Abstract

Transmission below the cable cut-off wavelength may be a concern in some systems, especially for an optical supervisory channel (OSC) operating below the signal transmission band in systems built with G.654 fiber. In this work, we constructed a cabled span of G.654-compliant fiber and measured the multipath interference (MPI) generated during propagation through the span at a range of wavelengths below the cable cut-offs of the constituent fibers. Measurements were made under a range of conditions including different splice losses and the presence or absence of higher order mode filters placed around the splices. MPI levels were found to be sufficiently low at wavelengths far below the average cable cut-off such that OSC transmission was penalty-free. We compare the experimental results to modeling predictions and find very good agreement.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Recommendation ITU-T G.654 (2016), Characteristics of a cut-off shifted single-mode optical fiber and cable.
  2. C. Sarkar, “Optical Supervisory Channel Implementation,” Int. J. Sci. Eng. Res. 3, 1–3 (2012).
  3. J. D. Downie, J. Hurley, H. DePedro, S. Garner, J. Blaker, A. Zakharian, S. Ten, and G. Mills, “Investigation of Potential MPI Effects on Supervisory Channel Transmission Below Cable Cut-off in G.654 Fibres,” in Proceedings of 42nd European Conf. Opt. Commun.1166–1168 (2016).
  4. J. D. Downie, M.-J. Li, and S. Makovejs, “Optical Fibers for Flexible Networks and Systems,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 8(7), A1–A11 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Makovejs, J. D. Downie, J. E. Hurley, J. S. Clark, I. Roudas, C. C. Roberts, H. B. Matthews, F. Palacios, D. A. Lewis, D. T. Smith, P. G. Diehl, J. J. Johnson, C. R. Towery, and S. Y. Ten, “Towards Superior Transmission Performance in Submarine Systems: Leveraging Ultra-Low Attenuation and Large Effective Area,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(1), 114–120 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. D. Downie, J. Hurley, I. Roudas, K. Koreshkov, and M. Mlejnek, “MPI Measurements of Quasi-Single-Mode Fibers,” IEEE Phot. Conf. paper MG3.4 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. Ramachandran, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Measurement of Multipath Interference in the Coherent Crosstalk Regime,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(8), 1171–1173 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  8. W. Zheng, H. P. Sardesai, M. G. Taylor, D. L. Craig, J. Fowlkes, and J. R. Simpson, “Measurement and System Impact of Multipath Interference From Dispersion Compensating Fiber Modules,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53(1), 15–23 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  9. R. Yamauchi, Y. Sugawara, and T. Murayama, “Characteristics of Quasi-Monomode Fibers,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. 68(10), 84–92 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. Mlejnek, I. Roudas, J. D. Downie, N. Kaliteevskiy, and K. Koreshkov, “Coupled mode theory of multipath interference in quasi-single mode fibers,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(1), 1–16 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2016 (2)

2015 (1)

M. Mlejnek, I. Roudas, J. D. Downie, N. Kaliteevskiy, and K. Koreshkov, “Coupled mode theory of multipath interference in quasi-single mode fibers,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(1), 1–16 (2015).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

C. Sarkar, “Optical Supervisory Channel Implementation,” Int. J. Sci. Eng. Res. 3, 1–3 (2012).

2004 (1)

W. Zheng, H. P. Sardesai, M. G. Taylor, D. L. Craig, J. Fowlkes, and J. R. Simpson, “Measurement and System Impact of Multipath Interference From Dispersion Compensating Fiber Modules,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53(1), 15–23 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

S. Ramachandran, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Measurement of Multipath Interference in the Coherent Crosstalk Regime,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(8), 1171–1173 (2003).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

R. Yamauchi, Y. Sugawara, and T. Murayama, “Characteristics of Quasi-Monomode Fibers,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. 68(10), 84–92 (1985).
[Crossref]

Blaker, J.

J. D. Downie, J. Hurley, H. DePedro, S. Garner, J. Blaker, A. Zakharian, S. Ten, and G. Mills, “Investigation of Potential MPI Effects on Supervisory Channel Transmission Below Cable Cut-off in G.654 Fibres,” in Proceedings of 42nd European Conf. Opt. Commun.1166–1168 (2016).

Clark, J. S.

Craig, D. L.

W. Zheng, H. P. Sardesai, M. G. Taylor, D. L. Craig, J. Fowlkes, and J. R. Simpson, “Measurement and System Impact of Multipath Interference From Dispersion Compensating Fiber Modules,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53(1), 15–23 (2004).
[Crossref]

DePedro, H.

J. D. Downie, J. Hurley, H. DePedro, S. Garner, J. Blaker, A. Zakharian, S. Ten, and G. Mills, “Investigation of Potential MPI Effects on Supervisory Channel Transmission Below Cable Cut-off in G.654 Fibres,” in Proceedings of 42nd European Conf. Opt. Commun.1166–1168 (2016).

Diehl, P. G.

Downie, J. D.

J. D. Downie, M.-J. Li, and S. Makovejs, “Optical Fibers for Flexible Networks and Systems,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 8(7), A1–A11 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Makovejs, J. D. Downie, J. E. Hurley, J. S. Clark, I. Roudas, C. C. Roberts, H. B. Matthews, F. Palacios, D. A. Lewis, D. T. Smith, P. G. Diehl, J. J. Johnson, C. R. Towery, and S. Y. Ten, “Towards Superior Transmission Performance in Submarine Systems: Leveraging Ultra-Low Attenuation and Large Effective Area,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(1), 114–120 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Mlejnek, I. Roudas, J. D. Downie, N. Kaliteevskiy, and K. Koreshkov, “Coupled mode theory of multipath interference in quasi-single mode fibers,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(1), 1–16 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. D. Downie, J. Hurley, H. DePedro, S. Garner, J. Blaker, A. Zakharian, S. Ten, and G. Mills, “Investigation of Potential MPI Effects on Supervisory Channel Transmission Below Cable Cut-off in G.654 Fibres,” in Proceedings of 42nd European Conf. Opt. Commun.1166–1168 (2016).

Fowlkes, J.

W. Zheng, H. P. Sardesai, M. G. Taylor, D. L. Craig, J. Fowlkes, and J. R. Simpson, “Measurement and System Impact of Multipath Interference From Dispersion Compensating Fiber Modules,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53(1), 15–23 (2004).
[Crossref]

Garner, S.

J. D. Downie, J. Hurley, H. DePedro, S. Garner, J. Blaker, A. Zakharian, S. Ten, and G. Mills, “Investigation of Potential MPI Effects on Supervisory Channel Transmission Below Cable Cut-off in G.654 Fibres,” in Proceedings of 42nd European Conf. Opt. Commun.1166–1168 (2016).

Ghalmi, S.

S. Ramachandran, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Measurement of Multipath Interference in the Coherent Crosstalk Regime,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(8), 1171–1173 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hurley, J.

J. D. Downie, J. Hurley, H. DePedro, S. Garner, J. Blaker, A. Zakharian, S. Ten, and G. Mills, “Investigation of Potential MPI Effects on Supervisory Channel Transmission Below Cable Cut-off in G.654 Fibres,” in Proceedings of 42nd European Conf. Opt. Commun.1166–1168 (2016).

Hurley, J. E.

Johnson, J. J.

Kaliteevskiy, N.

M. Mlejnek, I. Roudas, J. D. Downie, N. Kaliteevskiy, and K. Koreshkov, “Coupled mode theory of multipath interference in quasi-single mode fibers,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(1), 1–16 (2015).
[Crossref]

Koreshkov, K.

M. Mlejnek, I. Roudas, J. D. Downie, N. Kaliteevskiy, and K. Koreshkov, “Coupled mode theory of multipath interference in quasi-single mode fibers,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(1), 1–16 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lewis, D. A.

Li, M.-J.

Makovejs, S.

Matthews, H. B.

Mills, G.

J. D. Downie, J. Hurley, H. DePedro, S. Garner, J. Blaker, A. Zakharian, S. Ten, and G. Mills, “Investigation of Potential MPI Effects on Supervisory Channel Transmission Below Cable Cut-off in G.654 Fibres,” in Proceedings of 42nd European Conf. Opt. Commun.1166–1168 (2016).

Mlejnek, M.

M. Mlejnek, I. Roudas, J. D. Downie, N. Kaliteevskiy, and K. Koreshkov, “Coupled mode theory of multipath interference in quasi-single mode fibers,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(1), 1–16 (2015).
[Crossref]

Murayama, T.

R. Yamauchi, Y. Sugawara, and T. Murayama, “Characteristics of Quasi-Monomode Fibers,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. 68(10), 84–92 (1985).
[Crossref]

Nicholson, J. W.

S. Ramachandran, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Measurement of Multipath Interference in the Coherent Crosstalk Regime,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(8), 1171–1173 (2003).
[Crossref]

Palacios, F.

Ramachandran, S.

S. Ramachandran, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Measurement of Multipath Interference in the Coherent Crosstalk Regime,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(8), 1171–1173 (2003).
[Crossref]

Roberts, C. C.

Roudas, I.

Sardesai, H. P.

W. Zheng, H. P. Sardesai, M. G. Taylor, D. L. Craig, J. Fowlkes, and J. R. Simpson, “Measurement and System Impact of Multipath Interference From Dispersion Compensating Fiber Modules,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53(1), 15–23 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sarkar, C.

C. Sarkar, “Optical Supervisory Channel Implementation,” Int. J. Sci. Eng. Res. 3, 1–3 (2012).

Simpson, J. R.

W. Zheng, H. P. Sardesai, M. G. Taylor, D. L. Craig, J. Fowlkes, and J. R. Simpson, “Measurement and System Impact of Multipath Interference From Dispersion Compensating Fiber Modules,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53(1), 15–23 (2004).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. T.

Sugawara, Y.

R. Yamauchi, Y. Sugawara, and T. Murayama, “Characteristics of Quasi-Monomode Fibers,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. 68(10), 84–92 (1985).
[Crossref]

Taylor, M. G.

W. Zheng, H. P. Sardesai, M. G. Taylor, D. L. Craig, J. Fowlkes, and J. R. Simpson, “Measurement and System Impact of Multipath Interference From Dispersion Compensating Fiber Modules,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53(1), 15–23 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ten, S.

J. D. Downie, J. Hurley, H. DePedro, S. Garner, J. Blaker, A. Zakharian, S. Ten, and G. Mills, “Investigation of Potential MPI Effects on Supervisory Channel Transmission Below Cable Cut-off in G.654 Fibres,” in Proceedings of 42nd European Conf. Opt. Commun.1166–1168 (2016).

Ten, S. Y.

Towery, C. R.

Yamauchi, R.

R. Yamauchi, Y. Sugawara, and T. Murayama, “Characteristics of Quasi-Monomode Fibers,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. 68(10), 84–92 (1985).
[Crossref]

Yan, M. F.

S. Ramachandran, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Measurement of Multipath Interference in the Coherent Crosstalk Regime,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(8), 1171–1173 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zakharian, A.

J. D. Downie, J. Hurley, H. DePedro, S. Garner, J. Blaker, A. Zakharian, S. Ten, and G. Mills, “Investigation of Potential MPI Effects on Supervisory Channel Transmission Below Cable Cut-off in G.654 Fibres,” in Proceedings of 42nd European Conf. Opt. Commun.1166–1168 (2016).

Zheng, W.

W. Zheng, H. P. Sardesai, M. G. Taylor, D. L. Craig, J. Fowlkes, and J. R. Simpson, “Measurement and System Impact of Multipath Interference From Dispersion Compensating Fiber Modules,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53(1), 15–23 (2004).
[Crossref]

Electron. Commun. Jpn. (1)

R. Yamauchi, Y. Sugawara, and T. Murayama, “Characteristics of Quasi-Monomode Fibers,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. 68(10), 84–92 (1985).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

M. Mlejnek, I. Roudas, J. D. Downie, N. Kaliteevskiy, and K. Koreshkov, “Coupled mode theory of multipath interference in quasi-single mode fibers,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(1), 1–16 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Ramachandran, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Measurement of Multipath Interference in the Coherent Crosstalk Regime,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(8), 1171–1173 (2003).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

W. Zheng, H. P. Sardesai, M. G. Taylor, D. L. Craig, J. Fowlkes, and J. R. Simpson, “Measurement and System Impact of Multipath Interference From Dispersion Compensating Fiber Modules,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53(1), 15–23 (2004).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Sci. Eng. Res. (1)

C. Sarkar, “Optical Supervisory Channel Implementation,” Int. J. Sci. Eng. Res. 3, 1–3 (2012).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

Other (3)

Recommendation ITU-T G.654 (2016), Characteristics of a cut-off shifted single-mode optical fiber and cable.

J. D. Downie, J. Hurley, H. DePedro, S. Garner, J. Blaker, A. Zakharian, S. Ten, and G. Mills, “Investigation of Potential MPI Effects on Supervisory Channel Transmission Below Cable Cut-off in G.654 Fibres,” in Proceedings of 42nd European Conf. Opt. Commun.1166–1168 (2016).

J. D. Downie, J. Hurley, I. Roudas, K. Koreshkov, and M. Mlejnek, “MPI Measurements of Quasi-Single-Mode Fibers,” IEEE Phot. Conf. paper MG3.4 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

MPI model results. (a) MPI generation as a function of distance into a 92.4 km span with 4.2 km distance between splices. Average splice loss = 0.017 dB. (b) MPI at span end as a function of DMA.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental configuration of 92.4 km optical fiber span constructed for MPI measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

MPI measured data through 92.4 km cabled span at wavelengths below cable cut-off.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Measured LP11 mode bend loss data per 80 mm diameter turn. (b) Experimental and model MPI data with and without 3x80mm loops around splices.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) MPI measurements and model predictions of new span configuration with higher splice losses. (b) Estimated DMA values below cable cut-off for 92.4 km cabled span.

Equations (2)

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MPI= P xtalk,total P sig,ave = 1 N P xtalk,n P sig,ave
MPI= ( σ P ave ) 2

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