Abstract

We study the performance limits of mono-color cyclic coding applied to Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) sensors that use probe wave dithering. BOTDA analyzers with dithering of the probe use a dual-probe-sideband setup in which an optical frequency modulation of the probe waves along the fiber is introduced. This avoids non-local effects while keeping the Brillouin threshold at its highest level, thus preventing the spontaneous Brillouin scattering from generating noise in the deployed sensing fiber. In these conditions, it is possible to introduce an unprecedented high probe power into the sensing fiber, which leads to an enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and consequently to a performance improvement of the analyzer. The addition of cyclic coding in these set-ups can further increase the SNR and accordingly enhance the performance. However, this unprecedented probe power levels that can be employed result in the appearance of detrimental effects in the measurement that had not previously been observed in other BOTDA set-ups. In this work, we analyze the distortion in the decoding process and the errors in the measurement that this distortion causes, due to three factors: the power difference of the successive pulses of a code sequence, the appearance of first-order non-local effects and the non-linear amplification of the probe wave that results when using mono-color cyclic coding of the pump pulses. We apply the results of this study to demonstrate the performance enhancement that can be achieved in a long-range dithered dual-probe BOTDA. A 164-km fiber-loop is measured with 1-m spatial resolution, obtaining 3-MHz Brillouin frequency shift measurement precision at the worst contrast location. To the best of our knowledge, this is the longest sensing distance achieved with a BOTDA sensor using mono-color cyclic coding.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, “Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1296–1302 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Alem, M. A. Soto, and L. Thévenaz, “Analytical model and experimental verification of the critical power for modulation instability in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29514–29532 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. S. M. Foaleng, F. Rodríguez-Barrios, S. Martín-López, M. González-Herráez, and L. Thévenaz, “Detrimental effect of self-phase modulation on the performance of Brillouin distributed fiber sensors,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 97–99 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. L. Thévenaz, S. F. Mafang, and J. Lin, “Effect of pulse depletion in a Brillouin optical time-domain analysis system,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14017–14035 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. A. Domínguez-López, X. Angulo-Vinuesa, A. López-Gil, S. Martín-López, and M. González-Herráez, “Non-local effects in dual-probe-sideband Brillouin optical time domain analysis,” Opt. Express 23(8), 10341–10352 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. T. Shimizu, K. Nakajima, K. Shiraki, K. Ieda, and I. Sankawa, “Evaluation methods and requirements for the stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold in a single-mode fiber,” Opt. Fiber Tech. 14(1), 10–15 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y. Dong, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Extending the sensing range of Brillouin optical time-domain analysis combining frequency-division multiplexing and in-line EDFAs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(8), 1161–1167 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. Zornoza, R. A. Pérez-Herrera, C. Elosúa, S. Díaz, C. Bariain, A. Loayssa, and M. López-Amo, “Long-range hybrid network with point and distributed Brillouin sensors using Raman amplification,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9531–9541 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. X. Angulo-Vinuesa, S. Martín-López, J. Nuño, P. Corredera, J.D. Ania-Castañon, L. Thévenaz, and M. González-Herráez, “Raman-assisted Brillouin distributed temperature sensor over 100 km featuring 2 m resolution and 1.2°C uncertainty,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(8), 1060–1065 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. Urricelqui, M. Sagues, and A. Loayssa, “Brillouin optical time-domain analysis sensor assisted by Brillouin distributed amplification of pump pulses,” Opt. Express 23(23), 30448–30458 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. J. J. Mompó, J. Urricelqui, and A. Loayssa, “Brillouin optical time-domain analysis sensor with pump pulse amplification,” Opt. Express 24(12), 12672–12681 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. M. A. Soto, G. Bolognini, F. D. Pasquale, and L. Thévenaz, “Long-range Brillouin optical time-domain analysis sensor employing pulse coding techniques,” Measurement Sci. Technol. 21(9), 094024 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. Taki, Y. Muanenda, C. J. Oton, T. Nannipieri, A. Signorini, and F. D. Pasquale, “Cyclic pulse coding for fast BOTDA fiber sensors,” Opt. Lett 38(15), 2877–2880 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. S. Le Floch, F. Sauser, M. Llera, and E. Rochat, “Novel Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer for extreme sensing range using high-power flat frequency-coded pump pulses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(12), 2623–2627 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  15. S. Le Floch, F. Sauser, M. Llera, M. A. Soto, and L. Thévenaz, “Colour simplex coding for Brillouin distributed sensors,” Proc. SPIE 8794, 879437 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. A. Soto, G. Bolognini, and F. D. Pasquale, “Analysis of pulse modulation format in coded BOTDA sensors,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14878–14892 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. Z. Yang, M. A. Soto, and L. Thévenaz, “Increasing robustness of bipolar pulse coding in Brillouin distributed fiber sensors,” Opt. Express 24(1), 586–597 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. R. Ruiz-Lombera, J. Urricelqui, M. Sagues, J. Mirapeix, J. M. López-Higuera, and A. Loayssa, “Overcoming nonlocal effects and Brillouin threshold limitations in Brillouin optical time-domain sensors,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 1–9 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  19. A. Minardo, R. Bernini, and L. Zeni, “A simple technique for reducing pump depletion in long range distributed Brillouin fiber sensors,” IEEE Sensors J 9(6), 633–634 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  20. A. Dominguez-Lopez, Z. Yang, M. A. Soto, X. Angulo-Vinuesa, S. Martín-López, L. Thévenaz, and M. González-Herráez, “Novel scanning method for distortion-free BOTDA measurements,” Opt. Express 24(10), 10188–10204 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. F. Wang, C. Zhu, C. Cao, and X. Zhang, “Enhancing the performance of BOTDR based on the combination of FFT technique and complementary coding,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3504–3513 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. M. A. Soto and L. Thévenaz, “Modeling and evaluating the performance of Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Express 21(25), 31347–31366 (2013).
    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

2016 (3)

2015 (5)

2013 (4)

L. Thévenaz, S. F. Mafang, and J. Lin, “Effect of pulse depletion in a Brillouin optical time-domain analysis system,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14017–14035 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Soto and L. Thévenaz, “Modeling and evaluating the performance of Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Express 21(25), 31347–31366 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Le Floch, F. Sauser, M. Llera, M. A. Soto, and L. Thévenaz, “Colour simplex coding for Brillouin distributed sensors,” Proc. SPIE 8794, 879437 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Taki, Y. Muanenda, C. J. Oton, T. Nannipieri, A. Signorini, and F. D. Pasquale, “Cyclic pulse coding for fast BOTDA fiber sensors,” Opt. Lett 38(15), 2877–2880 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

A. Minardo, R. Bernini, and L. Zeni, “A simple technique for reducing pump depletion in long range distributed Brillouin fiber sensors,” IEEE Sensors J 9(6), 633–634 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

T. Shimizu, K. Nakajima, K. Shiraki, K. Ieda, and I. Sankawa, “Evaluation methods and requirements for the stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold in a single-mode fiber,” Opt. Fiber Tech. 14(1), 10–15 (2008).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, “Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1296–1302 (1995).
[Crossref]

Alem, M.

Angulo-Vinuesa, X.

Ania-Castañon, J.D.

Bao, X.

Bariain, C.

Bernini, R.

A. Minardo, R. Bernini, and L. Zeni, “A simple technique for reducing pump depletion in long range distributed Brillouin fiber sensors,” IEEE Sensors J 9(6), 633–634 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bolognini, G.

M. A. Soto, G. Bolognini, and F. D. Pasquale, “Analysis of pulse modulation format in coded BOTDA sensors,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14878–14892 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Soto, G. Bolognini, F. D. Pasquale, and L. Thévenaz, “Long-range Brillouin optical time-domain analysis sensor employing pulse coding techniques,” Measurement Sci. Technol. 21(9), 094024 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cao, C.

Chen, L.

Corredera, P.

Díaz, S.

Dominguez-Lopez, A.

Domínguez-López, A.

Dong, Y.

Elosúa, C.

Foaleng, S. M.

González-Herráez, M.

Horiguchi, T.

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, “Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1296–1302 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ieda, K.

T. Shimizu, K. Nakajima, K. Shiraki, K. Ieda, and I. Sankawa, “Evaluation methods and requirements for the stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold in a single-mode fiber,” Opt. Fiber Tech. 14(1), 10–15 (2008).
[Crossref]

Koyamada, Y.

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, “Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1296–1302 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kurashima, T.

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, “Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1296–1302 (1995).
[Crossref]

Le Floch, S.

Lin, J.

Llera, M.

Loayssa, A.

López-Amo, M.

López-Gil, A.

López-Higuera, J. M.

R. Ruiz-Lombera, J. Urricelqui, M. Sagues, J. Mirapeix, J. M. López-Higuera, and A. Loayssa, “Overcoming nonlocal effects and Brillouin threshold limitations in Brillouin optical time-domain sensors,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mafang, S. F.

Martín-López, S.

Minardo, A.

A. Minardo, R. Bernini, and L. Zeni, “A simple technique for reducing pump depletion in long range distributed Brillouin fiber sensors,” IEEE Sensors J 9(6), 633–634 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mirapeix, J.

R. Ruiz-Lombera, J. Urricelqui, M. Sagues, J. Mirapeix, J. M. López-Higuera, and A. Loayssa, “Overcoming nonlocal effects and Brillouin threshold limitations in Brillouin optical time-domain sensors,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mompó, J. J.

Muanenda, Y.

M. Taki, Y. Muanenda, C. J. Oton, T. Nannipieri, A. Signorini, and F. D. Pasquale, “Cyclic pulse coding for fast BOTDA fiber sensors,” Opt. Lett 38(15), 2877–2880 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakajima, K.

T. Shimizu, K. Nakajima, K. Shiraki, K. Ieda, and I. Sankawa, “Evaluation methods and requirements for the stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold in a single-mode fiber,” Opt. Fiber Tech. 14(1), 10–15 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nannipieri, T.

M. Taki, Y. Muanenda, C. J. Oton, T. Nannipieri, A. Signorini, and F. D. Pasquale, “Cyclic pulse coding for fast BOTDA fiber sensors,” Opt. Lett 38(15), 2877–2880 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nuño, J.

Oton, C. J.

M. Taki, Y. Muanenda, C. J. Oton, T. Nannipieri, A. Signorini, and F. D. Pasquale, “Cyclic pulse coding for fast BOTDA fiber sensors,” Opt. Lett 38(15), 2877–2880 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pasquale, F. D.

M. Taki, Y. Muanenda, C. J. Oton, T. Nannipieri, A. Signorini, and F. D. Pasquale, “Cyclic pulse coding for fast BOTDA fiber sensors,” Opt. Lett 38(15), 2877–2880 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Soto, G. Bolognini, and F. D. Pasquale, “Analysis of pulse modulation format in coded BOTDA sensors,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14878–14892 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Soto, G. Bolognini, F. D. Pasquale, and L. Thévenaz, “Long-range Brillouin optical time-domain analysis sensor employing pulse coding techniques,” Measurement Sci. Technol. 21(9), 094024 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pérez-Herrera, R. A.

Rochat, E.

Rodríguez-Barrios, F.

Ruiz-Lombera, R.

R. Ruiz-Lombera, J. Urricelqui, M. Sagues, J. Mirapeix, J. M. López-Higuera, and A. Loayssa, “Overcoming nonlocal effects and Brillouin threshold limitations in Brillouin optical time-domain sensors,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sagues, M.

R. Ruiz-Lombera, J. Urricelqui, M. Sagues, J. Mirapeix, J. M. López-Higuera, and A. Loayssa, “Overcoming nonlocal effects and Brillouin threshold limitations in Brillouin optical time-domain sensors,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Urricelqui, M. Sagues, and A. Loayssa, “Brillouin optical time-domain analysis sensor assisted by Brillouin distributed amplification of pump pulses,” Opt. Express 23(23), 30448–30458 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sankawa, I.

T. Shimizu, K. Nakajima, K. Shiraki, K. Ieda, and I. Sankawa, “Evaluation methods and requirements for the stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold in a single-mode fiber,” Opt. Fiber Tech. 14(1), 10–15 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sauser, F.

Shimizu, K.

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, “Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1296–1302 (1995).
[Crossref]

Shimizu, T.

T. Shimizu, K. Nakajima, K. Shiraki, K. Ieda, and I. Sankawa, “Evaluation methods and requirements for the stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold in a single-mode fiber,” Opt. Fiber Tech. 14(1), 10–15 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shiraki, K.

T. Shimizu, K. Nakajima, K. Shiraki, K. Ieda, and I. Sankawa, “Evaluation methods and requirements for the stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold in a single-mode fiber,” Opt. Fiber Tech. 14(1), 10–15 (2008).
[Crossref]

Signorini, A.

M. Taki, Y. Muanenda, C. J. Oton, T. Nannipieri, A. Signorini, and F. D. Pasquale, “Cyclic pulse coding for fast BOTDA fiber sensors,” Opt. Lett 38(15), 2877–2880 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soto, M. A.

Taki, M.

M. Taki, Y. Muanenda, C. J. Oton, T. Nannipieri, A. Signorini, and F. D. Pasquale, “Cyclic pulse coding for fast BOTDA fiber sensors,” Opt. Lett 38(15), 2877–2880 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tateda, M.

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, “Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1296–1302 (1995).
[Crossref]

Thévenaz, L.

A. Dominguez-Lopez, Z. Yang, M. A. Soto, X. Angulo-Vinuesa, S. Martín-López, L. Thévenaz, and M. González-Herráez, “Novel scanning method for distortion-free BOTDA measurements,” Opt. Express 24(10), 10188–10204 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Yang, M. A. Soto, and L. Thévenaz, “Increasing robustness of bipolar pulse coding in Brillouin distributed fiber sensors,” Opt. Express 24(1), 586–597 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Alem, M. A. Soto, and L. Thévenaz, “Analytical model and experimental verification of the critical power for modulation instability in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29514–29532 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Soto and L. Thévenaz, “Modeling and evaluating the performance of Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Express 21(25), 31347–31366 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Le Floch, F. Sauser, M. Llera, M. A. Soto, and L. Thévenaz, “Colour simplex coding for Brillouin distributed sensors,” Proc. SPIE 8794, 879437 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Thévenaz, S. F. Mafang, and J. Lin, “Effect of pulse depletion in a Brillouin optical time-domain analysis system,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14017–14035 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Angulo-Vinuesa, S. Martín-López, J. Nuño, P. Corredera, J.D. Ania-Castañon, L. Thévenaz, and M. González-Herráez, “Raman-assisted Brillouin distributed temperature sensor over 100 km featuring 2 m resolution and 1.2°C uncertainty,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(8), 1060–1065 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. M. Foaleng, F. Rodríguez-Barrios, S. Martín-López, M. González-Herráez, and L. Thévenaz, “Detrimental effect of self-phase modulation on the performance of Brillouin distributed fiber sensors,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 97–99 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Soto, G. Bolognini, F. D. Pasquale, and L. Thévenaz, “Long-range Brillouin optical time-domain analysis sensor employing pulse coding techniques,” Measurement Sci. Technol. 21(9), 094024 (2010).
[Crossref]

Urricelqui, J.

Wang, F.

Yang, Z.

Zeni, L.

A. Minardo, R. Bernini, and L. Zeni, “A simple technique for reducing pump depletion in long range distributed Brillouin fiber sensors,” IEEE Sensors J 9(6), 633–634 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Zhu, C.

Zornoza, A.

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

R. Ruiz-Lombera, J. Urricelqui, M. Sagues, J. Mirapeix, J. M. López-Higuera, and A. Loayssa, “Overcoming nonlocal effects and Brillouin threshold limitations in Brillouin optical time-domain sensors,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Sensors J (1)

A. Minardo, R. Bernini, and L. Zeni, “A simple technique for reducing pump depletion in long range distributed Brillouin fiber sensors,” IEEE Sensors J 9(6), 633–634 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

Measurement Sci. Technol. (1)

M. A. Soto, G. Bolognini, F. D. Pasquale, and L. Thévenaz, “Long-range Brillouin optical time-domain analysis sensor employing pulse coding techniques,” Measurement Sci. Technol. 21(9), 094024 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (11)

A. Zornoza, R. A. Pérez-Herrera, C. Elosúa, S. Díaz, C. Bariain, A. Loayssa, and M. López-Amo, “Long-range hybrid network with point and distributed Brillouin sensors using Raman amplification,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9531–9541 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Soto, G. Bolognini, and F. D. Pasquale, “Analysis of pulse modulation format in coded BOTDA sensors,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14878–14892 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Alem, M. A. Soto, and L. Thévenaz, “Analytical model and experimental verification of the critical power for modulation instability in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29514–29532 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Urricelqui, M. Sagues, and A. Loayssa, “Brillouin optical time-domain analysis sensor assisted by Brillouin distributed amplification of pump pulses,” Opt. Express 23(23), 30448–30458 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Yang, M. A. Soto, and L. Thévenaz, “Increasing robustness of bipolar pulse coding in Brillouin distributed fiber sensors,” Opt. Express 24(1), 586–597 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dominguez-Lopez, Z. Yang, M. A. Soto, X. Angulo-Vinuesa, S. Martín-López, L. Thévenaz, and M. González-Herráez, “Novel scanning method for distortion-free BOTDA measurements,” Opt. Express 24(10), 10188–10204 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Mompó, J. Urricelqui, and A. Loayssa, “Brillouin optical time-domain analysis sensor with pump pulse amplification,” Opt. Express 24(12), 12672–12681 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Wang, C. Zhu, C. Cao, and X. Zhang, “Enhancing the performance of BOTDR based on the combination of FFT technique and complementary coding,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3504–3513 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Thévenaz, S. F. Mafang, and J. Lin, “Effect of pulse depletion in a Brillouin optical time-domain analysis system,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14017–14035 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Soto and L. Thévenaz, “Modeling and evaluating the performance of Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensors,” Opt. Express 21(25), 31347–31366 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Domínguez-López, X. Angulo-Vinuesa, A. López-Gil, S. Martín-López, and M. González-Herráez, “Non-local effects in dual-probe-sideband Brillouin optical time domain analysis,” Opt. Express 23(8), 10341–10352 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Fiber Tech. (1)

T. Shimizu, K. Nakajima, K. Shiraki, K. Ieda, and I. Sankawa, “Evaluation methods and requirements for the stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold in a single-mode fiber,” Opt. Fiber Tech. 14(1), 10–15 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett (1)

M. Taki, Y. Muanenda, C. J. Oton, T. Nannipieri, A. Signorini, and F. D. Pasquale, “Cyclic pulse coding for fast BOTDA fiber sensors,” Opt. Lett 38(15), 2877–2880 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Le Floch, F. Sauser, M. Llera, M. A. Soto, and L. Thévenaz, “Colour simplex coding for Brillouin distributed sensors,” Proc. SPIE 8794, 879437 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fundamentals of the technique

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for the BOTDA sensor.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Power measurement of the cyclic pulse train of the first sequence for Lc = 263

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Decoded BOTDA trace at BFS of the fiber for a pulse of 13 dBm power and 20 ns; (a) without taking into account the pulse power variations and (b) taking into account the pulse power variations

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

For a pulse of 19 dBm power and 20 ns; (a) Depletion of the pulses of the sequence for different code lengths (b) distortion in BOTDA trace due to pulse depletion for different code lengths

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Obtained BOTDA trace at BFS of the fiber for a pulse of (a) 13 dBm and 20 ns, (b) 16 dBm and 10 ns, (c) 16 dBm and 20 ns and (d) 16 dBm and 40 ns

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Non-linear amplification for different code lengths, and different pulse power and duration

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Calculated BFS as a function of distance at the final locations of the fiber, with a fix temperature for different code lengths

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Power measurement of the cyclic pulse train of the first sequence for Lc = 79

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Distribution of the BFS profile of the sensing fiber

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

BOTDA traces at BFS obtained for the analyzer with a 79-bit cyclic coding (red) and without aplying coding (blue)

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Calculated BFS as a function of distance at the final locations of the fiber, with the last 3 meters in a climatic chamber

Equations (7)

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{ u 1 = 0 u n + 1 = ( u n + n ) m o d L c
P P ( L ) = P P ( 0 ) exp ( α L ) exp ( g B ( Δ ν ) A e f f P C W ( L ) L e f f )
Δ P C W ( t , Δ ν ) = P C W ( L ) exp ( α L ) [ G i ( t , Δ ν ) 1 ]
G i ( t , Δ ν ) = exp [ z i z i + Δ z g B ( Δ ν ) A e f f P P ( 0 ) exp ( α z i ) d z ] exp ( g i )
G i ( t , Δ ν ) 1 + z i z i + Δ z g B ( Δ ν ) A e f f P P ( 0 ) exp ( α z i ) d z = 1 + g i
Δ P C W ( t , Δ ν ) = P C W ( L ) exp ( α L ) [ G T ( t , Δ ν ) 1 ]
G T ( t , Δ ν ) = G 1 G 2 G 3 G L c = exp ( i = 1 L c g i ) 1 + i = 1 L c g i

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