Abstract

A low-cost scheme of high-speed asynchronous optical sampling based on Yb:KYW oscillators is reported. Two GHz diode-pumped oscillators with a slight pulse repetition rate offset serve as pump and probe source, respectively. The temporal resolution of this system is limited to 500 fs mainly by the pulse duration of the oscillators and also by relative timing jitter between the oscillators. A near-shot-noise noise floor around 10−6 (∆R/R) is obtained within a data acquisition time of a few seconds. The performance of the system is demonstrated by measurements of coherent acoustic phonons in a semiconductor sample that resembles a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror or an optically pumped semiconductor chip.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (3)

C. C. Jumper, P. C. Arpin, D. B. Turner, S. D. McClure, S. Rafiq, J. C. Dean, J. A. Cina, P. A. Kovac, T. Mirkovic, and G. D. Scholes, “Broad-band pump−probe spectroscopy quantifies ultrafast solvation dynamics of proteins and molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7(22), 4722–4731 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Murphy, Y. Giret, S. L. Daraszewicz, A. C. Lim, A. L. Shluger, K. Tanimura, and D. M. Duffy, “Contribution of electronic excitation to the structural evolution of ultrafast laser-irradiated tungsten nanofilms,” Phys. Rev. B 93(10), 104105 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. J. Wei, Y.-H. Yeh, J.-K. Sheu, and K.-H. Lin, “THz acoustic spectroscopy by using double quantum wells and ultrafast optical spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28577 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

2014 (2)

A. Klenner, M. Golling, and U. Keller, “High peak power gigahertz Yb:CALGO laser,” Opt. Express 22(10), 11884–11891 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Lanin, A. A. Voronin, A. B. Fedotov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Time-domain spectroscopy in the mid-infrared,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6670 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

M. Grossmann, M. Klingele, P. Scheel, O. Ristow, M. Hettich, C. He, R. Waitz, M. Schubert, A. Bruchhausen, V. Gusev, E. Scheer, and T. Dekorsy, “Femtosecond spectroscopy of acoustic frequency combs in the 100-GHz frequency range in Al/Si membranes,” Phys. Rev. B 88(20), 205202 (2013).
[Crossref]

P.-A. Mante, Y.-C. Wu, Y.-T. Lin, C.-Y. Ho, L.-W. Tu, and C.-K. Sun, “Gigahertz coherent guided acoustic phonons in AlN/GaN nanowire superlattices,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1139–1144 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Maldovan, “Narrow low-frequency spectrum and heat management by thermocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(2), 025902 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

2011 (1)

Z. Zhang, T. Gardiner, and D. T. Reid, “Asynchronous modelocked Yb:KYW lasers for dual-comb spectroscopy,” Electron. Lett. 47(20), 1140 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

F. Alzina, H. Tao, J. Moser, Y. García, A. Bachtold, and C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, “Probing the electron-phonon coupling in ozone-doped graphene by Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 82(7), 075422 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, B. Perrin, A. Fainstein, B. Jusserand, and A. Lemaître, “Nanophononic thin-film filters and mirrors studied by picosecond ultrasonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 053101 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Gebs, G. Klatt, C. Janke, T. Dekorsy, and A. Bartels, “High-speed asynchronous optical sampling with sub-50fs time resolution,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5974–5983 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

A. Müller, D. Neculoiu, G. Konstantinidis, A. Stavrinidis, D. Vasilache, A. Cismaru, M. Danila, M. Dragoman, G. Deligeorgis, and K. Tsagaraki, “6.3-GHz film bulk acoustic resonator structures based on a gallium nitride/silicon thin membrane,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(8), 799–801 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

2007 (4)

Y.-C. Wen, L.-C. Chou, H.-H. Lin, V. Gusev, K.-H. Lin, and C.-K. Sun, “Efficient generation of coherent acoustic phonons in (111) InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum wells through piezoelectric effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 172102 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Güdde, M. Rohleder, T. Meier, S. W. Koch, and U. Höfer, “Time-resolved investigation of coherently controlled electric currents at a metal surface,” Science 318(5854), 1287–1291 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. C. Daly and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast acoustics for imaging at the nanoscale,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 92, 012094 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. E. Cross, Y.-S. Jin, J. Rao, and J. K. Gimzewski, “Nanomechanical analysis of cells from cancer patients,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 780–783 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

G. D. Sanders and C. J. Stanton, “Carrier dynamics and coherent acoustic phonons in nitride heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205303 (2006).
[Crossref]

K.-H. Lin, C.-F. Chang, C.-C. Pan, J.-I. Chyi, S. Keller, U. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and C.-K. Sun, “Characterizing the nanoacoustic superlattice in a phonon cavity using a piezoelectric single quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 143103 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. L. A. Chilla, S. D. Butterworth, A. Zeitschel, J. P. Charles, A. L. Capara, M. K. Reed, and L. Spinelli, “High power optically pumped semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5332, 143–150 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

P. Klopp, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, and G. Erbert, “Passively mode-locked Yb:KYWlaser pumped by a tapered diode laser,” Opt. Express 10(2), 108–113 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M.-T. Kim, J. P. Callan, C. A. D. Roeser, and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast dynamics and phase changes in crystalline and amorphous GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 66(24), 245203 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

G. D. Sanders, C. J. Stanton, and C. S. Kim, “Theory of coherent acoustic phonons in InxGa1-x N/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 64(23), 235316 (2001).
[Crossref]

K. J. Yee, Y. S. Lim, T. Dekorsy, and D. S. Kim, “Mechanisms for the generation of coherent longitudinal-optical phonons in GaAs /AlGaAs multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(8), 1630–1633 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

A. Bartels, T. Dekorsy, and H. Kurz, “Impulsive excitation of phonon-pair combination states by second-order raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(13), 2981–2984 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

A. Bartels, T. Dekorsy, H. Kurz, and K. Köhler, “Coherent zone-folded longitudinal acoustic phonons in semiconductor superlattices: excitation and detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(5), 1044–1047 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

J. J. Baumberg, D. A. Williams, and K. Köhler, “Ultrafast acoustic phonon ballistics in semiconductor heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3358–3361 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, “Two-colour time-resolved spectroscopy of helium using high-order harmonics,” J. Phys. B 28(3), L53–L58 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

C.-K. Sun, H. K. Choi, C. A. Wang, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Studies of carrier heating in InGaAs/AlGaAs strained-layer quantum well diode lasers using a multiple wavelength pump probe technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(7), 747–749 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

1988 (1)

J. L. Knee and A. H. Zewail, “Ultrafast laser spectroscopy in chemical reactions,” Spectroscopy (Springf.) 3(5), 44–53 (1988).

1987 (1)

1985 (1)

Y.-X. Yan, E. B. Gamble, and K. A. Nelson, “Impulsive stimulated scattering: general importance in femtosecond laser pulse interactions with matter, and spectroscopic applications,” J. Chem. Phys. 83(11), 5391–5399 (1985).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

E. Lill, S. Schneider, and F. Dörr, “Rapid optical sampling of relaxation-phenomena employing two time-correlated picosecond pulse trains,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 14(4), 399–401 (1977).
[Crossref]

Abi Ghanem, M.

T. Dehoux, M. Abi Ghanem, O. F. Zouani, J.-M. Rampnoux, Y. Guillet, S. Dilhaire, M.-C. Durrieu, and B. Audoin, “All-optical broadband ultrasonography of single cells,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8650 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alzina, F.

F. Alzina, H. Tao, J. Moser, Y. García, A. Bachtold, and C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, “Probing the electron-phonon coupling in ozone-doped graphene by Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 82(7), 075422 (2010).
[Crossref]

Arpin, P. C.

C. C. Jumper, P. C. Arpin, D. B. Turner, S. D. McClure, S. Rafiq, J. C. Dean, J. A. Cina, P. A. Kovac, T. Mirkovic, and G. D. Scholes, “Broad-band pump−probe spectroscopy quantifies ultrafast solvation dynamics of proteins and molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7(22), 4722–4731 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Audoin, B.

T. Dehoux, M. Abi Ghanem, O. F. Zouani, J.-M. Rampnoux, Y. Guillet, S. Dilhaire, M.-C. Durrieu, and B. Audoin, “All-optical broadband ultrasonography of single cells,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8650 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bachtold, A.

F. Alzina, H. Tao, J. Moser, Y. García, A. Bachtold, and C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, “Probing the electron-phonon coupling in ozone-doped graphene by Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 82(7), 075422 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baer, C. R. E.

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: design guidelines and damage thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 29–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bakarezos, M.

Barros, H. G.

Bartels, A.

R. Gebs, G. Klatt, C. Janke, T. Dekorsy, and A. Bartels, “High-speed asynchronous optical sampling with sub-50fs time resolution,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5974–5983 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, and S. A. Diddams, “Passively mode-locked 10 GHz femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(16), 1905–1907 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bartels, T. Dekorsy, and H. Kurz, “Impulsive excitation of phonon-pair combination states by second-order raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(13), 2981–2984 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bartels, T. Dekorsy, H. Kurz, and K. Köhler, “Coherent zone-folded longitudinal acoustic phonons in semiconductor superlattices: excitation and detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(5), 1044–1047 (1999).
[Crossref]

Baumberg, J. J.

J. J. Baumberg, D. A. Williams, and K. Köhler, “Ultrafast acoustic phonon ballistics in semiconductor heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3358–3361 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bruchhausen, A.

M. Grossmann, M. Klingele, P. Scheel, O. Ristow, M. Hettich, C. He, R. Waitz, M. Schubert, A. Bruchhausen, V. Gusev, E. Scheer, and T. Dekorsy, “Femtosecond spectroscopy of acoustic frequency combs in the 100-GHz frequency range in Al/Si membranes,” Phys. Rev. B 88(20), 205202 (2013).
[Crossref]

Butterworth, S. D.

J. L. A. Chilla, S. D. Butterworth, A. Zeitschel, J. P. Charles, A. L. Capara, M. K. Reed, and L. Spinelli, “High power optically pumped semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5332, 143–150 (2004).
[Crossref]

Callan, J. P.

A. M.-T. Kim, J. P. Callan, C. A. D. Roeser, and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast dynamics and phase changes in crystalline and amorphous GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 66(24), 245203 (2002).
[Crossref]

Capara, A. L.

J. L. A. Chilla, S. D. Butterworth, A. Zeitschel, J. P. Charles, A. L. Capara, M. K. Reed, and L. Spinelli, “High power optically pumped semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5332, 143–150 (2004).
[Crossref]

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C. C. Jumper, P. C. Arpin, D. B. Turner, S. D. McClure, S. Rafiq, J. C. Dean, J. A. Cina, P. A. Kovac, T. Mirkovic, and G. D. Scholes, “Broad-band pump−probe spectroscopy quantifies ultrafast solvation dynamics of proteins and molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7(22), 4722–4731 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meier, T.

J. Güdde, M. Rohleder, T. Meier, S. W. Koch, and U. Höfer, “Time-resolved investigation of coherently controlled electric currents at a metal surface,” Science 318(5854), 1287–1291 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mevel, E.

J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, “Two-colour time-resolved spectroscopy of helium using high-order harmonics,” J. Phys. B 28(3), L53–L58 (1995).
[Crossref]

Mirkovic, T.

C. C. Jumper, P. C. Arpin, D. B. Turner, S. D. McClure, S. Rafiq, J. C. Dean, J. A. Cina, P. A. Kovac, T. Mirkovic, and G. D. Scholes, “Broad-band pump−probe spectroscopy quantifies ultrafast solvation dynamics of proteins and molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7(22), 4722–4731 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mishra, U.

K.-H. Lin, C.-F. Chang, C.-C. Pan, J.-I. Chyi, S. Keller, U. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and C.-K. Sun, “Characterizing the nanoacoustic superlattice in a phonon cavity using a piezoelectric single quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 143103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Moser, J.

F. Alzina, H. Tao, J. Moser, Y. García, A. Bachtold, and C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, “Probing the electron-phonon coupling in ozone-doped graphene by Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 82(7), 075422 (2010).
[Crossref]

Müller, A.

A. Müller, D. Neculoiu, G. Konstantinidis, A. Stavrinidis, D. Vasilache, A. Cismaru, M. Danila, M. Dragoman, G. Deligeorgis, and K. Tsagaraki, “6.3-GHz film bulk acoustic resonator structures based on a gallium nitride/silicon thin membrane,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(8), 799–801 (2009).
[Crossref]

Murphy, S. T.

S. T. Murphy, Y. Giret, S. L. Daraszewicz, A. C. Lim, A. L. Shluger, K. Tanimura, and D. M. Duffy, “Contribution of electronic excitation to the structural evolution of ultrafast laser-irradiated tungsten nanofilms,” Phys. Rev. B 93(10), 104105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Neculoiu, D.

A. Müller, D. Neculoiu, G. Konstantinidis, A. Stavrinidis, D. Vasilache, A. Cismaru, M. Danila, M. Dragoman, G. Deligeorgis, and K. Tsagaraki, “6.3-GHz film bulk acoustic resonator structures based on a gallium nitride/silicon thin membrane,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(8), 799–801 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nelson, K. A.

Y.-X. Yan, E. B. Gamble, and K. A. Nelson, “Impulsive stimulated scattering: general importance in femtosecond laser pulse interactions with matter, and spectroscopic applications,” J. Chem. Phys. 83(11), 5391–5399 (1985).
[Crossref]

Norris, T. B.

B. C. Daly and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast acoustics for imaging at the nanoscale,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 92, 012094 (2007).
[Crossref]

Orphanos, Y.

Pan, C.-C.

K.-H. Lin, C.-F. Chang, C.-C. Pan, J.-I. Chyi, S. Keller, U. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and C.-K. Sun, “Characterizing the nanoacoustic superlattice in a phonon cavity using a piezoelectric single quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 143103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Papadogiannis, N. A.

Paschke, K.

Patsalas, P.

Pekarek, S.

Perrin, B.

N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, B. Perrin, A. Fainstein, B. Jusserand, and A. Lemaître, “Nanophononic thin-film filters and mirrors studied by picosecond ultrasonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 053101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Petrov, V.

Rafiq, S.

C. C. Jumper, P. C. Arpin, D. B. Turner, S. D. McClure, S. Rafiq, J. C. Dean, J. A. Cina, P. A. Kovac, T. Mirkovic, and G. D. Scholes, “Broad-band pump−probe spectroscopy quantifies ultrafast solvation dynamics of proteins and molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7(22), 4722–4731 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rampnoux, J.-M.

T. Dehoux, M. Abi Ghanem, O. F. Zouani, J.-M. Rampnoux, Y. Guillet, S. Dilhaire, M.-C. Durrieu, and B. Audoin, “All-optical broadband ultrasonography of single cells,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8650 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rao, J.

S. E. Cross, Y.-S. Jin, J. Rao, and J. K. Gimzewski, “Nanomechanical analysis of cells from cancer patients,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 780–783 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reed, M. K.

J. L. A. Chilla, S. D. Butterworth, A. Zeitschel, J. P. Charles, A. L. Capara, M. K. Reed, and L. Spinelli, “High power optically pumped semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5332, 143–150 (2004).
[Crossref]

Reid, D. T.

Reis, D. A.

Ristow, O.

M. Grossmann, M. Klingele, P. Scheel, O. Ristow, M. Hettich, C. He, R. Waitz, M. Schubert, A. Bruchhausen, V. Gusev, E. Scheer, and T. Dekorsy, “Femtosecond spectroscopy of acoustic frequency combs in the 100-GHz frequency range in Al/Si membranes,” Phys. Rev. B 88(20), 205202 (2013).
[Crossref]

Roeser, C. A. D.

A. M.-T. Kim, J. P. Callan, C. A. D. Roeser, and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast dynamics and phase changes in crystalline and amorphous GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 66(24), 245203 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rohleder, M.

J. Güdde, M. Rohleder, T. Meier, S. W. Koch, and U. Höfer, “Time-resolved investigation of coherently controlled electric currents at a metal surface,” Science 318(5854), 1287–1291 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanders, G. D.

G. D. Sanders and C. J. Stanton, “Carrier dynamics and coherent acoustic phonons in nitride heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205303 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. D. Sanders, C. J. Stanton, and C. S. Kim, “Theory of coherent acoustic phonons in InxGa1-x N/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 64(23), 235316 (2001).
[Crossref]

Saraceno, C. J.

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: design guidelines and damage thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 29–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schäfer, G.

Scheel, P.

M. Grossmann, M. Klingele, P. Scheel, O. Ristow, M. Hettich, C. He, R. Waitz, M. Schubert, A. Bruchhausen, V. Gusev, E. Scheer, and T. Dekorsy, “Femtosecond spectroscopy of acoustic frequency combs in the 100-GHz frequency range in Al/Si membranes,” Phys. Rev. B 88(20), 205202 (2013).
[Crossref]

Scheer, E.

M. Grossmann, M. Klingele, P. Scheel, O. Ristow, M. Hettich, C. He, R. Waitz, M. Schubert, A. Bruchhausen, V. Gusev, E. Scheer, and T. Dekorsy, “Femtosecond spectroscopy of acoustic frequency combs in the 100-GHz frequency range in Al/Si membranes,” Phys. Rev. B 88(20), 205202 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schneider, S.

E. Lill, S. Schneider, and F. Dörr, “Rapid optical sampling of relaxation-phenomena employing two time-correlated picosecond pulse trains,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 14(4), 399–401 (1977).
[Crossref]

Scholes, G. D.

C. C. Jumper, P. C. Arpin, D. B. Turner, S. D. McClure, S. Rafiq, J. C. Dean, J. A. Cina, P. A. Kovac, T. Mirkovic, and G. D. Scholes, “Broad-band pump−probe spectroscopy quantifies ultrafast solvation dynamics of proteins and molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7(22), 4722–4731 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schriber, C.

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: design guidelines and damage thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 29–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schubert, M.

M. Grossmann, M. Klingele, P. Scheel, O. Ristow, M. Hettich, C. He, R. Waitz, M. Schubert, A. Bruchhausen, V. Gusev, E. Scheer, and T. Dekorsy, “Femtosecond spectroscopy of acoustic frequency combs in the 100-GHz frequency range in Al/Si membranes,” Phys. Rev. B 88(20), 205202 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sheu, J.-K.

F. J. Wei, Y.-H. Yeh, J.-K. Sheu, and K.-H. Lin, “THz acoustic spectroscopy by using double quantum wells and ultrafast optical spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28577 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheu, Y.-M.

Shluger, A. L.

S. T. Murphy, Y. Giret, S. L. Daraszewicz, A. C. Lim, A. L. Shluger, K. Tanimura, and D. M. Duffy, “Contribution of electronic excitation to the structural evolution of ultrafast laser-irradiated tungsten nanofilms,” Phys. Rev. B 93(10), 104105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sibbett, W.

Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

F. Alzina, H. Tao, J. Moser, Y. García, A. Bachtold, and C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, “Probing the electron-phonon coupling in ozone-doped graphene by Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 82(7), 075422 (2010).
[Crossref]

Spence, D. E.

Spinelli, L.

J. L. A. Chilla, S. D. Butterworth, A. Zeitschel, J. P. Charles, A. L. Capara, M. K. Reed, and L. Spinelli, “High power optically pumped semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5332, 143–150 (2004).
[Crossref]

Stanton, C. J.

G. D. Sanders and C. J. Stanton, “Carrier dynamics and coherent acoustic phonons in nitride heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205303 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. D. Sanders, C. J. Stanton, and C. S. Kim, “Theory of coherent acoustic phonons in InxGa1-x N/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 64(23), 235316 (2001).
[Crossref]

Stavrinidis, A.

A. Müller, D. Neculoiu, G. Konstantinidis, A. Stavrinidis, D. Vasilache, A. Cismaru, M. Danila, M. Dragoman, G. Deligeorgis, and K. Tsagaraki, “6.3-GHz film bulk acoustic resonator structures based on a gallium nitride/silicon thin membrane,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(8), 799–801 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stoica, V. A.

Südmeyer, T.

S. Pekarek, A. Klenner, T. Südmeyer, C. Fiebig, K. Paschke, G. Erbert, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond diode-pumped solid-state laser with a repetition rate of 4.8 GHz,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4248–4253 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: design guidelines and damage thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 29–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sun, C.-K.

P.-A. Mante, Y.-C. Wu, Y.-T. Lin, C.-Y. Ho, L.-W. Tu, and C.-K. Sun, “Gigahertz coherent guided acoustic phonons in AlN/GaN nanowire superlattices,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1139–1144 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Wen, L.-C. Chou, H.-H. Lin, V. Gusev, K.-H. Lin, and C.-K. Sun, “Efficient generation of coherent acoustic phonons in (111) InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum wells through piezoelectric effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 172102 (2007).
[Crossref]

K.-H. Lin, C.-F. Chang, C.-C. Pan, J.-I. Chyi, S. Keller, U. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and C.-K. Sun, “Characterizing the nanoacoustic superlattice in a phonon cavity using a piezoelectric single quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 143103 (2006).
[Crossref]

C.-K. Sun, H. K. Choi, C. A. Wang, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Studies of carrier heating in InGaAs/AlGaAs strained-layer quantum well diode lasers using a multiple wavelength pump probe technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(7), 747–749 (1993).
[Crossref]

Sun, J.

Svanberg, S.

J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, “Two-colour time-resolved spectroscopy of helium using high-order harmonics,” J. Phys. B 28(3), L53–L58 (1995).
[Crossref]

Tanimura, K.

S. T. Murphy, Y. Giret, S. L. Daraszewicz, A. C. Lim, A. L. Shluger, K. Tanimura, and D. M. Duffy, “Contribution of electronic excitation to the structural evolution of ultrafast laser-irradiated tungsten nanofilms,” Phys. Rev. B 93(10), 104105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tao, H.

F. Alzina, H. Tao, J. Moser, Y. García, A. Bachtold, and C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, “Probing the electron-phonon coupling in ozone-doped graphene by Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 82(7), 075422 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tatarakis, M.

Tsagaraki, K.

A. Müller, D. Neculoiu, G. Konstantinidis, A. Stavrinidis, D. Vasilache, A. Cismaru, M. Danila, M. Dragoman, G. Deligeorgis, and K. Tsagaraki, “6.3-GHz film bulk acoustic resonator structures based on a gallium nitride/silicon thin membrane,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(8), 799–801 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tsibidis, G. D.

Tu, L.-W.

P.-A. Mante, Y.-C. Wu, Y.-T. Lin, C.-Y. Ho, L.-W. Tu, and C.-K. Sun, “Gigahertz coherent guided acoustic phonons in AlN/GaN nanowire superlattices,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1139–1144 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turner, D. B.

C. C. Jumper, P. C. Arpin, D. B. Turner, S. D. McClure, S. Rafiq, J. C. Dean, J. A. Cina, P. A. Kovac, T. Mirkovic, and G. D. Scholes, “Broad-band pump−probe spectroscopy quantifies ultrafast solvation dynamics of proteins and molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7(22), 4722–4731 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tzianaki, E.

Vasilache, D.

A. Müller, D. Neculoiu, G. Konstantinidis, A. Stavrinidis, D. Vasilache, A. Cismaru, M. Danila, M. Dragoman, G. Deligeorgis, and K. Tsagaraki, “6.3-GHz film bulk acoustic resonator structures based on a gallium nitride/silicon thin membrane,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(8), 799–801 (2009).
[Crossref]

Voronin, A. A.

A. A. Lanin, A. A. Voronin, A. B. Fedotov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Time-domain spectroscopy in the mid-infrared,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6670 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wahlström, C.-G.

J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, “Two-colour time-resolved spectroscopy of helium using high-order harmonics,” J. Phys. B 28(3), L53–L58 (1995).
[Crossref]

Waitz, R.

M. Grossmann, M. Klingele, P. Scheel, O. Ristow, M. Hettich, C. He, R. Waitz, M. Schubert, A. Bruchhausen, V. Gusev, E. Scheer, and T. Dekorsy, “Femtosecond spectroscopy of acoustic frequency combs in the 100-GHz frequency range in Al/Si membranes,” Phys. Rev. B 88(20), 205202 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

Wang, C. A.

C.-K. Sun, H. K. Choi, C. A. Wang, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Studies of carrier heating in InGaAs/AlGaAs strained-layer quantum well diode lasers using a multiple wavelength pump probe technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(7), 747–749 (1993).
[Crossref]

Wei, F. J.

F. J. Wei, Y.-H. Yeh, J.-K. Sheu, and K.-H. Lin, “THz acoustic spectroscopy by using double quantum wells and ultrafast optical spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28577 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wen, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Wen, L.-C. Chou, H.-H. Lin, V. Gusev, K.-H. Lin, and C.-K. Sun, “Efficient generation of coherent acoustic phonons in (111) InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum wells through piezoelectric effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 172102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Williams, D. A.

J. J. Baumberg, D. A. Williams, and K. Köhler, “Ultrafast acoustic phonon ballistics in semiconductor heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3358–3361 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.-C.

P.-A. Mante, Y.-C. Wu, Y.-T. Lin, C.-Y. Ho, L.-W. Tu, and C.-K. Sun, “Gigahertz coherent guided acoustic phonons in AlN/GaN nanowire superlattices,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1139–1144 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, Y.-X.

Y.-X. Yan, E. B. Gamble, and K. A. Nelson, “Impulsive stimulated scattering: general importance in femtosecond laser pulse interactions with matter, and spectroscopic applications,” J. Chem. Phys. 83(11), 5391–5399 (1985).
[Crossref]

Yee, K. J.

K. J. Yee, Y. S. Lim, T. Dekorsy, and D. S. Kim, “Mechanisms for the generation of coherent longitudinal-optical phonons in GaAs /AlGaAs multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(8), 1630–1633 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeh, Y.-H.

F. J. Wei, Y.-H. Yeh, J.-K. Sheu, and K.-H. Lin, “THz acoustic spectroscopy by using double quantum wells and ultrafast optical spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28577 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeitschel, A.

J. L. A. Chilla, S. D. Butterworth, A. Zeitschel, J. P. Charles, A. L. Capara, M. K. Reed, and L. Spinelli, “High power optically pumped semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5332, 143–150 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zerne, R.

J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, “Two-colour time-resolved spectroscopy of helium using high-order harmonics,” J. Phys. B 28(3), L53–L58 (1995).
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Zewail, A. H.

J. L. Knee and A. H. Zewail, “Ultrafast laser spectroscopy in chemical reactions,” Spectroscopy (Springf.) 3(5), 44–53 (1988).

Zhang, Z.

Zheltikov, A. M.

A. A. Lanin, A. A. Voronin, A. B. Fedotov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Time-domain spectroscopy in the mid-infrared,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6670 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zouani, O. F.

T. Dehoux, M. Abi Ghanem, O. F. Zouani, J.-M. Rampnoux, Y. Guillet, S. Dilhaire, M.-C. Durrieu, and B. Audoin, “All-optical broadband ultrasonography of single cells,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8650 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. (Berl.) (1)

E. Lill, S. Schneider, and F. Dörr, “Rapid optical sampling of relaxation-phenomena employing two time-correlated picosecond pulse trains,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 14(4), 399–401 (1977).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

C.-K. Sun, H. K. Choi, C. A. Wang, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Studies of carrier heating in InGaAs/AlGaAs strained-layer quantum well diode lasers using a multiple wavelength pump probe technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(7), 747–749 (1993).
[Crossref]

N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, B. Perrin, A. Fainstein, B. Jusserand, and A. Lemaître, “Nanophononic thin-film filters and mirrors studied by picosecond ultrasonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 053101 (2010).
[Crossref]

K.-H. Lin, C.-F. Chang, C.-C. Pan, J.-I. Chyi, S. Keller, U. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and C.-K. Sun, “Characterizing the nanoacoustic superlattice in a phonon cavity using a piezoelectric single quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 143103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Wen, L.-C. Chou, H.-H. Lin, V. Gusev, K.-H. Lin, and C.-K. Sun, “Efficient generation of coherent acoustic phonons in (111) InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum wells through piezoelectric effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 172102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

Z. Zhang, T. Gardiner, and D. T. Reid, “Asynchronous modelocked Yb:KYW lasers for dual-comb spectroscopy,” Electron. Lett. 47(20), 1140 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

A. Müller, D. Neculoiu, G. Konstantinidis, A. Stavrinidis, D. Vasilache, A. Cismaru, M. Danila, M. Dragoman, G. Deligeorgis, and K. Tsagaraki, “6.3-GHz film bulk acoustic resonator structures based on a gallium nitride/silicon thin membrane,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(8), 799–801 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: design guidelines and damage thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 29–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

Y.-X. Yan, E. B. Gamble, and K. A. Nelson, “Impulsive stimulated scattering: general importance in femtosecond laser pulse interactions with matter, and spectroscopic applications,” J. Chem. Phys. 83(11), 5391–5399 (1985).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. B (1)

J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, and S. Svanberg, “Two-colour time-resolved spectroscopy of helium using high-order harmonics,” J. Phys. B 28(3), L53–L58 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. Lett. (1)

C. C. Jumper, P. C. Arpin, D. B. Turner, S. D. McClure, S. Rafiq, J. C. Dean, J. A. Cina, P. A. Kovac, T. Mirkovic, and G. D. Scholes, “Broad-band pump−probe spectroscopy quantifies ultrafast solvation dynamics of proteins and molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7(22), 4722–4731 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

B. C. Daly and T. B. Norris, “Ultrafast acoustics for imaging at the nanoscale,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 92, 012094 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

P.-A. Mante, Y.-C. Wu, Y.-T. Lin, C.-Y. Ho, L.-W. Tu, and C.-K. Sun, “Gigahertz coherent guided acoustic phonons in AlN/GaN nanowire superlattices,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1139–1144 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

S. E. Cross, Y.-S. Jin, J. Rao, and J. K. Gimzewski, “Nanomechanical analysis of cells from cancer patients,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 780–783 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

P. Klopp, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, and G. Erbert, “Passively mode-locked Yb:KYWlaser pumped by a tapered diode laser,” Opt. Express 10(2), 108–113 (2002).
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V. A. Stoica, Y.-M. Sheu, D. A. Reis, and R. Clarke, “Wideband detection of transient solid-state dynamics using ultrafast fiber lasers and asynchronous optical sampling,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2322–2335 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Pekarek, A. Klenner, T. Südmeyer, C. Fiebig, K. Paschke, G. Erbert, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond diode-pumped solid-state laser with a repetition rate of 4.8 GHz,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4248–4253 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Klenner, M. Golling, and U. Keller, “High peak power gigahertz Yb:CALGO laser,” Opt. Express 22(10), 11884–11891 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Tzianaki, M. Bakarezos, G. D. Tsibidis, Y. Orphanos, P. A. Loukakos, C. Kosmidis, P. Patsalas, M. Tatarakis, and N. A. Papadogiannis, “High acoustic strains in Si through ultrafast laser excitation of Ti thin-film transducers,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17191–17204 (2015).
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N. Krauß, G. Schäfer, J. Flock, O. Kliebisch, C. Li, H. G. Barros, D. C. Heinecke, and T. Dekorsy, “Two-colour high-speed asynchronous optical sampling based on offset-stabilized Yb:KYW and Ti:sapphire oscillators,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18288–18299 (2015).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of ASOPS set-up based on Yb:KYW oscillators. PD1 and PD2: 12.5-GHz photodiodes, PD3: 125-MHz photodiode, PD4: 130-MHz photodiode, HWP: half-wave plate, PBS: polarizing beam splitter, BBO: beta barium borate crystal, ADC: analog-to-digital converter, L1 and L2: lenses with focal length of 100 mm, L3 and L4: lenses with focal length of 30 mm and 50 mm, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) TPA signals at different time delays for the repetition rate offset of 5 kHz. Inset: zoom in of the first TPA signal. (b) Temporal resolution versus time delay for the repetition rate offset of 5 kHz.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Noise floor of probe laser versus number of time trace averages obtained from the standard deviation of time traces. (b) Noise power spectral density (PSD) of 1 time trace, averaged 1 × 103 time traces and averaged 5 × 106 time traces. Horizontal solid lines represent shot noise levels.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of the structure of the sample used in Yb:KYW ASOPS measurement. From surface to bottom, it is composed of a GaAs cap, QW-stacks of QW1, QW2, and QW3 (each one consists of three In0.27Ga0.73As layers alternated with GaAs layers) with interval of GaAs layers, a DBR (22 pairs of Al0.95Ga0.05As/GaAs) and a GaAs substrate.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Acoustic phonons in the sample after background subtraction. The inset is the exponentially decaying electronic signal. (b) Corresponding FFT of (a). Red solid line represents FFT of the subtracted acoustic signal, black dot line represents FFT of the second wavepacket. (c) Acoustic phonons in the first 160 ps.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Illustration of acoustic phonons generation in each QW-stack. (b) Illustration of acoustic pulse bursts propagation in barriers. In both pictures, red pulses represent acoustic phonons in the backward direction, green pulses represent acoustic phonons in the forward direction.

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