Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate an energy-efficient optical diode based on the optomechanical effect. The optical signals could transmit during forward propagation while be blocked during backward propagation. When launching optical signal with a low power of 4.0 mW, the maximum resonance red-shift of the asymmetric silicon microring resonator (MRR) could be up to 0.74 nm, in this case, a forward-backward nonreciprocal transmission ratio (NTR) of 12.7 dB has been achieved. The 10-dB and 5-dB operation bandwidths are 0.08 nm and 0.24 nm, respectively. The operating bandwidth could be continuously tuned theoretically by changing the input power.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (1)

M. He, S. Liao, L. Liu, and J. Dong, “Theoretical analysis for optomechanical all-optical transistor,” Frontiers Optoelectron. 9(3), 406–411 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

L. Liu, J. Dong, D. Gao, A. Zheng, and X. Zhang, “On-chip passive three-port circuit of all-optical ordered-route transmission,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10190 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, J. Dong, and X. Zhang, “Chip-integrated all-optical 4-bit Gray code generation based on silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Express 23(16), 21414–21423 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

2013 (5)

L. Fan, L. T. Varghese, J. Wang, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Silicon optical diode with 40 dB nonreciprocal transmission,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1259–1261 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is—and what is not—an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Mitsuya, Y. Shoji, and T. Mizumoto, “Demonstration of a silicon waveguide optical circulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(8), 721–723 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Xu, J. Wu, T. Wang, X. Hu, X. Jiang, and Y. Su, “Push–pull optical nonreciprocal transmission in cascaded silicon microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200307 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Ren, J. Huang, H. Cai, J. M. Tsai, J. Zhou, Z. Liu, Z. Suo, and A.-Q. Liu, “Nano-optomechanical actuator and pull-back instability,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1676–1681 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

C. Wang, X.-L. Zhong, and Z.-Y. Li, “Linear and passive silicon optical isolator,” Sci. Rep. 2, 674 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An all-silicon passive optical diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

M. Kang, A. Butsch, and P. S. J. Russell, “Reconfigurable light-driven opto-acoustic isolators in photonic crystal fibre,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 549–553 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (4)

S. Manipatruni, J. T. Robinson, and M. Lipson, “Optical nonreciprocity in optomechanical structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(21), 213903 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Yu and S. Fan, “Complete optical isolation created by indirect interband photonic transitions,” Nat. Photonics 3(2), 91–94 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, X. Luo, and A. W. Poon, “Cavity-enhanced photocurrent generation by 1.55 mum wavelengths linear absorption in a pin diode embedded silicon microring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 1111 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

M. Soljacić and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Enhancement of nonlinear effects using photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 3(4), 211–219 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

1991 (1)

Y. Fujii, “High-isolation polarization-independent optical circulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(10), 1238–1243 (1991).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

Adibi, A.

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is—and what is not—an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Barclay, P.

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bi, L.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Biaggio, I.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J.

D. Huang, P. Pintus, C. Zhang, Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, and J. Bowers, “Silicon microring isolator with large optical isolation and low loss,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2016), Th1K. 2.
[Crossref]

Butsch, A.

M. Kang, A. Butsch, and P. S. J. Russell, “Reconfigurable light-driven opto-acoustic isolators in photonic crystal fibre,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 549–553 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cai, H.

M. Ren, J. Huang, H. Cai, J. M. Tsai, J. Zhou, Z. Liu, Z. Suo, and A.-Q. Liu, “Nano-optomechanical actuator and pull-back instability,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1676–1681 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cerrina, F.

Chen, H.

H. Chen, X. Luo, and A. W. Poon, “Cavity-enhanced photocurrent generation by 1.55 mum wavelengths linear absorption in a pin diode embedded silicon microring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 1111 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dagens, B.

Diederich, F.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dionne, G. F.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Doerr, C. R.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is—and what is not—an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dong, J.

M. He, S. Liao, L. Liu, and J. Dong, “Theoretical analysis for optomechanical all-optical transistor,” Frontiers Optoelectron. 9(3), 406–411 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, J. Dong, and X. Zhang, “Chip-integrated all-optical 4-bit Gray code generation based on silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Express 23(16), 21414–21423 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, J. Dong, D. Gao, A. Zheng, and X. Zhang, “On-chip passive three-port circuit of all-optical ordered-route transmission,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10190 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dumon, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Eich, M.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is—and what is not—an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

Esembeson, B.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fan, L.

L. Fan, L. T. Varghese, J. Wang, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Silicon optical diode with 40 dB nonreciprocal transmission,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1259–1261 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An all-silicon passive optical diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is—and what is not—an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Yu and S. Fan, “Complete optical isolation created by indirect interband photonic transitions,” Nat. Photonics 3(2), 91–94 (2009).
[Crossref]

Freude, W.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is—and what is not—an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fujii, Y.

Y. Fujii, “High-isolation polarization-independent optical circulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(10), 1238–1243 (1991).
[Crossref]

Gao, D.

L. Liu, J. Dong, D. Gao, A. Zheng, and X. Zhang, “On-chip passive three-port circuit of all-optical ordered-route transmission,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10190 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gralak, B.

He, M.

M. He, S. Liao, L. Liu, and J. Dong, “Theoretical analysis for optomechanical all-optical transistor,” Frontiers Optoelectron. 9(3), 406–411 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hu, J.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hu, X.

M. Xu, J. Wu, T. Wang, X. Hu, X. Jiang, and Y. Su, “Push–pull optical nonreciprocal transmission in cascaded silicon microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, P. Pintus, C. Zhang, Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, and J. Bowers, “Silicon microring isolator with large optical isolation and low loss,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2016), Th1K. 2.
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

M. Ren, J. Huang, H. Cai, J. M. Tsai, J. Zhou, Z. Liu, Z. Suo, and A.-Q. Liu, “Nano-optomechanical actuator and pull-back instability,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1676–1681 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Q.

Huang, Z.

Jalas, D.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is—and what is not—an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jiang, P.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jiang, X.

M. Xu, J. Wu, T. Wang, X. Hu, X. Jiang, and Y. Su, “Push–pull optical nonreciprocal transmission in cascaded silicon microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is—and what is not—an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Soljacić and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Enhancement of nonlinear effects using photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 3(4), 211–219 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, M.

M. Kang, A. Butsch, and P. S. J. Russell, “Reconfigurable light-driven opto-acoustic isolators in photonic crystal fibre,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 549–553 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. H.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kimerling, L. C.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Shin, and F. Cerrina, “Fabrication of ultralow-loss Si/SiO(2) waveguides by roughness reduction,” Opt. Lett. 26(23), 1888–1890 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koos, C.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kuwahara, H.

Lee, K. K.

Leuthold, J.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, D.

Li, Z.-Y.

C. Wang, X.-L. Zhong, and Z.-Y. Li, “Linear and passive silicon optical isolator,” Sci. Rep. 2, 674 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liao, S.

M. He, S. Liao, L. Liu, and J. Dong, “Theoretical analysis for optomechanical all-optical transistor,” Frontiers Optoelectron. 9(3), 406–411 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lim, D. R.

Lipson, M.

S. Manipatruni, J. T. Robinson, and M. Lipson, “Optical nonreciprocity in optomechanical structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(21), 213903 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Xu and M. Lipson, “All-optical logic based on silicon micro-ring resonators,” Opt. Express 15(3), 924–929 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, A.-Q.

M. Ren, J. Huang, H. Cai, J. M. Tsai, J. Zhou, Z. Liu, Z. Suo, and A.-Q. Liu, “Nano-optomechanical actuator and pull-back instability,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1676–1681 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

M. He, S. Liao, L. Liu, and J. Dong, “Theoretical analysis for optomechanical all-optical transistor,” Frontiers Optoelectron. 9(3), 406–411 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, J. Dong, and X. Zhang, “Chip-integrated all-optical 4-bit Gray code generation based on silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Express 23(16), 21414–21423 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, J. Dong, D. Gao, A. Zheng, and X. Zhang, “On-chip passive three-port circuit of all-optical ordered-route transmission,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10190 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

M. Ren, J. Huang, H. Cai, J. M. Tsai, J. Zhou, Z. Liu, Z. Suo, and A.-Q. Liu, “Nano-optomechanical actuator and pull-back instability,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1676–1681 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, X.

H. Chen, X. Luo, and A. W. Poon, “Cavity-enhanced photocurrent generation by 1.55 mum wavelengths linear absorption in a pin diode embedded silicon microring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 1111 (2009).
[Crossref]

Magdenko, L.

Manipatruni, S.

S. Manipatruni, J. T. Robinson, and M. Lipson, “Optical nonreciprocity in optomechanical structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(21), 213903 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Melloni, A.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is—and what is not—an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

Michinobu, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mitsuya, K.

K. Mitsuya, Y. Shoji, and T. Mizumoto, “Demonstration of a silicon waveguide optical circulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(8), 721–723 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mizumoto, T.

K. Mitsuya, Y. Shoji, and T. Mizumoto, “Demonstration of a silicon waveguide optical circulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(8), 721–723 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Huang, P. Pintus, C. Zhang, Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, and J. Bowers, “Silicon microring isolator with large optical isolation and low loss,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2016), Th1K. 2.
[Crossref]

Niu, B.

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An all-silicon passive optical diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Obokata, T.

Painter, O.

Panepucci, R. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petrov, A.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is—and what is not—an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pintus, P.

D. Huang, P. Pintus, C. Zhang, Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, and J. Bowers, “Silicon microring isolator with large optical isolation and low loss,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2016), Th1K. 2.
[Crossref]

Poon, A. W.

H. Chen, X. Luo, and A. W. Poon, “Cavity-enhanced photocurrent generation by 1.55 mum wavelengths linear absorption in a pin diode embedded silicon microring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 1111 (2009).
[Crossref]

Popovic, M.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is—and what is not—an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

Qi, M.

L. Fan, L. T. Varghese, J. Wang, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Silicon optical diode with 40 dB nonreciprocal transmission,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1259–1261 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An all-silicon passive optical diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, M.

M. Ren, J. Huang, H. Cai, J. M. Tsai, J. Zhou, Z. Liu, Z. Suo, and A.-Q. Liu, “Nano-optomechanical actuator and pull-back instability,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1676–1681 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Renner, H.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is—and what is not—an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

Robinson, J. T.

S. Manipatruni, J. T. Robinson, and M. Lipson, “Optical nonreciprocity in optomechanical structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(21), 213903 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Romero-Vivas, J.

Ross, C.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Russell, P. S. J.

M. Kang, A. Butsch, and P. S. J. Russell, “Reconfigurable light-driven opto-acoustic isolators in photonic crystal fibre,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 549–553 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shen, H.

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An all-silicon passive optical diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shin, J.

Shirasaki, M.

Shoji, Y.

K. Mitsuya, Y. Shoji, and T. Mizumoto, “Demonstration of a silicon waveguide optical circulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(8), 721–723 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Huang, P. Pintus, C. Zhang, Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, and J. Bowers, “Silicon microring isolator with large optical isolation and low loss,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2016), Th1K. 2.
[Crossref]

Smigaj, W.

Soljacic, M.

M. Soljacić and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Enhancement of nonlinear effects using photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 3(4), 211–219 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soltani, M.

Srinivasan, K.

Su, Y.

M. Xu, J. Wu, T. Wang, X. Hu, X. Jiang, and Y. Su, “Push–pull optical nonreciprocal transmission in cascaded silicon microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Suo, Z.

M. Ren, J. Huang, H. Cai, J. M. Tsai, J. Zhou, Z. Liu, Z. Suo, and A.-Q. Liu, “Nano-optomechanical actuator and pull-back instability,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1676–1681 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, J. M.

M. Ren, J. Huang, H. Cai, J. M. Tsai, J. Zhou, Z. Liu, Z. Suo, and A.-Q. Liu, “Nano-optomechanical actuator and pull-back instability,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1676–1681 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vallaitis, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vanwolleghem, M.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is—and what is not—an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Śmigaj, J. Romero-Vivas, B. Gralak, L. Magdenko, B. Dagens, and M. Vanwolleghem, “Magneto-optical circulator designed for operation in a uniform external magnetic field,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 568–570 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Varghese, L. T.

L. Fan, L. T. Varghese, J. Wang, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Silicon optical diode with 40 dB nonreciprocal transmission,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1259–1261 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An all-silicon passive optical diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vorreau, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

C. Wang, X.-L. Zhong, and Z.-Y. Li, “Linear and passive silicon optical isolator,” Sci. Rep. 2, 674 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

L. Fan, L. T. Varghese, J. Wang, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Silicon optical diode with 40 dB nonreciprocal transmission,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1259–1261 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An all-silicon passive optical diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, T.

M. Xu, J. Wu, T. Wang, X. Hu, X. Jiang, and Y. Su, “Push–pull optical nonreciprocal transmission in cascaded silicon microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Weiner, A. M.

L. Fan, L. T. Varghese, J. Wang, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Silicon optical diode with 40 dB nonreciprocal transmission,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1259–1261 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An all-silicon passive optical diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

M. Xu, J. Wu, T. Wang, X. Hu, X. Jiang, and Y. Su, “Push–pull optical nonreciprocal transmission in cascaded silicon microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

Xia, J.

Xu, M.

M. Xu, J. Wu, T. Wang, X. Hu, X. Jiang, and Y. Su, “Push–pull optical nonreciprocal transmission in cascaded silicon microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

Xuan, Y.

L. Fan, L. T. Varghese, J. Wang, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Silicon optical diode with 40 dB nonreciprocal transmission,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1259–1261 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An all-silicon passive optical diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yegnanarayanan, S.

Yu, J.

Yu, Z.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is—and what is not—an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Yu and S. Fan, “Complete optical isolation created by indirect interband photonic transitions,” Nat. Photonics 3(2), 91–94 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zeng, C.

Zhang, C.

D. Huang, P. Pintus, C. Zhang, Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, and J. Bowers, “Silicon microring isolator with large optical isolation and low loss,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2016), Th1K. 2.
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

L. Liu, J. Dong, D. Gao, A. Zheng, and X. Zhang, “On-chip passive three-port circuit of all-optical ordered-route transmission,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10190 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, J. Dong, and X. Zhang, “Chip-integrated all-optical 4-bit Gray code generation based on silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Express 23(16), 21414–21423 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Zheng, A.

L. Liu, J. Dong, D. Gao, A. Zheng, and X. Zhang, “On-chip passive three-port circuit of all-optical ordered-route transmission,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10190 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhong, X.-L.

C. Wang, X.-L. Zhong, and Z.-Y. Li, “Linear and passive silicon optical isolator,” Sci. Rep. 2, 674 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

M. Ren, J. Huang, H. Cai, J. M. Tsai, J. Zhou, Z. Liu, Z. Suo, and A.-Q. Liu, “Nano-optomechanical actuator and pull-back instability,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1676–1681 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

M. Ren, J. Huang, H. Cai, J. M. Tsai, J. Zhou, Z. Liu, Z. Suo, and A.-Q. Liu, “Nano-optomechanical actuator and pull-back instability,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1676–1681 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Chen, X. Luo, and A. W. Poon, “Cavity-enhanced photocurrent generation by 1.55 mum wavelengths linear absorption in a pin diode embedded silicon microring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 1111 (2009).
[Crossref]

Frontiers Optoelectron. (1)

M. He, S. Liao, L. Liu, and J. Dong, “Theoretical analysis for optomechanical all-optical transistor,” Frontiers Optoelectron. 9(3), 406–411 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

M. Xu, J. Wu, T. Wang, X. Hu, X. Jiang, and Y. Su, “Push–pull optical nonreciprocal transmission in cascaded silicon microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200307 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Mitsuya, Y. Shoji, and T. Mizumoto, “Demonstration of a silicon waveguide optical circulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(8), 721–723 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Y. Fujii, “High-isolation polarization-independent optical circulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(10), 1238–1243 (1991).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

M. Soljacić and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Enhancement of nonlinear effects using photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 3(4), 211–219 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (5)

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Yu and S. Fan, “Complete optical isolation created by indirect interband photonic transitions,” Nat. Photonics 3(2), 91–94 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Kang, A. Butsch, and P. S. J. Russell, “Reconfigurable light-driven opto-acoustic isolators in photonic crystal fibre,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 549–553 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is—and what is not—an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Manipatruni, J. T. Robinson, and M. Lipson, “Optical nonreciprocity in optomechanical structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(21), 213903 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (2)

C. Wang, X.-L. Zhong, and Z.-Y. Li, “Linear and passive silicon optical isolator,” Sci. Rep. 2, 674 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, J. Dong, D. Gao, A. Zheng, and X. Zhang, “On-chip passive three-port circuit of all-optical ordered-route transmission,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10190 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An all-silicon passive optical diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

L. Liu, J. Dong, H. Qiu, F. Jiang, M. He, H. Zhou, and X. Zhang, “An all-silicon passive six-port circuit of all-optical ordered-route transmission,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations, (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper SM3G. 4.

H. Qiu, “Scalability and tunability of the silicon circuit supporting on-chip ordered-route light transmission,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper AF3G. 7.
[Crossref]

D. Huang, P. Pintus, C. Zhang, Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, and J. Bowers, “Silicon microring isolator with large optical isolation and low loss,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2016), Th1K. 2.
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Theoretically analysis of optical diode based on optomechanical effect. (a) Layout of the proposed optical diode; (b) Cross-sectional view of the proposed diode; (c) Top view of the proposed diode; (d) Theoretical forward and backward propagation spectrum.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fabrication process of the device. (a) E-beam lithography of the device; (b) ICP etching the bus waveguide and MRR; (c) ICP etching the released area to form a ‘window’; (d) Etching the released area by the hydrofluoric acid solution.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM images. (a) Whole scanning of the device; (GL); (b) Free-standing arc; (c) Free-standing bus waveguide; (d) The upper gap (GL); (e) The lower gap (GS); (f) Vertical grating coupler.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental configuration and non-reciprocal phenomenon. (a) Experimental setup. TLS, tunable laser source; EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier; ATT, attenuator; ASE, amplified spontaneous emission source; OC, optical coupler; PBS, polarization beam splitter; PC, polarization controller; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer; (b) Optical spectrum of forward and backward propagation at the input power as 4 mW.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulation and experiment results. (a) Experimental result of maximum NTR-input power relationship; (b) Simulation (sim or fit) & experimental (exp) result of the optomechanical (OM) effect & thermo-optic (TO) Effect causing red-shift-input power relationship; (c) Simulation of wavelength shift-deflection relationship; (d) Simulation of optical force-deflection relationship under different input power respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Experimental results under different power inputs; (b) Transmit spectrum of forward and backward propagation when Δλ is small.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The experimental spectrum of the device whose g0 is 365 nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured parameters of the device

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F opt = 1 n eff n eff g U.
U= 2 τ e 1 P in [ ( λ in λ r )2πc λ r 2 ] 2 + ( τ i 1 + τ e 1 ) 2 .
δλ λ 0 n g δ n TO .
δ n TO = Γ th k th R th ( 1 | T( λ ) | 2 ) P in .