Abstract

The intrinsic spectral dimensionality indicates the observable degrees of freedom in Earth’s solar-reflected light field, quantifying the diversity of spectral content accessible by visible and infrared remote sensing. The solar-reflected regime spans the 0.38 – 2.5 μm interval, and is captured by a wide range of current and planned instruments on both airborne and orbital platforms. To date there has been no systematic study of its spectral dimensionality as a function of space, time, and land cover. Here we report a multi-site, multi-year statistical survey by NASA’s “Classic” Airborne Visible Near InfraRed Spectrometer (AVIRIS-C). AVIRIS-C measured large regions of California, USA, spanning wide latitudinal and elevation gradients containing all canonical MODIS land cover types. The spectral uniformity of the AVIRIS-C design enabled consistent in-scene assessment of measurement noise across acquisitions. The estimated dimensionality as a function of cover type ranged from the low 20s to the high 40s, and was approximately 50 for the combined dataset. This result indicates the high diversity of physical processes distinguishable by imaging spectrometers like AVIRIS-C for one region of the Earth.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2016 (1)

2015 (5)

D. R. Thompson, B.-C. Gao, R. O. Green, D. A. Roberts, P. E. Dennison, and S. R. Lundeen, “Atmospheric correction for global mapping spectroscopy: ATREM advances for the HyspIRI preparatory campaign,” Remote Sens. Environ. 167, 64–77 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. R. Thompson, I. Leifer, H. Bovensmann, M. Eastwood, M. Fladeland, C. Frankenberg, K. Gerilowski, R. Green, S. Kratwurst, T. Krings, B. Luna, and A. K. Thorpe, “Real-time remote detection and measurement for airborne imaging spectroscopy: a case study with methane,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 8, 4383–4397 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. J. Hochberg, D. A. Roberts, P. E. Dennison, and G. C. Hulley, “Special issue on the Hyperspectral InfraRed Imager (HyspIRI): Emerging science in terrestrial and aquatic ecology, radiation balance and hazards,” Remote Sens. Environ. 167, 1–5 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mÿhle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. J. Leitäo, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The EnMAP spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for Earth observation,” Remote Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. G. Fichot, B. D. Downing, B. A. Bergamaschi, L. Windham-Myers, M. Marvin-DiPasquale, D. R. Thompson, and M. M. Gierach, “High-resolution remote sensing of water quality in the San Francisco Bay–Delta Estuary,” Envir. Sci. Tech. 50, 573–583 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

D. R. Thompson, R. O. Green, D. Keymeulen, S. K. Lundeen, Y. Mouradi, D. C. Nunes, R. C. no, and S. A. Chien, “Rapid spectral cloud screening onboard aircraft and spacecraft,” IEEE T. Geosci. Remote Sens. 52, 6779–6792 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

K. Cawse-Nicholson, S. B. Damelin, A. Robin, and M. Sears, “Determining the intrinsic dimension of a hyperspectral image using random matrix theory,” IEEE T. Image Process. 22, 1301–1310 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

G. P. Asner, D. E. Knapp, J. Boardman, R. O. Green, T. Kennedy-Bowdoin, M. Eastwood, R. E. Martin, C. Anderson, and C. B. Field, “Carnegie Airborne Observatory-2: Increasing science data dimensionality via high-fidelity multi-sensor fusion,” Remote Sens. Environ. 124, 454–465 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

J. W. Boardman and F. A. Kruse, “Analysis of imaging spectrometer data using N-dimensional geometry and a mixture-tuned matched filtering approach,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 4138–4152 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

A. Nair, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, J. Morales, V. Stuart, M.-H. Forget, E. Devred, and H. Bouman, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton functional types,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 3366–3375 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. P. Asner and R. E. Martin, “Spectral and chemical analysis of tropical forests: Scaling from leaf to canopy levels,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 3958–3970 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

C.-C. Wu, W. Liu, and C.-I. Chang, “Exploration of methods for estimation of number of endmembers in hyperspectral imagery,” Proc. SPIE 6378, 63781C (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

J. M. Bioucas-Dias and J. M. Nascimento, “Estimation of signal subspace on hyperspectral data,” Proc. SPIE 8205, 59820 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

R. N. Clark, G. A. Swayze, K. E. Livo, R. F. Kokaly, S. J. Sutley, J. B. Dalton, R. R. McDougal, and C. A. Gent, “Imaging spectroscopy: Earth and planetary remote sensing with the USGS tetracorder and expert systems,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets 108, 5131 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

N. Keshava and J. F. Mustard, “Spectral unmixing,” IEEE Signal Proc. Mag. 19, 44–57 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

H.-T. Wu, J.-F. Yang, and F.-K. Chen, “Source number estimators using transformed gerschgorin radii,” IEEE T. Signal Proces. 43, 1325–1333 (1995).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

J. Rissanen, “Modeling by shortest data description,” Automatica 14, 465–471 (1978).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

H. Akaike, “A new look at the statistical model identification,” IEEE T. Automat. Contr. 19, 716–723 (1974).
[Crossref]

Akaike, H.

H. Akaike, “A new look at the statistical model identification,” IEEE T. Automat. Contr. 19, 716–723 (1974).
[Crossref]

Anderson, C.

G. P. Asner, D. E. Knapp, J. Boardman, R. O. Green, T. Kennedy-Bowdoin, M. Eastwood, R. E. Martin, C. Anderson, and C. B. Field, “Carnegie Airborne Observatory-2: Increasing science data dimensionality via high-fidelity multi-sensor fusion,” Remote Sens. Environ. 124, 454–465 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aronsson, M.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[Crossref]

Asner, G. P.

G. P. Asner, D. E. Knapp, J. Boardman, R. O. Green, T. Kennedy-Bowdoin, M. Eastwood, R. E. Martin, C. Anderson, and C. B. Field, “Carnegie Airborne Observatory-2: Increasing science data dimensionality via high-fidelity multi-sensor fusion,” Remote Sens. Environ. 124, 454–465 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. P. Asner and R. E. Martin, “Spectral and chemical analysis of tropical forests: Scaling from leaf to canopy levels,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 3958–3970 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bachmann, M.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mÿhle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. J. Leitäo, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The EnMAP spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for Earth observation,” Remote Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bergamaschi, B. A.

C. G. Fichot, B. D. Downing, B. A. Bergamaschi, L. Windham-Myers, M. Marvin-DiPasquale, D. R. Thompson, and M. M. Gierach, “High-resolution remote sensing of water quality in the San Francisco Bay–Delta Estuary,” Envir. Sci. Tech. 50, 573–583 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bioucas-Dias, J. M.

J. M. Bioucas-Dias and J. M. Nascimento, “Estimation of signal subspace on hyperspectral data,” Proc. SPIE 8205, 59820 (2005).
[Crossref]

Boardman, J.

G. P. Asner, D. E. Knapp, J. Boardman, R. O. Green, T. Kennedy-Bowdoin, M. Eastwood, R. E. Martin, C. Anderson, and C. B. Field, “Carnegie Airborne Observatory-2: Increasing science data dimensionality via high-fidelity multi-sensor fusion,” Remote Sens. Environ. 124, 454–465 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boardman, J. W.

J. W. Boardman and F. A. Kruse, “Analysis of imaging spectrometer data using N-dimensional geometry and a mixture-tuned matched filtering approach,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 4138–4152 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. W. Boardman and R. O. Green, “Exploring the spectral variability of the earth as measured by AVIRIS in 1999,” in the Proceedings of the Ninth JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop (JPL, 2000), pp. 195–206.

Bouman, H.

A. Nair, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, J. Morales, V. Stuart, M.-H. Forget, E. Devred, and H. Bouman, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton functional types,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 3366–3375 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bovensmann, H.

D. R. Thompson, I. Leifer, H. Bovensmann, M. Eastwood, M. Fladeland, C. Frankenberg, K. Gerilowski, R. Green, S. Kratwurst, T. Krings, B. Luna, and A. K. Thorpe, “Real-time remote detection and measurement for airborne imaging spectroscopy: a case study with methane,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 8, 4383–4397 (2015).
[Crossref]

Buddenbaum, H.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mÿhle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. J. Leitäo, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The EnMAP spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for Earth observation,” Remote Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cawse-Nicholson, K.

K. Cawse-Nicholson, S. B. Damelin, A. Robin, and M. Sears, “Determining the intrinsic dimension of a hyperspectral image using random matrix theory,” IEEE T. Image Process. 22, 1301–1310 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chabrillat, S.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mÿhle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. J. Leitäo, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The EnMAP spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for Earth observation,” Remote Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chang, C.-I.

C.-C. Wu, W. Liu, and C.-I. Chang, “Exploration of methods for estimation of number of endmembers in hyperspectral imagery,” Proc. SPIE 6378, 63781C (2006).
[Crossref]

J. C. Harsanyi, W. Farrand, and C.-I. Chang, “Detection of subpixel spectral signatures in hyperspectral image sequences,” in Proceedings of American Society of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing Annual Meeting (ASP, 1994), pp. 236–247.

Channan, S.

S. Channan, K. Collins, and W. R. Emanuel, “Global mosaics of the standard MODIS land cover type data,” Distributed by University of Maryland and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (2014).

Chen, F.-K.

H.-T. Wu, J.-F. Yang, and F.-K. Chen, “Source number estimators using transformed gerschgorin radii,” IEEE T. Signal Proces. 43, 1325–1333 (1995).
[Crossref]

Chien, S. A.

D. R. Thompson, R. O. Green, D. Keymeulen, S. K. Lundeen, Y. Mouradi, D. C. Nunes, R. C. no, and S. A. Chien, “Rapid spectral cloud screening onboard aircraft and spacecraft,” IEEE T. Geosci. Remote Sens. 52, 6779–6792 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chippendale, B. J.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chlebek, C.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mÿhle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. J. Leitäo, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The EnMAP spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for Earth observation,” Remote Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chovit, C. J.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chrien, T. G.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[Crossref]

Clark, R. N.

R. N. Clark, G. A. Swayze, K. E. Livo, R. F. Kokaly, S. J. Sutley, J. B. Dalton, R. R. McDougal, and C. A. Gent, “Imaging spectroscopy: Earth and planetary remote sensing with the USGS tetracorder and expert systems,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets 108, 5131 (2003).
[Crossref]

Collins, K.

S. Channan, K. Collins, and W. R. Emanuel, “Global mosaics of the standard MODIS land cover type data,” Distributed by University of Maryland and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (2014).

Dalton, J. B.

R. N. Clark, G. A. Swayze, K. E. Livo, R. F. Kokaly, S. J. Sutley, J. B. Dalton, R. R. McDougal, and C. A. Gent, “Imaging spectroscopy: Earth and planetary remote sensing with the USGS tetracorder and expert systems,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets 108, 5131 (2003).
[Crossref]

Damelin, S. B.

K. Cawse-Nicholson, S. B. Damelin, A. Robin, and M. Sears, “Determining the intrinsic dimension of a hyperspectral image using random matrix theory,” IEEE T. Image Process. 22, 1301–1310 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dennison, P. E.

E. J. Hochberg, D. A. Roberts, P. E. Dennison, and G. C. Hulley, “Special issue on the Hyperspectral InfraRed Imager (HyspIRI): Emerging science in terrestrial and aquatic ecology, radiation balance and hazards,” Remote Sens. Environ. 167, 1–5 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. R. Thompson, B.-C. Gao, R. O. Green, D. A. Roberts, P. E. Dennison, and S. R. Lundeen, “Atmospheric correction for global mapping spectroscopy: ATREM advances for the HyspIRI preparatory campaign,” Remote Sens. Environ. 167, 64–77 (2015).
[Crossref]

Devred, E.

A. Nair, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, J. Morales, V. Stuart, M.-H. Forget, E. Devred, and H. Bouman, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton functional types,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 3366–3375 (2008).
[Crossref]

Doerffer, R.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mÿhle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. J. Leitäo, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The EnMAP spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for Earth observation,” Remote Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Downing, B. D.

C. G. Fichot, B. D. Downing, B. A. Bergamaschi, L. Windham-Myers, M. Marvin-DiPasquale, D. R. Thompson, and M. M. Gierach, “High-resolution remote sensing of water quality in the San Francisco Bay–Delta Estuary,” Envir. Sci. Tech. 50, 573–583 (2015).
[Crossref]

Eastwood, M.

D. R. Thompson, I. Leifer, H. Bovensmann, M. Eastwood, M. Fladeland, C. Frankenberg, K. Gerilowski, R. Green, S. Kratwurst, T. Krings, B. Luna, and A. K. Thorpe, “Real-time remote detection and measurement for airborne imaging spectroscopy: a case study with methane,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 8, 4383–4397 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. P. Asner, D. E. Knapp, J. Boardman, R. O. Green, T. Kennedy-Bowdoin, M. Eastwood, R. E. Martin, C. Anderson, and C. B. Field, “Carnegie Airborne Observatory-2: Increasing science data dimensionality via high-fidelity multi-sensor fusion,” Remote Sens. Environ. 124, 454–465 (2012).
[Crossref]

Eastwood, M. L.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[Crossref]

Emanuel, W. R.

S. Channan, K. Collins, and W. R. Emanuel, “Global mosaics of the standard MODIS land cover type data,” Distributed by University of Maryland and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (2014).

Farrand, W.

J. C. Harsanyi, W. Farrand, and C.-I. Chang, “Detection of subpixel spectral signatures in hyperspectral image sequences,” in Proceedings of American Society of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing Annual Meeting (ASP, 1994), pp. 236–247.

Faust, J. A.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[Crossref]

Fichot, C. G.

C. G. Fichot, B. D. Downing, B. A. Bergamaschi, L. Windham-Myers, M. Marvin-DiPasquale, D. R. Thompson, and M. M. Gierach, “High-resolution remote sensing of water quality in the San Francisco Bay–Delta Estuary,” Envir. Sci. Tech. 50, 573–583 (2015).
[Crossref]

Field, C. B.

G. P. Asner, D. E. Knapp, J. Boardman, R. O. Green, T. Kennedy-Bowdoin, M. Eastwood, R. E. Martin, C. Anderson, and C. B. Field, “Carnegie Airborne Observatory-2: Increasing science data dimensionality via high-fidelity multi-sensor fusion,” Remote Sens. Environ. 124, 454–465 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fischer, S.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mÿhle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. J. Leitäo, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The EnMAP spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for Earth observation,” Remote Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fladeland, M.

D. R. Thompson, I. Leifer, H. Bovensmann, M. Eastwood, M. Fladeland, C. Frankenberg, K. Gerilowski, R. Green, S. Kratwurst, T. Krings, B. Luna, and A. K. Thorpe, “Real-time remote detection and measurement for airborne imaging spectroscopy: a case study with methane,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 8, 4383–4397 (2015).
[Crossref]

Foerster, S.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mÿhle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. J. Leitäo, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The EnMAP spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for Earth observation,” Remote Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Forget, M.-H.

A. Nair, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, J. Morales, V. Stuart, M.-H. Forget, E. Devred, and H. Bouman, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton functional types,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 3366–3375 (2008).
[Crossref]

Frankenberg, C.

D. R. Thompson, I. Leifer, H. Bovensmann, M. Eastwood, M. Fladeland, C. Frankenberg, K. Gerilowski, R. Green, S. Kratwurst, T. Krings, B. Luna, and A. K. Thorpe, “Real-time remote detection and measurement for airborne imaging spectroscopy: a case study with methane,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 8, 4383–4397 (2015).
[Crossref]

Friedl, M. A.

M. A. Friedl, D. Sulla-Menashe, B. Tan, A. Schneider, N. Ramankutty, A. Sibley, and X. Huang, “MODIS collection 5 global land cover: Algorithm refinements and characterization of new datasets, 2001–2012,” Collection 5.1 IGBP Land Cover (2010).

Gao, B. C.

Gao, B.-C.

D. R. Thompson, B.-C. Gao, R. O. Green, D. A. Roberts, P. E. Dennison, and S. R. Lundeen, “Atmospheric correction for global mapping spectroscopy: ATREM advances for the HyspIRI preparatory campaign,” Remote Sens. Environ. 167, 64–77 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gent, C. A.

R. N. Clark, G. A. Swayze, K. E. Livo, R. F. Kokaly, S. J. Sutley, J. B. Dalton, R. R. McDougal, and C. A. Gent, “Imaging spectroscopy: Earth and planetary remote sensing with the USGS tetracorder and expert systems,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets 108, 5131 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gerilowski, K.

D. R. Thompson, I. Leifer, H. Bovensmann, M. Eastwood, M. Fladeland, C. Frankenberg, K. Gerilowski, R. Green, S. Kratwurst, T. Krings, B. Luna, and A. K. Thorpe, “Real-time remote detection and measurement for airborne imaging spectroscopy: a case study with methane,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 8, 4383–4397 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gierach, M. M.

C. G. Fichot, B. D. Downing, B. A. Bergamaschi, L. Windham-Myers, M. Marvin-DiPasquale, D. R. Thompson, and M. M. Gierach, “High-resolution remote sensing of water quality in the San Francisco Bay–Delta Estuary,” Envir. Sci. Tech. 50, 573–583 (2015).
[Crossref]

Green, R.

D. R. Thompson, I. Leifer, H. Bovensmann, M. Eastwood, M. Fladeland, C. Frankenberg, K. Gerilowski, R. Green, S. Kratwurst, T. Krings, B. Luna, and A. K. Thorpe, “Real-time remote detection and measurement for airborne imaging spectroscopy: a case study with methane,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 8, 4383–4397 (2015).
[Crossref]

Green, R. O.

D. R. Thompson, D. A. Roberts, B. C. Gao, R. O. Green, L. Guild, K. Hayashi, R. Kudela, and S. Palacios, “Atmospheric correction with the Bayesian empirical line,” Opt. Express 24, 2134–2144 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Thompson, B.-C. Gao, R. O. Green, D. A. Roberts, P. E. Dennison, and S. R. Lundeen, “Atmospheric correction for global mapping spectroscopy: ATREM advances for the HyspIRI preparatory campaign,” Remote Sens. Environ. 167, 64–77 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. R. Thompson, R. O. Green, D. Keymeulen, S. K. Lundeen, Y. Mouradi, D. C. Nunes, R. C. no, and S. A. Chien, “Rapid spectral cloud screening onboard aircraft and spacecraft,” IEEE T. Geosci. Remote Sens. 52, 6779–6792 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. P. Asner, D. E. Knapp, J. Boardman, R. O. Green, T. Kennedy-Bowdoin, M. Eastwood, R. E. Martin, C. Anderson, and C. B. Field, “Carnegie Airborne Observatory-2: Increasing science data dimensionality via high-fidelity multi-sensor fusion,” Remote Sens. Environ. 124, 454–465 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. W. Boardman and R. O. Green, “Exploring the spectral variability of the earth as measured by AVIRIS in 1999,” in the Proceedings of the Ninth JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop (JPL, 2000), pp. 195–206.

Guanter, L.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mÿhle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. J. Leitäo, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The EnMAP spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for Earth observation,” Remote Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guild, L.

Habermeyer, M.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mÿhle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. J. Leitäo, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The EnMAP spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for Earth observation,” Remote Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hank, T.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mÿhle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. J. Leitäo, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The EnMAP spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for Earth observation,” Remote Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Harsanyi, J. C.

J. C. Harsanyi, W. Farrand, and C.-I. Chang, “Detection of subpixel spectral signatures in hyperspectral image sequences,” in Proceedings of American Society of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing Annual Meeting (ASP, 1994), pp. 236–247.

Hayashi, K.

Heiden, U.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mÿhle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. J. Leitäo, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The EnMAP spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for Earth observation,” Remote Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hill, J.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mÿhle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. J. Leitäo, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The EnMAP spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for Earth observation,” Remote Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hochberg, E. J.

E. J. Hochberg, D. A. Roberts, P. E. Dennison, and G. C. Hulley, “Special issue on the Hyperspectral InfraRed Imager (HyspIRI): Emerging science in terrestrial and aquatic ecology, radiation balance and hazards,” Remote Sens. Environ. 167, 1–5 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hollstein, A.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mÿhle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. J. Leitäo, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The EnMAP spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for Earth observation,” Remote Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hostert, P.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mÿhle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. J. Leitäo, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The EnMAP spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for Earth observation,” Remote Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, X.

M. A. Friedl, D. Sulla-Menashe, B. Tan, A. Schneider, N. Ramankutty, A. Sibley, and X. Huang, “MODIS collection 5 global land cover: Algorithm refinements and characterization of new datasets, 2001–2012,” Collection 5.1 IGBP Land Cover (2010).

Hulley, G. C.

E. J. Hochberg, D. A. Roberts, P. E. Dennison, and G. C. Hulley, “Special issue on the Hyperspectral InfraRed Imager (HyspIRI): Emerging science in terrestrial and aquatic ecology, radiation balance and hazards,” Remote Sens. Environ. 167, 1–5 (2015).
[Crossref]

Inada, H.

A. Iwasaki, N. Ohgi, J. Tanii, T. Kawashima, and H. Inada, “Hyperspectral Imager Suite (HISUI)-japanese hyper-multi spectral radiometer,” in Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1025–1028.
[Crossref]

Iwasaki, A.

A. Iwasaki, N. Ohgi, J. Tanii, T. Kawashima, and H. Inada, “Hyperspectral Imager Suite (HISUI)-japanese hyper-multi spectral radiometer,” in Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1025–1028.
[Crossref]

Kaufmann, H.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mÿhle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. J. Leitäo, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The EnMAP spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for Earth observation,” Remote Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kawashima, T.

A. Iwasaki, N. Ohgi, J. Tanii, T. Kawashima, and H. Inada, “Hyperspectral Imager Suite (HISUI)-japanese hyper-multi spectral radiometer,” in Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1025–1028.
[Crossref]

Kennedy-Bowdoin, T.

G. P. Asner, D. E. Knapp, J. Boardman, R. O. Green, T. Kennedy-Bowdoin, M. Eastwood, R. E. Martin, C. Anderson, and C. B. Field, “Carnegie Airborne Observatory-2: Increasing science data dimensionality via high-fidelity multi-sensor fusion,” Remote Sens. Environ. 124, 454–465 (2012).
[Crossref]

Keshava, N.

N. Keshava and J. F. Mustard, “Spectral unmixing,” IEEE Signal Proc. Mag. 19, 44–57 (2002).
[Crossref]

Keymeulen, D.

D. R. Thompson, R. O. Green, D. Keymeulen, S. K. Lundeen, Y. Mouradi, D. C. Nunes, R. C. no, and S. A. Chien, “Rapid spectral cloud screening onboard aircraft and spacecraft,” IEEE T. Geosci. Remote Sens. 52, 6779–6792 (2014).
[Crossref]

Knapp, D. E.

G. P. Asner, D. E. Knapp, J. Boardman, R. O. Green, T. Kennedy-Bowdoin, M. Eastwood, R. E. Martin, C. Anderson, and C. B. Field, “Carnegie Airborne Observatory-2: Increasing science data dimensionality via high-fidelity multi-sensor fusion,” Remote Sens. Environ. 124, 454–465 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kokaly, R. F.

R. N. Clark, G. A. Swayze, K. E. Livo, R. F. Kokaly, S. J. Sutley, J. B. Dalton, R. R. McDougal, and C. A. Gent, “Imaging spectroscopy: Earth and planetary remote sensing with the USGS tetracorder and expert systems,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets 108, 5131 (2003).
[Crossref]

Krasemann, H.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mÿhle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. J. Leitäo, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The EnMAP spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for Earth observation,” Remote Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kratwurst, S.

D. R. Thompson, I. Leifer, H. Bovensmann, M. Eastwood, M. Fladeland, C. Frankenberg, K. Gerilowski, R. Green, S. Kratwurst, T. Krings, B. Luna, and A. K. Thorpe, “Real-time remote detection and measurement for airborne imaging spectroscopy: a case study with methane,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 8, 4383–4397 (2015).
[Crossref]

Krings, T.

D. R. Thompson, I. Leifer, H. Bovensmann, M. Eastwood, M. Fladeland, C. Frankenberg, K. Gerilowski, R. Green, S. Kratwurst, T. Krings, B. Luna, and A. K. Thorpe, “Real-time remote detection and measurement for airborne imaging spectroscopy: a case study with methane,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 8, 4383–4397 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kruse, F. A.

J. W. Boardman and F. A. Kruse, “Analysis of imaging spectrometer data using N-dimensional geometry and a mixture-tuned matched filtering approach,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 49, 4138–4152 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kudela, R.

Kuester, T.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mÿhle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. J. Leitäo, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The EnMAP spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for Earth observation,” Remote Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Leifer, I.

D. R. Thompson, I. Leifer, H. Bovensmann, M. Eastwood, M. Fladeland, C. Frankenberg, K. Gerilowski, R. Green, S. Kratwurst, T. Krings, B. Luna, and A. K. Thorpe, “Real-time remote detection and measurement for airborne imaging spectroscopy: a case study with methane,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 8, 4383–4397 (2015).
[Crossref]

Leitäo, P. J.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mÿhle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. J. Leitäo, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The EnMAP spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for Earth observation,” Remote Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

C.-C. Wu, W. Liu, and C.-I. Chang, “Exploration of methods for estimation of number of endmembers in hyperspectral imagery,” Proc. SPIE 6378, 63781C (2006).
[Crossref]

Livo, K. E.

R. N. Clark, G. A. Swayze, K. E. Livo, R. F. Kokaly, S. J. Sutley, J. B. Dalton, R. R. McDougal, and C. A. Gent, “Imaging spectroscopy: Earth and planetary remote sensing with the USGS tetracorder and expert systems,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets 108, 5131 (2003).
[Crossref]

Locherer, M.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mÿhle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. J. Leitäo, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The EnMAP spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for Earth observation,” Remote Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Luna, B.

D. R. Thompson, I. Leifer, H. Bovensmann, M. Eastwood, M. Fladeland, C. Frankenberg, K. Gerilowski, R. Green, S. Kratwurst, T. Krings, B. Luna, and A. K. Thorpe, “Real-time remote detection and measurement for airborne imaging spectroscopy: a case study with methane,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 8, 4383–4397 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lundeen, S. K.

D. R. Thompson, R. O. Green, D. Keymeulen, S. K. Lundeen, Y. Mouradi, D. C. Nunes, R. C. no, and S. A. Chien, “Rapid spectral cloud screening onboard aircraft and spacecraft,” IEEE T. Geosci. Remote Sens. 52, 6779–6792 (2014).
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Lundeen, S. R.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Left: RGB subset of an example validation segment - foothills of Ivanpah Playa, overflown on multiple occasions under different illumination conditions. Right: The average magnitude of the projection of each Principal Component, separated into spatially-correlated (thick line) and uncorrelated (thin line) components. The intersection indicates the dimension where the measurement noise is equal to the scene signal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Example segmentation of flightline f1405f140528r15 near the Bay Area, CA. The bar chart at the top shows dimensionality estimates for each segment. Images indicate representative segments with intermediate, high, and low values.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Eigenvalue decay of the pooled covariance matrices, each rescaled to place noise at unity

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Top: Intrinsic spectral dimensionality of MODIS land cover categories. Bottom: Frequency histograms of dimensionality for aquatic and terrestrial scenes. Fitting a bimodal distribution to the Water class yields means 12.4 and 27.1, and standard deviations 3.8 and 5.6 respectively. Natural and anthropogenic terrestrial scenes are well-described by Gaussian distributions of means 30.4 and 33.2, standard deviations of 4.5 and 4.3 respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Intrinsic spectral dimensionality of observations over California, 2013–14. Dimensionality is floored at 20 and ceilinged at 40. Letter annotations show locations of interest referenced in the text.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Flightlines used in the experiment. Date: Flight date, N: Number of segments, Radiance: Mean radiance in W m−2 sr−1 nm−1, Dim: Mean Dimensionality, Lat: Center latitude of flightlines, Lon: Center longitude of flightlines.