Abstract

This paper demonstrates rapidly reconfigurable, high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation (OAWG) in a heterogeneous photonic integrated circuit (PIC). The heterogeneous PIC combines advantages of high-speed indium phosphide (InP) modulators and low-loss, high-contrast silicon nitride (Si3N4) arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) so that high-fidelity optical waveform syntheses with rapid waveform updates are possible. The generated optical waveforms spanned a 160 GHz spectral bandwidth starting from an optical frequency comb consisting of eight comb lines separated by 20 GHz channel spacing. The Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) values of the generated waveforms were approximately 16.4%. The OAWG module can rapidly and arbitrarily reconfigure waveforms upon every pulse arriving at 2 ns repetition time. The result of this work indicates the feasibility of truly dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation where the reconfiguration rate or the modulator bandwidth must exceed the channel spacing of the AWG and the optical frequency comb.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (4)

2014 (2)

2013 (1)

2011 (3)

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, T. He, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Bandwidth scalable, coherent transmitter based on the parallel synthesis of multiple spectral slices using optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8242–8253 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation and detection in InP photonic integrated circuits for Tb/s optical communications,” Opt. Commun. 284(15), 3693–3705 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. M. Soares, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. H. Baek, X. Zhou, T. Su, S. Cheung, Y. Wang, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Monolithic InP 100-channel x 10-GHz device for optical arbitrary waveform generation,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 975–985 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

2007 (3)

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Takahashi, and T. Shibata, “Flexible pulse waveform generation using silica-waveguide-based spectrum synthesis circuit,” Electron. Lett. 40(9), 537–538 (2004).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(5), 1929–1960 (2000).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

J. F. Vinchant, J. A. Cavailles, M. Erman, P. Jarry, and M. Renaud, “InP/GaInAsP guided-wave phase modulators based on carrier-induced effects: theory and experiment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(1), 63–70 (1992).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

Babbitt, W. R.

Baek, J. H.

F. M. Soares, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. H. Baek, X. Zhou, T. Su, S. Cheung, Y. Wang, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Monolithic InP 100-channel x 10-GHz device for optical arbitrary waveform generation,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 975–985 (2011).
[Crossref]

Barber, Z. W.

Berg, T.

Cao, J.

Castro, A.

Cavailles, J. A.

J. F. Vinchant, J. A. Cavailles, M. Erman, P. Jarry, and M. Renaud, “InP/GaInAsP guided-wave phase modulators based on carrier-induced effects: theory and experiment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(1), 63–70 (1992).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Chen, S.

Cheung, S.

F. M. Soares, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. H. Baek, X. Zhou, T. Su, S. Cheung, Y. Wang, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Monolithic InP 100-channel x 10-GHz device for optical arbitrary waveform generation,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 975–985 (2011).
[Crossref]

Corzo, N. V.

Cundiff, S. T.

S. T. Cundiff and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Nat. Photonics 4(11), 760–766 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. T. Willits, A. M. Weiner, and S. T. Cundiff, “Theory of rapid-update line-by-line pulse shaping,” Opt. Express 16(1), 315–327 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dezfooliyan, A.

J. M. Lukens, A. Dezfooliyan, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Orthogonal spectral coding of entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(13), 133602 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Lukens, A. Dezfooliyan, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Biphoton manipulation with a fiber-based pulse shaper,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4652–4655 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Erman, M.

J. F. Vinchant, J. A. Cavailles, M. Erman, P. Jarry, and M. Renaud, “InP/GaInAsP guided-wave phase modulators based on carrier-induced effects: theory and experiment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(1), 63–70 (1992).
[Crossref]

Fejer, M. M.

J. M. Lukens, A. Dezfooliyan, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Orthogonal spectral coding of entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(13), 133602 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Lukens, A. Dezfooliyan, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Biphoton manipulation with a fiber-based pulse shaper,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4652–4655 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, S.

Fontaine, N. K.

R. Proietti, C. Qin, B. Guan, N. K. Fontaine, S. Feng, A. Castro, R. P. Scott, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic Optical Networking by Dynamic Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation and Measurement,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 8(7), A171–A179 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Guan, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, S. Chen, H. Chen, G. Raybon, C. Xie, R. P. Scott, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Optical Spectrally Sliced Transmitter for High Fidelity and Bandwidth Scalable Waveform Generation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 737–744 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, T. He, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Bandwidth scalable, coherent transmitter based on the parallel synthesis of multiple spectral slices using optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8242–8253 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation and detection in InP photonic integrated circuits for Tb/s optical communications,” Opt. Commun. 284(15), 3693–3705 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. M. Soares, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. H. Baek, X. Zhou, T. Su, S. Cheung, Y. Wang, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Monolithic InP 100-channel x 10-GHz device for optical arbitrary waveform generation,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 975–985 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation and measurement,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18655–18670 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, D. J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Compact 10 GHz loopback arrayed-waveguide grating for high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Lett. 33(15), 1714–1716 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “High-fidelity line-by-line optical waveform generation and complete characterization using FROG,” Opt. Express 15(16), 9977–9988 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. Cao, A. Karalar, W. Jiang, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, and S. J. B. Yoo, “32 Phase X 32 amplitude optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 865–867 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Froggatt, M. E.

Geisler, D. J.

Gerstel, O.

Gifford, D. K.

Gruezke, L. A.

F. M. Soares, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. H. Baek, X. Zhou, T. Su, S. Cheung, Y. Wang, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Monolithic InP 100-channel x 10-GHz device for optical arbitrary waveform generation,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 975–985 (2011).
[Crossref]

Guan, B.

Hamm, R. A.

F. M. Soares, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. H. Baek, X. Zhou, T. Su, S. Cheung, Y. Wang, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Monolithic InP 100-channel x 10-GHz device for optical arbitrary waveform generation,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 975–985 (2011).
[Crossref]

He, T.

Heritage, J. P.

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, T. He, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Bandwidth scalable, coherent transmitter based on the parallel synthesis of multiple spectral slices using optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8242–8253 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. M. Soares, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. H. Baek, X. Zhou, T. Su, S. Cheung, Y. Wang, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Monolithic InP 100-channel x 10-GHz device for optical arbitrary waveform generation,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 975–985 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation and measurement,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18655–18670 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, D. J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Compact 10 GHz loopback arrayed-waveguide grating for high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Lett. 33(15), 1714–1716 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “High-fidelity line-by-line optical waveform generation and complete characterization using FROG,” Opt. Express 15(16), 9977–9988 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. Cao, A. Karalar, W. Jiang, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, and S. J. B. Yoo, “32 Phase X 32 amplitude optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 865–867 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoefler, G. E.

Hosseini, A.

Huang, C.-B.

Z. Jiang, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.-P.

Islam, A. R.

R. A. Shafik, M. S. Rahman, and A. R. Islam, “On the extended relationships among EVM, BER and SNR as performance metrics,” in 2006 International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (2006), 408–411.
[Crossref]

Jaramillo-Villegas, J. A.

Jarry, P.

J. F. Vinchant, J. A. Cavailles, M. Erman, P. Jarry, and M. Renaud, “InP/GaInAsP guided-wave phase modulators based on carrier-induced effects: theory and experiment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(1), 63–70 (1992).
[Crossref]

Jiang, W.

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[Crossref]

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Line-by-line pulse shaping control for optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10431–10439 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Junesand, C.

F. M. Soares, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. H. Baek, X. Zhou, T. Su, S. Cheung, Y. Wang, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Monolithic InP 100-channel x 10-GHz device for optical arbitrary waveform generation,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 975–985 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kanter, G. S.

Karalar, A.

Kaylor, B.

Kim, H.-J.

Kish, F.

Kolner, B. H.

Kominato, T.

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Takahashi, and T. Shibata, “Flexible pulse waveform generation using silica-waveguide-based spectrum synthesis circuit,” Electron. Lett. 40(9), 537–538 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kowligy, A. S.

Kumar, P.

Lal, V.

Langrock, C.

J. M. Lukens, A. Dezfooliyan, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Orthogonal spectral coding of entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(13), 133602 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Lukens, A. Dezfooliyan, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Biphoton manipulation with a fiber-based pulse shaper,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4652–4655 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leaird, D. E.

Li, Y.

A. Rashidinejad, Y. Li, and A. M. Weiner, “Recent Advances in Programmable Photonic-Assisted Ultrabroadband Radio-Frequency Arbitrary Waveform Generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(1), 1–17 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lin, S. H.

Liou, K. Y.

F. M. Soares, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. H. Baek, X. Zhou, T. Su, S. Cheung, Y. Wang, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Monolithic InP 100-channel x 10-GHz device for optical arbitrary waveform generation,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 975–985 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lourdudoss, S.

F. M. Soares, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. H. Baek, X. Zhou, T. Su, S. Cheung, Y. Wang, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Monolithic InP 100-channel x 10-GHz device for optical arbitrary waveform generation,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 975–985 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lukens, J. M.

J. M. Lukens, A. Dezfooliyan, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Orthogonal spectral coding of entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(13), 133602 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Lukens, A. Dezfooliyan, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Biphoton manipulation with a fiber-based pulse shaper,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4652–4655 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manurkar, P.

McKinzie, K. A.

Metcalf, A. J.

Okamoto, K.

Paraschis, L.

Patel, B.

F. M. Soares, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. H. Baek, X. Zhou, T. Su, S. Cheung, Y. Wang, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Monolithic InP 100-channel x 10-GHz device for optical arbitrary waveform generation,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 975–985 (2011).
[Crossref]

Proietti, R.

Qin, C.

Rahman, M. S.

R. A. Shafik, M. S. Rahman, and A. R. Islam, “On the extended relationships among EVM, BER and SNR as performance metrics,” in 2006 International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (2006), 408–411.
[Crossref]

Rashidinejad, A.

A. Rashidinejad, Y. Li, and A. M. Weiner, “Recent Advances in Programmable Photonic-Assisted Ultrabroadband Radio-Frequency Arbitrary Waveform Generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(1), 1–17 (2016).
[Crossref]

Raybon, G.

Reibel, R. R.

Renaud, M.

J. F. Vinchant, J. A. Cavailles, M. Erman, P. Jarry, and M. Renaud, “InP/GaInAsP guided-wave phase modulators based on carrier-induced effects: theory and experiment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(1), 63–70 (1992).
[Crossref]

Roos, P. A.

Ryf, R.

Scott, R. P.

B. Guan, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, S. Chen, H. Chen, G. Raybon, C. Xie, R. P. Scott, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Optical Spectrally Sliced Transmitter for High Fidelity and Bandwidth Scalable Waveform Generation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 737–744 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Proietti, C. Qin, B. Guan, N. K. Fontaine, S. Feng, A. Castro, R. P. Scott, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic Optical Networking by Dynamic Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation and Measurement,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 8(7), A171–A179 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. S. Kowligy, P. Manurkar, N. V. Corzo, V. G. Velev, M. Silver, R. P. Scott, S. J. B. Yoo, P. Kumar, G. S. Kanter, and Y.-P. Huang, “Quantum optical arbitrary waveform manipulation and measurement in real time,” Opt. Express 22(23), 27942–27957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, T. He, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Bandwidth scalable, coherent transmitter based on the parallel synthesis of multiple spectral slices using optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8242–8253 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation and detection in InP photonic integrated circuits for Tb/s optical communications,” Opt. Commun. 284(15), 3693–3705 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. M. Soares, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. H. Baek, X. Zhou, T. Su, S. Cheung, Y. Wang, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Monolithic InP 100-channel x 10-GHz device for optical arbitrary waveform generation,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 975–985 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation and measurement,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18655–18670 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, D. J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Compact 10 GHz loopback arrayed-waveguide grating for high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Lett. 33(15), 1714–1716 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “High-fidelity line-by-line optical waveform generation and complete characterization using FROG,” Opt. Express 15(16), 9977–9988 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. Cao, A. Karalar, W. Jiang, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, and S. J. B. Yoo, “32 Phase X 32 amplitude optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 865–867 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shafik, R. A.

R. A. Shafik, M. S. Rahman, and A. R. Islam, “On the extended relationships among EVM, BER and SNR as performance metrics,” in 2006 International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (2006), 408–411.
[Crossref]

Shibata, T.

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Takahashi, and T. Shibata, “Flexible pulse waveform generation using silica-waveguide-based spectrum synthesis circuit,” Electron. Lett. 40(9), 537–538 (2004).
[Crossref]

Silver, M.

Soares, F. M.

F. M. Soares, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. H. Baek, X. Zhou, T. Su, S. Cheung, Y. Wang, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Monolithic InP 100-channel x 10-GHz device for optical arbitrary waveform generation,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 975–985 (2011).
[Crossref]

Soller, B. J.

Su, T.

F. M. Soares, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. H. Baek, X. Zhou, T. Su, S. Cheung, Y. Wang, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Monolithic InP 100-channel x 10-GHz device for optical arbitrary waveform generation,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 975–985 (2011).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, H.

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Takahashi, and T. Shibata, “Flexible pulse waveform generation using silica-waveguide-based spectrum synthesis circuit,” Electron. Lett. 40(9), 537–538 (2004).
[Crossref]

Takiguchi, K.

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Takahashi, and T. Shibata, “Flexible pulse waveform generation using silica-waveguide-based spectrum synthesis circuit,” Electron. Lett. 40(9), 537–538 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tsang, W. T.

F. M. Soares, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. H. Baek, X. Zhou, T. Su, S. Cheung, Y. Wang, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Monolithic InP 100-channel x 10-GHz device for optical arbitrary waveform generation,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 975–985 (2011).
[Crossref]

Velev, V. G.

Vinchant, J. F.

J. F. Vinchant, J. A. Cavailles, M. Erman, P. Jarry, and M. Renaud, “InP/GaInAsP guided-wave phase modulators based on carrier-induced effects: theory and experiment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(1), 63–70 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.-Y.

Wang, W.

F. M. Soares, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. H. Baek, X. Zhou, T. Su, S. Cheung, Y. Wang, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Monolithic InP 100-channel x 10-GHz device for optical arbitrary waveform generation,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 975–985 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

F. M. Soares, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. H. Baek, X. Zhou, T. Su, S. Cheung, Y. Wang, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Monolithic InP 100-channel x 10-GHz device for optical arbitrary waveform generation,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 975–985 (2011).
[Crossref]

Weiner, A. M.

A. Rashidinejad, Y. Li, and A. M. Weiner, “Recent Advances in Programmable Photonic-Assisted Ultrabroadband Radio-Frequency Arbitrary Waveform Generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(1), 1–17 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. J. Metcalf, H.-J. Kim, D. E. Leaird, J. A. Jaramillo-Villegas, K. A. McKinzie, V. Lal, A. Hosseini, G. E. Hoefler, F. Kish, and A. M. Weiner, “Integrated line-by-line optical pulse shaper for high-fidelity and rapidly reconfigurable RF-filtering,” Opt. Express 24(21), 23925–23940 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Lukens, A. Dezfooliyan, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Orthogonal spectral coding of entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(13), 133602 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Lukens, A. Dezfooliyan, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Biphoton manipulation with a fiber-based pulse shaper,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4652–4655 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Cundiff and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Nat. Photonics 4(11), 760–766 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. T. Willits, A. M. Weiner, and S. T. Cundiff, “Theory of rapid-update line-by-line pulse shaping,” Opt. Express 16(1), 315–327 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[Crossref]

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Line-by-line pulse shaping control for optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10431–10439 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(5), 1929–1960 (2000).
[Crossref]

Willits, J. T.

Wolfe, M. S.

Xie, C.

Yang, C.

Yoo, S. J. B.

B. Guan, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, S. Chen, H. Chen, G. Raybon, C. Xie, R. P. Scott, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Optical Spectrally Sliced Transmitter for High Fidelity and Bandwidth Scalable Waveform Generation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 737–744 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Proietti, C. Qin, B. Guan, N. K. Fontaine, S. Feng, A. Castro, R. P. Scott, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic Optical Networking by Dynamic Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation and Measurement,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 8(7), A171–A179 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. S. Kowligy, P. Manurkar, N. V. Corzo, V. G. Velev, M. Silver, R. P. Scott, S. J. B. Yoo, P. Kumar, G. S. Kanter, and Y.-P. Huang, “Quantum optical arbitrary waveform manipulation and measurement in real time,” Opt. Express 22(23), 27942–27957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, T. He, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Bandwidth scalable, coherent transmitter based on the parallel synthesis of multiple spectral slices using optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8242–8253 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. M. Soares, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. H. Baek, X. Zhou, T. Su, S. Cheung, Y. Wang, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Monolithic InP 100-channel x 10-GHz device for optical arbitrary waveform generation,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 975–985 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation and detection in InP photonic integrated circuits for Tb/s optical communications,” Opt. Commun. 284(15), 3693–3705 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation and measurement,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18655–18670 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, D. J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Compact 10 GHz loopback arrayed-waveguide grating for high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Lett. 33(15), 1714–1716 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “High-fidelity line-by-line optical waveform generation and complete characterization using FROG,” Opt. Express 15(16), 9977–9988 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. Cao, A. Karalar, W. Jiang, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, and S. J. B. Yoo, “32 Phase X 32 amplitude optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 865–867 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, X.

F. M. Soares, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. H. Baek, X. Zhou, T. Su, S. Cheung, Y. Wang, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Monolithic InP 100-channel x 10-GHz device for optical arbitrary waveform generation,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 975–985 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Takahashi, and T. Shibata, “Flexible pulse waveform generation using silica-waveguide-based spectrum synthesis circuit,” Electron. Lett. 40(9), 537–538 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Rashidinejad, Y. Li, and A. M. Weiner, “Recent Advances in Programmable Photonic-Assisted Ultrabroadband Radio-Frequency Arbitrary Waveform Generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(1), 1–17 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

F. M. Soares, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. H. Baek, X. Zhou, T. Su, S. Cheung, Y. Wang, C. Junesand, S. Lourdudoss, K. Y. Liou, R. A. Hamm, W. Wang, B. Patel, L. A. Gruezke, W. T. Tsang, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Monolithic InP 100-channel x 10-GHz device for optical arbitrary waveform generation,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 975–985 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. F. Vinchant, J. A. Cavailles, M. Erman, P. Jarry, and M. Renaud, “InP/GaInAsP guided-wave phase modulators based on carrier-induced effects: theory and experiment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(1), 63–70 (1992).
[Crossref]

B. Guan, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, S. Chen, H. Chen, G. Raybon, C. Xie, R. P. Scott, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Optical Spectrally Sliced Transmitter for High Fidelity and Bandwidth Scalable Waveform Generation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 737–744 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

Nat. Photonics (2)

Z. Jiang, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. T. Cundiff and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Nat. Photonics 4(11), 760–766 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation and detection in InP photonic integrated circuits for Tb/s optical communications,” Opt. Commun. 284(15), 3693–3705 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation and measurement,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18655–18670 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, T. He, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Bandwidth scalable, coherent transmitter based on the parallel synthesis of multiple spectral slices using optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8242–8253 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Willits, A. M. Weiner, and S. T. Cundiff, “Theory of rapid-update line-by-line pulse shaping,” Opt. Express 16(1), 315–327 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “High-fidelity line-by-line optical waveform generation and complete characterization using FROG,” Opt. Express 15(16), 9977–9988 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Line-by-line pulse shaping control for optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10431–10439 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Kowligy, P. Manurkar, N. V. Corzo, V. G. Velev, M. Silver, R. P. Scott, S. J. B. Yoo, P. Kumar, G. S. Kanter, and Y.-P. Huang, “Quantum optical arbitrary waveform manipulation and measurement in real time,” Opt. Express 22(23), 27942–27957 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Metcalf, H.-J. Kim, D. E. Leaird, J. A. Jaramillo-Villegas, K. A. McKinzie, V. Lal, A. Hosseini, G. E. Hoefler, F. Kish, and A. M. Weiner, “Integrated line-by-line optical pulse shaper for high-fidelity and rapidly reconfigurable RF-filtering,” Opt. Express 24(21), 23925–23940 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. M. Lukens, A. Dezfooliyan, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Orthogonal spectral coding of entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(13), 133602 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(5), 1929–1960 (2000).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

S. Pathak, K. Shang, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Experimental demonstration of compact 16 channels-50 GHz Si3N4 arrayed waveguide grating,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (2015) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Tu3A.3.

C. Qin, S. Feng, K. Shang, S. Pathak, B. Guan, M. Clements, H. Lu, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic and static optical arbitrary waveform generation from chip-scale heterogeneously integrated InP/Si3N4 module,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), W1E.5.
[Crossref]

R. A. Shafik, M. S. Rahman, and A. R. Islam, “On the extended relationships among EVM, BER and SNR as performance metrics,” in 2006 International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (2006), 408–411.
[Crossref]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Conceptual diagram of heterogeneous integrated OAWG module. (b) Input OFC spectrum. (c) Input OFC time domain repetitive pulse train. (d) Output spectrum. (e) Output time domain waveforms, both real (blue) and imaginary (red).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

InP phase modulator array. (a) Cross-sectional schematic of an InP phase modulator. (b) Phase change of the InP modulator. Inset: Top-view micrograph of a fabricated InP phase modulator array chip.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Si3N4 array waveguide gratings. (a) Cross-sectional schematic of a Si3N4 channel waveguide. (b) Top-view micrograph of a fabricated Si3N4 AWG. (c) Measured transmission of two Si3N4 AWG devices. Solid and dash lines indicate two AWG devices as spectral DEMUX and MUX. (d)-(e) A zoom-in microscopic view of arrayed waveguides and star coupler region in (b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Theoretical butt coupling between InP and Si3N4 waveguides. (a) Optical intensity distribution of a mode in the 4-µm wide InP waveguide. (b) Optical intensity distribution of a mode in the 2-µm wide InP waveguide. (c) Optical intensity distribution of a mode in the 2-µm wide Si3N4 waveguide. (d) Simulated InP-Si3N4 transmission as a function of the gap between 2-µm wide InP and 2-µm wide Si3N4 waveguides. The inset shows that InP waveguide is adiabatically tapered to match the mode of the Si3N4 waveguide.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Heterogeneous PICs for OAWG. (a) A photo of the heterogeneous PIC for OAWG. (b) Measured transmission of the PIC.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Experimental setup for rapidly reconfigurable OAWG and heterodyne measurement. ECL: external cavity laser; PC: polarization controller; OFC: optical frequency comb; WSS: wavelength selective switch; LPF: low-pass filter; EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier; ATT: attenuator. (b) Spectra of signal and reference optical frequency comb lines.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Demonstration of quadratic phase chirp. (a), (c), (e), (g) and (i) Phase settings. (b), (d), (f), (h) and (j) Corresponding chirped waveforms.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Static OAWG experimental results. (a) The OAWG spectrum with flattened phase on combs. (b) The OAWG spectrum with [0, 0, 0, 0, π, π, π, π] phase on combs. (c) The corresponding time-domain waveform of the spectrum in (a). (d) The corresponding time-domain waveform of the spectrum in (b). (e) The averaged time domain waveform of (c) and comparison with the simulated waveform. (f) The averaged time domain waveform of (d) and comparison with the simulated waveform.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Demonstration of optical CDM using 6 orthogonal phase configurations on 8 comb lines. The other two configurations are shown in Fig. 8. (a), (c), (e), (g), (i) and (k) Spectra of different phase configurations. (b), (d), (f), (h), (j) and (l) Time-domain waveforms for the corresponding phase configurations.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Rapidly reconfigurable OAWG experimental results. (a) A 500 MHz rectangular wave as the electrical driving signal. (b) The reconfigurable fast-updating waveform between two optical arbitrary waveforms with a 2-ns period.

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