P. J. Sellin, “Optimization of K-edge subtraction imaging using a pixellated spectroscopic detector,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging (IEEE, 2012), pp. 3063–3066.
[Crossref]

Shaughnessy, C.

B. D. Man, S. Basu, N. Chandra, B. Dunham, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, S. McOlash, P. Sainath, C. Shaughnessy, and B. Tower, “CatSim: a new computer assisted tomography simulation environment,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65102G (2007).

Silva, A. L. M.

L. F. N. D. Carramate, F. Nachtrab, M. Firsching, A. L. M. Silva, A. M. da Silva, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and N. Uhlmann, “Energy resolving CT systems using Medipix2 and MHSP detectors,” J. Instrum. 8(03), 101–109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Skarpathiotakis, M.

M. Skarpathiotakis, M. J. Yaffe, A. K. Bloomquist, D. Rico, S. Muller, A. Rick, and F. Jeunehomme, “Development of contrast digital mammography,” Med. Phys. 29(10), 2419–2426 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Small, W. C.

U. K. Udayasankar, J. Li, D. A. Baumgarten, W. C. Small, and M. K. Kalra, “Acute abdominal pain: value of non-contrast enhanced ultra-low-dose multi-detector row CT as a substitute for abdominal radiographs,” Emerg. Radiol. 16(1), 61–70 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Starosolski, Z. A.

K. B. Ghaghada, A. F. Sato, Z. A. Starosolski, J. Berg, and D. M. Vail, “Computed tomography imaging of solid tumors using a liposomal-Iodine contrast agent in companion dogs with naturally occurring cancer,” PLoS One 11(3), e0152718 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steadman, R.

J. P. Schlomka, E. Roessl, R. Dorscheid, S. Dill, G. Martens, T. Istel, C. Bäumer, C. Herrmann, R. Steadman, G. Zeitler, A. Livne, and R. Proksa, “Experimental feasibility of multi-energy photon-counting K-edge imaging in pre-clinical computed tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(15), 4031–4047 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stierstorfer, K.

B. Heismann, J. Leppert, and K. Stierstorfer, “Density and atomic number measurements with spectral X-ray attenuation method,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(3), 2073–2079 (2003).
[Crossref]

Stratmann, P.

S. Pani, S. C. Saifuddin, F. I. Ferreira, J. W. Scuffham, P. Stratmann, M. D. Wilson, M. C. Veale, S. Bell, P. Seller, and P. J. Sellin, “Optimization of K-edge subtraction imaging using a pixellated spectroscopic detector,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging (IEEE, 2012), pp. 3063–3066.
[Crossref]

Suárez, A. D.

K. Akiba, J. Alozy, R. Aoude, M. van Beuzekom, J. Buytaert, P. Collins, A. D. Suárez, R. Dumps, A. Gallas, and C. Hombach, “Characterisation of Medipix3 silicon detectors in a charged-particle beam,” Physics (College Park Md.) 11(1), 262–265 (2016).

Taibi, A.

P. Baldelli, A. Bravin, C. Di Maggio, G. Gennaro, A. Sarnelli, A. Taibi, and M. Gambaccini, “Evaluation of the minimum iodine concentration for contrast-enhanced subtraction mammography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(17), 4233–4251 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takahashi, Y.

S. Tanaka, N. Sato, H. Fujioka, Y. Takahashi, K. Kimura, M. Iwamoto, and K. Uchiyama, “Use of contrast-enhanced computed tomography in clinical staging of asymptomatic breast cancer patients to detect asymptomatic distant metastases,” Oncol. Lett. 3(4), 772–776 (2012).
[PubMed]

Tanaka, S.

S. Tanaka, N. Sato, H. Fujioka, Y. Takahashi, K. Kimura, M. Iwamoto, and K. Uchiyama, “Use of contrast-enhanced computed tomography in clinical staging of asymptomatic breast cancer patients to detect asymptomatic distant metastases,” Oncol. Lett. 3(4), 772–776 (2012).
[PubMed]

Tang, R.

Y. Xi, R. Tang, Y. Wang, and J. Zhao, “Microbubbles as contrast agent for in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(1), 011101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Thompson, A. C.

E. Rubenstein, G. S. Brown, D. C. Harrison, R. Hofstadter, E. B. Hughes, R. S. Kernoff, J. N. Otis, A. C. Thompson, and H. D. Zeman, “Synchrotron radiation for transvenous coronary angiography,” Trans. Am. Clin. Climatol. Assoc. 97(1), 27–31 (1986).
[PubMed]

Tlustos, L.

R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, L. Tlustos, and W. Wong, “Medipix3: A 64k pixel detector readout chip working in single photon counting mode with improved spectrometric performance,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 633(1), S15–S18 (2012).

R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, E. H. M. Heijne, X. Llopart, and L. Tlustos, “The Medipix3 prototype, a pixel readout chip working in single photon counting mode with improved spectrometric performance,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(5), 1824–1829 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tower, B.

B. D. Man, S. Basu, N. Chandra, B. Dunham, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, S. McOlash, P. Sainath, C. Shaughnessy, and B. Tower, “CatSim: a new computer assisted tomography simulation environment,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65102G (2007).

Uchiyama, K.

S. Tanaka, N. Sato, H. Fujioka, Y. Takahashi, K. Kimura, M. Iwamoto, and K. Uchiyama, “Use of contrast-enhanced computed tomography in clinical staging of asymptomatic breast cancer patients to detect asymptomatic distant metastases,” Oncol. Lett. 3(4), 772–776 (2012).
[PubMed]

Udayasankar, U. K.

U. K. Udayasankar, J. Li, D. A. Baumgarten, W. C. Small, and M. K. Kalra, “Acute abdominal pain: value of non-contrast enhanced ultra-low-dose multi-detector row CT as a substitute for abdominal radiographs,” Emerg. Radiol. 16(1), 61–70 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uhlmann, N.

L. F. N. D. Carramate, F. Nachtrab, M. Firsching, A. L. M. Silva, A. M. da Silva, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and N. Uhlmann, “Energy resolving CT systems using Medipix2 and MHSP detectors,” J. Instrum. 8(03), 101–109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ullberg, C.

A. K. Carton, C. Ullberg, K. Lindman, R. Acciavatti, T. Francke, and A. D. A. Maidment, “Optimization of a dual-energy contrast-enhanced technique for a photon-counting digital breast tomosynthesis system: I. A theoretical model,” Med. Phys. 37(11), 5896–5907 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vail, D. M.

K. B. Ghaghada, A. F. Sato, Z. A. Starosolski, J. Berg, and D. M. Vail, “Computed tomography imaging of solid tumors using a liposomal-Iodine contrast agent in companion dogs with naturally occurring cancer,” PLoS One 11(3), e0152718 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Beuzekom, M.

K. Akiba, J. Alozy, R. Aoude, M. van Beuzekom, J. Buytaert, P. Collins, A. D. Suárez, R. Dumps, A. Gallas, and C. Hombach, “Characterisation of Medipix3 silicon detectors in a charged-particle beam,” Physics (College Park Md.) 11(1), 262–265 (2016).

Vance, V.

J. M. Lewin, P. K. Isaacs, V. Vance, and F. J. Larke, “Dual-energy contrast-enhanced digital subtraction mammography: Feasibility,” Radiology 229(1), 261–268 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Veale, M. C.

S. Pani, S. C. Saifuddin, F. I. Ferreira, J. W. Scuffham, P. Stratmann, M. D. Wilson, M. C. Veale, S. Bell, P. Seller, and P. J. Sellin, “Optimization of K-edge subtraction imaging using a pixellated spectroscopic detector,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging (IEEE, 2012), pp. 3063–3066.
[Crossref]

Veloso, J. F. C. A.

L. F. N. D. Carramate, F. Nachtrab, M. Firsching, A. L. M. Silva, A. M. da Silva, J. F. C. A. Veloso, and N. Uhlmann, “Energy resolving CT systems using Medipix2 and MHSP detectors,” J. Instrum. 8(03), 101–109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

Q. Yang, W. Cong, Y. Xi, and G. Wang, “Spectral X-ray CT image reconstruction with a combination of energy-integrating and photon-counting detectors,” PLoS One 11(5), e0155374 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Meng, W. Cong, Y. Xi, B. De Man, and G. Wang, “Energy window optimization for X-ray K-edge tomographic imaging,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 63(8), 1623–1630 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Meng, W. Cong, Y. Xi, and G. Wang, “Image reconstruction for X-ray K-edge imaging with photon counting detector,” Proc. SPIE 9212, 921219 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Cong, Y. Xi, and G. Wang, “X-ray fluorescence computed tomography with polycapillary focusing,” IEEE Access 2, 1138–1142 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Y. Xi, R. Tang, Y. Wang, and J. Zhao, “Microbubbles as contrast agent for in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(1), 011101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wessel, J. C.

J. S. Iwanczyk, E. Nygård, O. Meirav, J. Arenson, W. C. Barber, N. E. Hartsough, N. Malakhov, and J. C. Wessel, “Photon counting energy dispersive detector arrays for X-ray imaging,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(3), 535–542 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, M. D.

S. Pani, S. C. Saifuddin, F. I. Ferreira, J. W. Scuffham, P. Stratmann, M. D. Wilson, M. C. Veale, S. Bell, P. Seller, and P. J. Sellin, “Optimization of K-edge subtraction imaging using a pixellated spectroscopic detector,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging (IEEE, 2012), pp. 3063–3066.
[Crossref]

Wong, W.

R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, L. Tlustos, and W. Wong, “Medipix3: A 64k pixel detector readout chip working in single photon counting mode with improved spectrometric performance,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 633(1), S15–S18 (2012).

Wunderlich, A.

Z. Yu, F. Noo, F. Dennerlein, A. Wunderlich, G. Lauritsch, and J. Hornegger, “Simulation tools for two-dimensional experiments in X-ray computed tomography using the FORBILD head phantom,” Phys. Med. Biol. 57(13), N237–N252 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xi, Y.

Q. Yang, W. Cong, Y. Xi, and G. Wang, “Spectral X-ray CT image reconstruction with a combination of energy-integrating and photon-counting detectors,” PLoS One 11(5), e0155374 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Meng, W. Cong, Y. Xi, B. De Man, and G. Wang, “Energy window optimization for X-ray K-edge tomographic imaging,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 63(8), 1623–1630 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Meng, W. Cong, Y. Xi, and G. Wang, “Image reconstruction for X-ray K-edge imaging with photon counting detector,” Proc. SPIE 9212, 921219 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Cong, Y. Xi, and G. Wang, “X-ray fluorescence computed tomography with polycapillary focusing,” IEEE Access 2, 1138–1142 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Xi, R. Tang, Y. Wang, and J. Zhao, “Microbubbles as contrast agent for in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(1), 011101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yaffe, M. J.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Different reconstruction methods with K-edge contrast agents. (a) Conventional CT; (b) K-edge subtraction in the image domain; and (c) K-edge imaging in the projection domain.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Energy window around the K-edge of Iodine.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Numerical phantoms representative of real clinical and preclinical applications. (a) The FORBILD thorax phantom with a 1.5% Gadolinium solution enhanced region in the heart, where the sub region are defined in Table 1; (b) The human body phantom with a contrast enhancement region; (c) the mouse phantom with a contrast enhancement region of 0.1cm diameter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Contrast agent map. (a) The contrast agent map of the FORBILD thorax phantom with the display window [-5e-3, 5e-3], and (b) the contrast agent map of the mouse phantom with the display window [0, 15e-3].

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Difference Varied with Iterative Times.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Attenuation coefficient distributions. (a) An estimated attenuation coefficient distribution before the K-edge. (b) The original attenuation coefficient distribution before the K-edge. (c) An estimated attenuation coefficient distribution after the K-edge. (d) The original attenuation coefficient distribution after the K-edge. The window display is [0, 3000] HU.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

CNR comparison study. (a) Comparison of the three methods in the 1.2 cm ROI with different concentrations of the contrast agent. (b) Comparison of the same methods with the 2 cm ROI. Note that 1 represents K-edge imaging in the projection domain, 2 is for the image domain subtraction, and 3 is for conventional CT.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Study on the 1.2 cm ROI: (a)–(c) K-edge tomographic concentration images of the human phantom with 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.5% gadolinium solution concentrations, respectively. (d)–(f) K-edge subtraction images of the human phantom with 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.5% gadolinium solution concentrations, respectively. (g)–(i) Conventional CT images of the human phantom with 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.5% gadolinium solution concentrations, respectively. The display windows are [-3e-3, 3e-3] for (a)–(c), [0, 1500] HU for (d)–(f), and [0, 2500] HU for (g)–(i).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Study on the 2 cm ROI: (a)–(c) K-edge tomographic concentration images of the human phantom with 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.5% gadolinium solution concentrations, respectively. (d)–(f) K-edge subtraction images of the human phantom with 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.5% gadolinium solution concentrations, respectively. (g)–(i) Conventional CT images of the human phantom with 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.5% gadolinium solution concentrations, respectively. The display windows are [-3e-3, 3e-3] for (a)–(c), [0, 1500] HU for (d)–(f), and [0, 2500] HU for (g)–(i).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Material Type of the Phantom Sub Regions Shown In Fig. 3

Tables Icon

Table 2 CNRs of Three Methods with 1.2cm ROI

Tables Icon

Table 3 CNRs of Three Methods With 2cm ROI

Equations (19)

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I L = ω L I 0 ( E ) e - μ ( r,E )dr dE
I H = ω H I 0 ( E ) e - μ ( r,E )dr dE
ln( I L )ln( I H )=ln( ω L I 0 ( E ) e - μ ( r,E )dr dE )ln( ω H I 0 ( E ) e - μ ( r,E )dr dE )
ln( ω L I 0 ( E ) e - μ ( r,E )dr dE )ln( ω H I 0 ( E ) e - μ ( r,E )dr dE )ln( e μ ¯ L ( r, ω L )dr ω L I 0 ( E ) dE e μ ¯ H ( r, ω H )dr ω H I 0 ( E ) dE )
ln( I L I H )=ln( ω L I 0 ( E ) dE ω H I 0 ( E ) dE )+ μ ¯ H ( r, ω H ) dr μ ¯ L ( r, ω L ) dr
μ mix ( r,E )= α agent ( r ) μ agent ( E )+( 1- α agent ( r ) ) μ tissue ( r,E )
μ ¯ L ( r, ω L )= α agent ( r ) μ ¯ agent_L ( ω L )+( 1- α agent ( r ) ) μ ¯ tissue,L ( r, ω L )
μ ¯ H ( r, ω H )= α agent ( r ) μ ¯ agent_H ( ω H )+( 1- α agent ( r ) ) μ ¯ tissue,H ( r, ω H )
ln( I L I H )=ln( ω L I 0 ( E ) dE ω H I 0 ( E ) dE )+ [ α agent ( r ) μ ¯ agent_H ( ω H )+( 1- α agent ( r ) ) μ ¯ tissue,H ( r, ω H ) ] dr [ α agent ( r ) μ ¯ agent_L ( ω L )+( 1- α agent ( r ) ) μ ¯ tissue,L ( r, ω L ) ] dr
ln( I L I H )ln( ω L I 0 ( E ) dE ω H I 0 ( E ) dE ) [ μ ¯ tissue,H ( r, ω H ) μ ¯ tissue,L ( r, ω L ) ] dr = α agent ( r )[ ( μ ¯ agent_H ( ω H ) μ ¯ tissue,H ( r, ω H ) )( μ ¯ agent_L ( ω H ) μ ¯ tissue,L ( r, ω H ) ) ] dr
{ ln( I L ω L I 0 ( E ) dE )ln( I H ω H I 0 ( E ) dE ) [ μ ¯ tissue,H ( r, ω H ) μ ¯ tissue,L ( r, ω L ) ] dr= W( r ) α agent ( r ) dr W( r )=( μ ¯ agent_H ( ω H ) μ ¯ tissue,H ( r, ω H ) )( μ ¯ agent_L ( ω H ) μ ¯ tissue,L ( r, ω H ) )
{ ln( I L ω L I 0 ( E ) dE )ln( I H ω H I 0 ( E ) dE )= W( r ) α Agent ( r ) dr W( r )= μ ¯ agent_H ( ω H ) μ ¯ agent_L ( ω H )
I L = ω L I 0 ( E ) dE e α agent (r) μ ¯ agent_L ( ω L )+( 1- α agent (r) ) μ ¯ tissue,L ( r, ω L )) dr = ω L I 0 ( E ) dE e α agent (r) μ ¯ agent_L ( ω L ) dr e ( 1- α agent (r) ) μ ¯ tissue,L ( r, ω L ) dr
I H = ω H I 0 ( E ) dE e α agent (r) μ ¯ agent_H ( E H )+( 1- α agent (r) ) μ ¯ tissue,H (r, ω H ) dr = ω H I 0 ( E ) dE e α agent (r) μ ¯ agent_H ( E H ) dr e ( 1- α agent (r) ) μ ¯ tissue,H (r, ω H ) dr
y i =[ k E k Poisson(DQE A ik s 1 S exp( o l iso μ ok )+ y ik scatter ) ] f CONV +Normal( σ electronic )
ARE= f REC (ROI) f TRUE (ROI) 2 f TRUE (ROI) 2
CNR= | α C α B | σ B
Difference= α CURRENT α PREVIOUS 2 α PREVIOUS 2
Error= f EST f ORI 2 f ORI 2

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