Abstract

We investigate how the bias current affects the hot-spot relaxation dynamics in niobium nitride. We use for this purpose a near-infrared pump-probe technique on a waveguide-integrated superconducting nanowire single-photon detector driven in the two-photon regime. We observe a strong increase in the picosecond relaxation time for higher bias currents. A minimum relaxation time of (22 ± 1) ps is obtained when applying a bias current of 50% of the switching current at 1.7 K bath temperature. We also propose a practical approach to accurately estimate the photon detection regimes based on the reconstruction of the measured detector tomography at different bias currents and for different illumination conditions.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (4)

C. P. Dietrich, A. Fiore, M. G. Thompson, M. Kamp, and S. Höfling, “GaAs integrated quantum photonics: Towards compact and multi-functional quantum photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 870–894 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Khasminskaya, F. Pyatkov, K. Słowik, S. Ferrari, O. Kahl, V. Kovalyuk, P. Rath, A. Vetter, F. Hennrich, M. M. Kappes, G. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, C. Rockstuhl, R. Krupke, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Fully integrated quantum photonic circuit with an electrically driven light source,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 727–732 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Marsili, M. J. Stevens, A. Kozorezov, V. B. Verma, C. Lambert, J. A. Stern, R. D. Horansky, S. Dyer, S. Duff, D. P. Pappas, A. E. Lita, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Hotspot relaxation dynamics in a current-carrying superconductor,” Phys. Rev. B 93(9), 094518 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Vetter, S. Ferrari, P. Rath, R. Alaee, O. Kahl, V. Kovalyuk, S. Diewald, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, C. Rockstuhl, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Cavity-enhanced and ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7085–7092 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

A. G. Kozorezov, C. Lambert, F. Marsili, M. J. Stevens, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, R. Horansky, S. Dyer, S. Duff, D. P. Pappas, A. Lita, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Quasiparticle recombination in hotspots in superconducting current-carrying nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 92(6), 064504 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Ferrari, O. Kahl, V. Kovalyuk, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Waveguide-integrated single- and multi-photon detection at telecom wavelengths using superconducting nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(15), 151101 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Engel, J. J. Renema, K. Il’in, and A. Semenov, “Detection mechanism of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 28(11), 114003 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Kahl, S. Ferrari, V. Kovalyuk, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Waveguide integrated superconducting single-photon detectors with high internal quantum efficiency at telecom wavelengths,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10941 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

R. Lusche, A. Semenov, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, Y. Korneeva, A. Trifonov, A. Korneev, G. Gol’tsman, D. Vodolazov, and H.-W. Hübers, “Effect of the wire width on the intrinsic detection efficiency of superconducting-nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 043906 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. J. Renema, R. Gaudio, Q. Wang, Z. Zhou, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Sahin, M. J. A. de Dood, A. Fiore, and M. P. van Exter, “Experimental test of theories of the detection mechanism in a nanowire superconducting single photon detector,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(11), 117604 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

Z. Zhou, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, S. Jahanmirinejad, T. B. Hoang, and A. Fiore, “Ultrasensitive N-photon interferometric autocorrelator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(13), 133605 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Sahin, A. Gaggero, Z. Zhou, S. Jahanmirinejad, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide photon-number-resolving detectors for quantum photonic integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111116 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Sahin, A. Gaggero, T. B. Hoang, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, and A. Fiore, “Integrated autocorrelator based on superconducting nanowires,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11162–11170 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Elezov, A. V. Semenov, P. P. An, M. A. Tarkhov, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. I. Kardakova, and A. Y. Kazakov, “Investigating the detection regimes of a superconducting single-photon detector,” J. Opt. Technol. 80(7), 435 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

J. J. Renema, G. Frucci, Z. Zhou, F. Mattioli, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, M. J. A. de Dood, A. Fiore, and M. P. van Exter, “Modified detector tomography technique applied to a superconducting multiphoton nanodetector,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2806–2813 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Korneev, Y. Korneeva, I. Florya, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detector for mid-infrared,” Phys. Procedia 36, 72–76 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. W. Heeres and V. Zwiller, “Superconducting detector dynamics studied by quantum pump-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(11), 112603 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. N. Zotova and D. Y. Vodolazov, “Photon detection by current-carrying superconducting film: A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach,” Phys. Rev. B 85(2), 024509 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

L. N. Bulaevskii, M. J. Graf, C. D. Batista, and V. G. Kogan, “Vortex-induced dissipation in narrow current-biased thin-film superconducting strips,” Phys. Rev. B 83(14), 144526 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181110 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. K. Akhlaghi, A. H. Majedi, and J. S. Lundeen, “Nonlinearity in single photon detection: modeling and quantum tomography,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21305–21312 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

D. Bitauld, F. Marsili, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. J. Nejad, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Nanoscale optical detector with single-photon and multiphoton sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2977–2981 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

J. S. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. L. Pregnell, C. Silberhorn, T. C. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5(1), 27–30 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Feito, J. S. Lundeen, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring measurement: theory and practice,” New J. Phys. 11(9), 093038 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Fiore, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Divochiy, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, and G. Gol’tsman, “Superconducting parallel nanowire detector with photon number resolving functionality,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2-3), 334–344 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Hu, C. W. Holzwarth, D. Masciarelli, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Efficiently coupling light to superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 336–340 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. H. Hadfield, “Single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 696–705 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Barends, J. J. A. Baselmans, S. J. C. Yates, J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Quasiparticle relaxation in optically excited high-Q superconducting resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 257002 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

J. L. O’Brien, “Optical Quantum Computing,” Science 318(5856), 1567–1570 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

G. Di Giuseppe, M. Atatüre, M. D. Shaw, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, A. J. Miller, S. W. Nam, and J. Martinis, “Direct observation of photon pairs at a single output port of a beam-splitter interferometer,” Phys. Rev. A 68(6), 063817 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

A. D. Semenov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and A. A. Korneev, “Quantum detection by current carrying superconducting film,” Phys. C Supercond. 351(4), 349–356 (2001).
[Crossref]

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

K. S. Il’in, M. Lindgren, M. Currie, A. D. Semenov, G. N. Gol’tsman, R. Sobolewski, S. I. Cherednichenko, and E. M. Gershenzon, “Picosecond hot-electron energy relaxation in NbN superconducting photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(19), 2752–2754 (2000).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

Y. P. Gousev, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. D. Semenov, E. M. Gershenzon, R. S. Nebosis, M. A. Heusinger, and K. F. Renk, “Broadband ultrafast superconducting NbN detector for electromagnetic radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 75(7), 3695–3697 (1994).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

S. B. Kaplan, C. C. Chi, D. N. Langenberg, J. J. Chang, S. Jafarey, and D. J. Scalapino, “Quasiparticle and phonon lifetimes in superconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 14(11), 4854–4873 (1976).
[Crossref]

Akhlaghi, M. K.

Alaee, R.

A. Vetter, S. Ferrari, P. Rath, R. Alaee, O. Kahl, V. Kovalyuk, S. Diewald, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, C. Rockstuhl, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Cavity-enhanced and ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7085–7092 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

An, P. P.

Atatüre, M.

G. Di Giuseppe, M. Atatüre, M. D. Shaw, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, A. J. Miller, S. W. Nam, and J. Martinis, “Direct observation of photon pairs at a single output port of a beam-splitter interferometer,” Phys. Rev. A 68(6), 063817 (2003).
[Crossref]

Baek, B.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
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L. N. Bulaevskii, M. J. Graf, C. D. Batista, and V. G. Kogan, “Vortex-induced dissipation in narrow current-biased thin-film superconducting strips,” Phys. Rev. B 83(14), 144526 (2011).
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Beetz, J.

D. Sahin, A. Gaggero, Z. Zhou, S. Jahanmirinejad, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide photon-number-resolving detectors for quantum photonic integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111116 (2013).
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D. Sahin, A. Gaggero, T. B. Hoang, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, and A. Fiore, “Integrated autocorrelator based on superconducting nanowires,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11162–11170 (2013).
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J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181110 (2011).
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Benkhaoul, M.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
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X. Hu, C. W. Holzwarth, D. Masciarelli, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Efficiently coupling light to superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 336–340 (2009).
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Bitauld, D.

D. Bitauld, F. Marsili, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. J. Nejad, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Nanoscale optical detector with single-photon and multiphoton sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2977–2981 (2010).
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F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Fiore, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Divochiy, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, and G. Gol’tsman, “Superconducting parallel nanowire detector with photon number resolving functionality,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2-3), 334–344 (2009).
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A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
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Bulaevskii, L. N.

L. N. Bulaevskii, M. J. Graf, C. D. Batista, and V. G. Kogan, “Vortex-induced dissipation in narrow current-biased thin-film superconducting strips,” Phys. Rev. B 83(14), 144526 (2011).
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Chang, J. J.

S. B. Kaplan, C. C. Chi, D. N. Langenberg, J. J. Chang, S. Jafarey, and D. J. Scalapino, “Quasiparticle and phonon lifetimes in superconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 14(11), 4854–4873 (1976).
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K. S. Il’in, M. Lindgren, M. Currie, A. D. Semenov, G. N. Gol’tsman, R. Sobolewski, S. I. Cherednichenko, and E. M. Gershenzon, “Picosecond hot-electron energy relaxation in NbN superconducting photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(19), 2752–2754 (2000).
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S. B. Kaplan, C. C. Chi, D. N. Langenberg, J. J. Chang, S. Jafarey, and D. J. Scalapino, “Quasiparticle and phonon lifetimes in superconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 14(11), 4854–4873 (1976).
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Chulkova, G.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
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Coldenstrodt-Ronge, H.

A. Feito, J. S. Lundeen, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring measurement: theory and practice,” New J. Phys. 11(9), 093038 (2009).
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J. S. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. L. Pregnell, C. Silberhorn, T. C. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5(1), 27–30 (2009).
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Currie, M.

K. S. Il’in, M. Lindgren, M. Currie, A. D. Semenov, G. N. Gol’tsman, R. Sobolewski, S. I. Cherednichenko, and E. M. Gershenzon, “Picosecond hot-electron energy relaxation in NbN superconducting photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(19), 2752–2754 (2000).
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Dauler, E. A.

X. Hu, C. W. Holzwarth, D. Masciarelli, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Efficiently coupling light to superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 336–340 (2009).
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de Dood, M. J. A.

J. J. Renema, R. Gaudio, Q. Wang, Z. Zhou, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Sahin, M. J. A. de Dood, A. Fiore, and M. P. van Exter, “Experimental test of theories of the detection mechanism in a nanowire superconducting single photon detector,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(11), 117604 (2014).
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J. J. Renema, G. Frucci, Z. Zhou, F. Mattioli, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, M. J. A. de Dood, A. Fiore, and M. P. van Exter, “Modified detector tomography technique applied to a superconducting multiphoton nanodetector,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2806–2813 (2012).
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Di Giuseppe, G.

G. Di Giuseppe, M. Atatüre, M. D. Shaw, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, A. J. Miller, S. W. Nam, and J. Martinis, “Direct observation of photon pairs at a single output port of a beam-splitter interferometer,” Phys. Rev. A 68(6), 063817 (2003).
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Dietrich, C. P.

C. P. Dietrich, A. Fiore, M. G. Thompson, M. Kamp, and S. Höfling, “GaAs integrated quantum photonics: Towards compact and multi-functional quantum photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 870–894 (2016).
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Diewald, S.

A. Vetter, S. Ferrari, P. Rath, R. Alaee, O. Kahl, V. Kovalyuk, S. Diewald, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, C. Rockstuhl, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Cavity-enhanced and ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7085–7092 (2016).
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Divochiy, A.

F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Fiore, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Divochiy, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, and G. Gol’tsman, “Superconducting parallel nanowire detector with photon number resolving functionality,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2-3), 334–344 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
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Duff, S.

F. Marsili, M. J. Stevens, A. Kozorezov, V. B. Verma, C. Lambert, J. A. Stern, R. D. Horansky, S. Dyer, S. Duff, D. P. Pappas, A. E. Lita, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Hotspot relaxation dynamics in a current-carrying superconductor,” Phys. Rev. B 93(9), 094518 (2016).
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A. G. Kozorezov, C. Lambert, F. Marsili, M. J. Stevens, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, R. Horansky, S. Dyer, S. Duff, D. P. Pappas, A. Lita, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Quasiparticle recombination in hotspots in superconducting current-carrying nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 92(6), 064504 (2015).
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Dyer, S.

F. Marsili, M. J. Stevens, A. Kozorezov, V. B. Verma, C. Lambert, J. A. Stern, R. D. Horansky, S. Dyer, S. Duff, D. P. Pappas, A. E. Lita, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Hotspot relaxation dynamics in a current-carrying superconductor,” Phys. Rev. B 93(9), 094518 (2016).
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A. G. Kozorezov, C. Lambert, F. Marsili, M. J. Stevens, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, R. Horansky, S. Dyer, S. Duff, D. P. Pappas, A. Lita, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Quasiparticle recombination in hotspots in superconducting current-carrying nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 92(6), 064504 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dzardanov, A.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[Crossref]

Eisert, J.

J. S. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. L. Pregnell, C. Silberhorn, T. C. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5(1), 27–30 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Feito, J. S. Lundeen, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring measurement: theory and practice,” New J. Phys. 11(9), 093038 (2009).
[Crossref]

Elezov, M. S.

Engel, A.

A. Engel, J. J. Renema, K. Il’in, and A. Semenov, “Detection mechanism of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 28(11), 114003 (2015).
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Feito, A.

A. Feito, J. S. Lundeen, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring measurement: theory and practice,” New J. Phys. 11(9), 093038 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. S. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. L. Pregnell, C. Silberhorn, T. C. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5(1), 27–30 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, S.

A. Vetter, S. Ferrari, P. Rath, R. Alaee, O. Kahl, V. Kovalyuk, S. Diewald, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, C. Rockstuhl, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Cavity-enhanced and ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7085–7092 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Khasminskaya, F. Pyatkov, K. Słowik, S. Ferrari, O. Kahl, V. Kovalyuk, P. Rath, A. Vetter, F. Hennrich, M. M. Kappes, G. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, C. Rockstuhl, R. Krupke, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Fully integrated quantum photonic circuit with an electrically driven light source,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 727–732 (2016).
[Crossref]

O. Kahl, S. Ferrari, V. Kovalyuk, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Waveguide integrated superconducting single-photon detectors with high internal quantum efficiency at telecom wavelengths,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10941 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ferrari, O. Kahl, V. Kovalyuk, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Waveguide-integrated single- and multi-photon detection at telecom wavelengths using superconducting nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(15), 151101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fiore, A.

C. P. Dietrich, A. Fiore, M. G. Thompson, M. Kamp, and S. Höfling, “GaAs integrated quantum photonics: Towards compact and multi-functional quantum photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 870–894 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. J. Renema, R. Gaudio, Q. Wang, Z. Zhou, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Sahin, M. J. A. de Dood, A. Fiore, and M. P. van Exter, “Experimental test of theories of the detection mechanism in a nanowire superconducting single photon detector,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(11), 117604 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhou, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, S. Jahanmirinejad, T. B. Hoang, and A. Fiore, “Ultrasensitive N-photon interferometric autocorrelator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(13), 133605 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sahin, A. Gaggero, Z. Zhou, S. Jahanmirinejad, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide photon-number-resolving detectors for quantum photonic integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111116 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Sahin, A. Gaggero, T. B. Hoang, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, and A. Fiore, “Integrated autocorrelator based on superconducting nanowires,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11162–11170 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Renema, G. Frucci, Z. Zhou, F. Mattioli, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, M. J. A. de Dood, A. Fiore, and M. P. van Exter, “Modified detector tomography technique applied to a superconducting multiphoton nanodetector,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2806–2813 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181110 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Bitauld, F. Marsili, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. J. Nejad, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Nanoscale optical detector with single-photon and multiphoton sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2977–2981 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Fiore, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Divochiy, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, and G. Gol’tsman, “Superconducting parallel nanowire detector with photon number resolving functionality,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2-3), 334–344 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[Crossref]

Florya, I.

A. Korneev, Y. Korneeva, I. Florya, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detector for mid-infrared,” Phys. Procedia 36, 72–76 (2012).
[Crossref]

Frucci, G.

Z. Zhou, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, S. Jahanmirinejad, T. B. Hoang, and A. Fiore, “Ultrasensitive N-photon interferometric autocorrelator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(13), 133605 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sahin, A. Gaggero, T. B. Hoang, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, and A. Fiore, “Integrated autocorrelator based on superconducting nanowires,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11162–11170 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Renema, G. Frucci, Z. Zhou, F. Mattioli, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, M. J. A. de Dood, A. Fiore, and M. P. van Exter, “Modified detector tomography technique applied to a superconducting multiphoton nanodetector,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2806–2813 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181110 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gaggero, A.

J. J. Renema, R. Gaudio, Q. Wang, Z. Zhou, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Sahin, M. J. A. de Dood, A. Fiore, and M. P. van Exter, “Experimental test of theories of the detection mechanism in a nanowire superconducting single photon detector,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(11), 117604 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhou, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, S. Jahanmirinejad, T. B. Hoang, and A. Fiore, “Ultrasensitive N-photon interferometric autocorrelator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(13), 133605 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sahin, A. Gaggero, T. B. Hoang, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, and A. Fiore, “Integrated autocorrelator based on superconducting nanowires,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11162–11170 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sahin, A. Gaggero, Z. Zhou, S. Jahanmirinejad, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide photon-number-resolving detectors for quantum photonic integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111116 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. J. Renema, G. Frucci, Z. Zhou, F. Mattioli, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, M. J. A. de Dood, A. Fiore, and M. P. van Exter, “Modified detector tomography technique applied to a superconducting multiphoton nanodetector,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2806–2813 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181110 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Bitauld, F. Marsili, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. J. Nejad, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Nanoscale optical detector with single-photon and multiphoton sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2977–2981 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Fiore, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Divochiy, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, and G. Gol’tsman, “Superconducting parallel nanowire detector with photon number resolving functionality,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2-3), 334–344 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gao, J. R.

R. Barends, J. J. A. Baselmans, S. J. C. Yates, J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Quasiparticle relaxation in optically excited high-Q superconducting resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 257002 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaudio, R.

J. J. Renema, R. Gaudio, Q. Wang, Z. Zhou, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Sahin, M. J. A. de Dood, A. Fiore, and M. P. van Exter, “Experimental test of theories of the detection mechanism in a nanowire superconducting single photon detector,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(11), 117604 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gerrits, T.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gershenzon, E. M.

K. S. Il’in, M. Lindgren, M. Currie, A. D. Semenov, G. N. Gol’tsman, R. Sobolewski, S. I. Cherednichenko, and E. M. Gershenzon, “Picosecond hot-electron energy relaxation in NbN superconducting photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(19), 2752–2754 (2000).
[Crossref]

Y. P. Gousev, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. D. Semenov, E. M. Gershenzon, R. S. Nebosis, M. A. Heusinger, and K. F. Renk, “Broadband ultrafast superconducting NbN detector for electromagnetic radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 75(7), 3695–3697 (1994).
[Crossref]

Gol’tsman, G.

S. Khasminskaya, F. Pyatkov, K. Słowik, S. Ferrari, O. Kahl, V. Kovalyuk, P. Rath, A. Vetter, F. Hennrich, M. M. Kappes, G. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, C. Rockstuhl, R. Krupke, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Fully integrated quantum photonic circuit with an electrically driven light source,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 727–732 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Lusche, A. Semenov, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, Y. Korneeva, A. Trifonov, A. Korneev, G. Gol’tsman, D. Vodolazov, and H.-W. Hübers, “Effect of the wire width on the intrinsic detection efficiency of superconducting-nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 043906 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Korneev, Y. Korneeva, I. Florya, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detector for mid-infrared,” Phys. Procedia 36, 72–76 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Fiore, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Divochiy, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, and G. Gol’tsman, “Superconducting parallel nanowire detector with photon number resolving functionality,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2-3), 334–344 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
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Gol’tsman, G. N.

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R. Lusche, A. Semenov, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, Y. Korneeva, A. Trifonov, A. Korneev, G. Gol’tsman, D. Vodolazov, and H.-W. Hübers, “Effect of the wire width on the intrinsic detection efficiency of superconducting-nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 043906 (2014).
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S. B. Kaplan, C. C. Chi, D. N. Langenberg, J. J. Chang, S. Jafarey, and D. J. Scalapino, “Quasiparticle and phonon lifetimes in superconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 14(11), 4854–4873 (1976).
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D. Sahin, A. Gaggero, Z. Zhou, S. Jahanmirinejad, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide photon-number-resolving detectors for quantum photonic integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111116 (2013).
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J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181110 (2011).
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S. Khasminskaya, F. Pyatkov, K. Słowik, S. Ferrari, O. Kahl, V. Kovalyuk, P. Rath, A. Vetter, F. Hennrich, M. M. Kappes, G. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, C. Rockstuhl, R. Krupke, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Fully integrated quantum photonic circuit with an electrically driven light source,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 727–732 (2016).
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A. Vetter, S. Ferrari, P. Rath, R. Alaee, O. Kahl, V. Kovalyuk, S. Diewald, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, C. Rockstuhl, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Cavity-enhanced and ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7085–7092 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ferrari, O. Kahl, V. Kovalyuk, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Waveguide-integrated single- and multi-photon detection at telecom wavelengths using superconducting nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(15), 151101 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Kahl, S. Ferrari, V. Kovalyuk, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Waveguide integrated superconducting single-photon detectors with high internal quantum efficiency at telecom wavelengths,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10941 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamp, M.

C. P. Dietrich, A. Fiore, M. G. Thompson, M. Kamp, and S. Höfling, “GaAs integrated quantum photonics: Towards compact and multi-functional quantum photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 870–894 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Sahin, A. Gaggero, Z. Zhou, S. Jahanmirinejad, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide photon-number-resolving detectors for quantum photonic integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111116 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Sahin, A. Gaggero, T. B. Hoang, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, and A. Fiore, “Integrated autocorrelator based on superconducting nanowires,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11162–11170 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181110 (2011).
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S. B. Kaplan, C. C. Chi, D. N. Langenberg, J. J. Chang, S. Jafarey, and D. J. Scalapino, “Quasiparticle and phonon lifetimes in superconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 14(11), 4854–4873 (1976).
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S. Khasminskaya, F. Pyatkov, K. Słowik, S. Ferrari, O. Kahl, V. Kovalyuk, P. Rath, A. Vetter, F. Hennrich, M. M. Kappes, G. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, C. Rockstuhl, R. Krupke, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Fully integrated quantum photonic circuit with an electrically driven light source,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 727–732 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kardakova, A. I.

Kaurova, N.

F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Fiore, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Divochiy, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, and G. Gol’tsman, “Superconducting parallel nanowire detector with photon number resolving functionality,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2-3), 334–344 (2009).
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A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
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Khasminskaya, S.

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R. Barends, J. J. A. Baselmans, S. J. C. Yates, J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Quasiparticle relaxation in optically excited high-Q superconducting resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 257002 (2008).
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Kogan, V. G.

L. N. Bulaevskii, M. J. Graf, C. D. Batista, and V. G. Kogan, “Vortex-induced dissipation in narrow current-biased thin-film superconducting strips,” Phys. Rev. B 83(14), 144526 (2011).
[Crossref]

Korneev, A.

A. Vetter, S. Ferrari, P. Rath, R. Alaee, O. Kahl, V. Kovalyuk, S. Diewald, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, C. Rockstuhl, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Cavity-enhanced and ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7085–7092 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Khasminskaya, F. Pyatkov, K. Słowik, S. Ferrari, O. Kahl, V. Kovalyuk, P. Rath, A. Vetter, F. Hennrich, M. M. Kappes, G. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, C. Rockstuhl, R. Krupke, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Fully integrated quantum photonic circuit with an electrically driven light source,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 727–732 (2016).
[Crossref]

O. Kahl, S. Ferrari, V. Kovalyuk, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Waveguide integrated superconducting single-photon detectors with high internal quantum efficiency at telecom wavelengths,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10941 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ferrari, O. Kahl, V. Kovalyuk, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Waveguide-integrated single- and multi-photon detection at telecom wavelengths using superconducting nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(15), 151101 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Lusche, A. Semenov, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, Y. Korneeva, A. Trifonov, A. Korneev, G. Gol’tsman, D. Vodolazov, and H.-W. Hübers, “Effect of the wire width on the intrinsic detection efficiency of superconducting-nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 043906 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Korneev, Y. Korneeva, I. Florya, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detector for mid-infrared,” Phys. Procedia 36, 72–76 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Fiore, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Divochiy, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, and G. Gol’tsman, “Superconducting parallel nanowire detector with photon number resolving functionality,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2-3), 334–344 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[Crossref]

Korneev, A. A.

A. D. Semenov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and A. A. Korneev, “Quantum detection by current carrying superconducting film,” Phys. C Supercond. 351(4), 349–356 (2001).
[Crossref]

Korneeva, Y.

R. Lusche, A. Semenov, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, Y. Korneeva, A. Trifonov, A. Korneev, G. Gol’tsman, D. Vodolazov, and H.-W. Hübers, “Effect of the wire width on the intrinsic detection efficiency of superconducting-nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 043906 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Korneev, Y. Korneeva, I. Florya, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detector for mid-infrared,” Phys. Procedia 36, 72–76 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kovalyuk, V.

A. Vetter, S. Ferrari, P. Rath, R. Alaee, O. Kahl, V. Kovalyuk, S. Diewald, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, C. Rockstuhl, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Cavity-enhanced and ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7085–7092 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Khasminskaya, F. Pyatkov, K. Słowik, S. Ferrari, O. Kahl, V. Kovalyuk, P. Rath, A. Vetter, F. Hennrich, M. M. Kappes, G. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, C. Rockstuhl, R. Krupke, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Fully integrated quantum photonic circuit with an electrically driven light source,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 727–732 (2016).
[Crossref]

O. Kahl, S. Ferrari, V. Kovalyuk, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Waveguide integrated superconducting single-photon detectors with high internal quantum efficiency at telecom wavelengths,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10941 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ferrari, O. Kahl, V. Kovalyuk, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Waveguide-integrated single- and multi-photon detection at telecom wavelengths using superconducting nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(15), 151101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kozorezov, A.

F. Marsili, M. J. Stevens, A. Kozorezov, V. B. Verma, C. Lambert, J. A. Stern, R. D. Horansky, S. Dyer, S. Duff, D. P. Pappas, A. E. Lita, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Hotspot relaxation dynamics in a current-carrying superconductor,” Phys. Rev. B 93(9), 094518 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kozorezov, A. G.

A. G. Kozorezov, C. Lambert, F. Marsili, M. J. Stevens, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, R. Horansky, S. Dyer, S. Duff, D. P. Pappas, A. Lita, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Quasiparticle recombination in hotspots in superconducting current-carrying nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 92(6), 064504 (2015).
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Krupke, R.

S. Khasminskaya, F. Pyatkov, K. Słowik, S. Ferrari, O. Kahl, V. Kovalyuk, P. Rath, A. Vetter, F. Hennrich, M. M. Kappes, G. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, C. Rockstuhl, R. Krupke, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Fully integrated quantum photonic circuit with an electrically driven light source,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 727–732 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lagoudakis, K. G.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lambert, C.

F. Marsili, M. J. Stevens, A. Kozorezov, V. B. Verma, C. Lambert, J. A. Stern, R. D. Horansky, S. Dyer, S. Duff, D. P. Pappas, A. E. Lita, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Hotspot relaxation dynamics in a current-carrying superconductor,” Phys. Rev. B 93(9), 094518 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. G. Kozorezov, C. Lambert, F. Marsili, M. J. Stevens, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, R. Horansky, S. Dyer, S. Duff, D. P. Pappas, A. Lita, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Quasiparticle recombination in hotspots in superconducting current-carrying nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 92(6), 064504 (2015).
[Crossref]

Langenberg, D. N.

S. B. Kaplan, C. C. Chi, D. N. Langenberg, J. J. Chang, S. Jafarey, and D. J. Scalapino, “Quasiparticle and phonon lifetimes in superconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 14(11), 4854–4873 (1976).
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Leoni, R.

J. J. Renema, R. Gaudio, Q. Wang, Z. Zhou, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Sahin, M. J. A. de Dood, A. Fiore, and M. P. van Exter, “Experimental test of theories of the detection mechanism in a nanowire superconducting single photon detector,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(11), 117604 (2014).
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Z. Zhou, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, S. Jahanmirinejad, T. B. Hoang, and A. Fiore, “Ultrasensitive N-photon interferometric autocorrelator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(13), 133605 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sahin, A. Gaggero, Z. Zhou, S. Jahanmirinejad, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide photon-number-resolving detectors for quantum photonic integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111116 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Sahin, A. Gaggero, T. B. Hoang, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, and A. Fiore, “Integrated autocorrelator based on superconducting nanowires,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11162–11170 (2013).
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J. J. Renema, G. Frucci, Z. Zhou, F. Mattioli, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, M. J. A. de Dood, A. Fiore, and M. P. van Exter, “Modified detector tomography technique applied to a superconducting multiphoton nanodetector,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2806–2813 (2012).
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D. Bitauld, F. Marsili, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. J. Nejad, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Nanoscale optical detector with single-photon and multiphoton sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2977–2981 (2010).
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F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Fiore, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Divochiy, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, and G. Gol’tsman, “Superconducting parallel nanowire detector with photon number resolving functionality,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2-3), 334–344 (2009).
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A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
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D. Sahin, A. Gaggero, Z. Zhou, S. Jahanmirinejad, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide photon-number-resolving detectors for quantum photonic integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111116 (2013).
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D. Sahin, A. Gaggero, T. B. Hoang, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, and A. Fiore, “Integrated autocorrelator based on superconducting nanowires,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11162–11170 (2013).
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J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181110 (2011).
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D. Bitauld, F. Marsili, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. J. Nejad, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Nanoscale optical detector with single-photon and multiphoton sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2977–2981 (2010).
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A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
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W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
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F. Marsili, M. J. Stevens, A. Kozorezov, V. B. Verma, C. Lambert, J. A. Stern, R. D. Horansky, S. Dyer, S. Duff, D. P. Pappas, A. E. Lita, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Hotspot relaxation dynamics in a current-carrying superconductor,” Phys. Rev. B 93(9), 094518 (2016).
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F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
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A. Feito, J. S. Lundeen, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring measurement: theory and practice,” New J. Phys. 11(9), 093038 (2009).
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A. G. Kozorezov, C. Lambert, F. Marsili, M. J. Stevens, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, R. Horansky, S. Dyer, S. Duff, D. P. Pappas, A. Lita, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Quasiparticle recombination in hotspots in superconducting current-carrying nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 92(6), 064504 (2015).
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F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
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D. Bitauld, F. Marsili, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. J. Nejad, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Nanoscale optical detector with single-photon and multiphoton sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2977–2981 (2010).
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F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Fiore, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Divochiy, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, and G. Gol’tsman, “Superconducting parallel nanowire detector with photon number resolving functionality,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2-3), 334–344 (2009).
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A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
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G. Di Giuseppe, M. Atatüre, M. D. Shaw, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, A. J. Miller, S. W. Nam, and J. Martinis, “Direct observation of photon pairs at a single output port of a beam-splitter interferometer,” Phys. Rev. A 68(6), 063817 (2003).
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X. Hu, C. W. Holzwarth, D. Masciarelli, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Efficiently coupling light to superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 336–340 (2009).
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D. Sahin, A. Gaggero, T. B. Hoang, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, and A. Fiore, “Integrated autocorrelator based on superconducting nanowires,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11162–11170 (2013).
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J. J. Renema, G. Frucci, Z. Zhou, F. Mattioli, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, M. J. A. de Dood, A. Fiore, and M. P. van Exter, “Modified detector tomography technique applied to a superconducting multiphoton nanodetector,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2806–2813 (2012).
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J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181110 (2011).
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D. Bitauld, F. Marsili, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. J. Nejad, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Nanoscale optical detector with single-photon and multiphoton sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2977–2981 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Fiore, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Divochiy, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, and G. Gol’tsman, “Superconducting parallel nanowire detector with photon number resolving functionality,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2-3), 334–344 (2009).
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A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
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G. Di Giuseppe, M. Atatüre, M. D. Shaw, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, A. J. Miller, S. W. Nam, and J. Martinis, “Direct observation of photon pairs at a single output port of a beam-splitter interferometer,” Phys. Rev. A 68(6), 063817 (2003).
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W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
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F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Fiore, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Divochiy, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, and G. Gol’tsman, “Superconducting parallel nanowire detector with photon number resolving functionality,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2-3), 334–344 (2009).
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A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
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F. Marsili, M. J. Stevens, A. Kozorezov, V. B. Verma, C. Lambert, J. A. Stern, R. D. Horansky, S. Dyer, S. Duff, D. P. Pappas, A. E. Lita, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Hotspot relaxation dynamics in a current-carrying superconductor,” Phys. Rev. B 93(9), 094518 (2016).
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A. G. Kozorezov, C. Lambert, F. Marsili, M. J. Stevens, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, R. Horansky, S. Dyer, S. Duff, D. P. Pappas, A. Lita, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Quasiparticle recombination in hotspots in superconducting current-carrying nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 92(6), 064504 (2015).
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F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
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F. Marsili, M. J. Stevens, A. Kozorezov, V. B. Verma, C. Lambert, J. A. Stern, R. D. Horansky, S. Dyer, S. Duff, D. P. Pappas, A. E. Lita, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Hotspot relaxation dynamics in a current-carrying superconductor,” Phys. Rev. B 93(9), 094518 (2016).
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A. G. Kozorezov, C. Lambert, F. Marsili, M. J. Stevens, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, R. Horansky, S. Dyer, S. Duff, D. P. Pappas, A. Lita, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Quasiparticle recombination in hotspots in superconducting current-carrying nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 92(6), 064504 (2015).
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F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
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G. Di Giuseppe, M. Atatüre, M. D. Shaw, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, A. J. Miller, S. W. Nam, and J. Martinis, “Direct observation of photon pairs at a single output port of a beam-splitter interferometer,” Phys. Rev. A 68(6), 063817 (2003).
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Y. P. Gousev, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. D. Semenov, E. M. Gershenzon, R. S. Nebosis, M. A. Heusinger, and K. F. Renk, “Broadband ultrafast superconducting NbN detector for electromagnetic radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 75(7), 3695–3697 (1994).
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D. Bitauld, F. Marsili, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. J. Nejad, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Nanoscale optical detector with single-photon and multiphoton sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2977–2981 (2010).
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F. Marsili, M. J. Stevens, A. Kozorezov, V. B. Verma, C. Lambert, J. A. Stern, R. D. Horansky, S. Dyer, S. Duff, D. P. Pappas, A. E. Lita, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Hotspot relaxation dynamics in a current-carrying superconductor,” Phys. Rev. B 93(9), 094518 (2016).
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A. G. Kozorezov, C. Lambert, F. Marsili, M. J. Stevens, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, R. Horansky, S. Dyer, S. Duff, D. P. Pappas, A. Lita, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Quasiparticle recombination in hotspots in superconducting current-carrying nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 92(6), 064504 (2015).
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A. Vetter, S. Ferrari, P. Rath, R. Alaee, O. Kahl, V. Kovalyuk, S. Diewald, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, C. Rockstuhl, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Cavity-enhanced and ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7085–7092 (2016).
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S. Khasminskaya, F. Pyatkov, K. Słowik, S. Ferrari, O. Kahl, V. Kovalyuk, P. Rath, A. Vetter, F. Hennrich, M. M. Kappes, G. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, C. Rockstuhl, R. Krupke, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Fully integrated quantum photonic circuit with an electrically driven light source,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 727–732 (2016).
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O. Kahl, S. Ferrari, V. Kovalyuk, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Waveguide integrated superconducting single-photon detectors with high internal quantum efficiency at telecom wavelengths,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10941 (2015).
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S. Ferrari, O. Kahl, V. Kovalyuk, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Waveguide-integrated single- and multi-photon detection at telecom wavelengths using superconducting nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(15), 151101 (2015).
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W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
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J. S. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. L. Pregnell, C. Silberhorn, T. C. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5(1), 27–30 (2009).
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A. Feito, J. S. Lundeen, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring measurement: theory and practice,” New J. Phys. 11(9), 093038 (2009).
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Pregnell, K. L.

J. S. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. L. Pregnell, C. Silberhorn, T. C. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5(1), 27–30 (2009).
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S. Khasminskaya, F. Pyatkov, K. Słowik, S. Ferrari, O. Kahl, V. Kovalyuk, P. Rath, A. Vetter, F. Hennrich, M. M. Kappes, G. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, C. Rockstuhl, R. Krupke, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Fully integrated quantum photonic circuit with an electrically driven light source,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 727–732 (2016).
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J. S. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. L. Pregnell, C. Silberhorn, T. C. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5(1), 27–30 (2009).
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A. Vetter, S. Ferrari, P. Rath, R. Alaee, O. Kahl, V. Kovalyuk, S. Diewald, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, C. Rockstuhl, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Cavity-enhanced and ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7085–7092 (2016).
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S. Khasminskaya, F. Pyatkov, K. Słowik, S. Ferrari, O. Kahl, V. Kovalyuk, P. Rath, A. Vetter, F. Hennrich, M. M. Kappes, G. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, C. Rockstuhl, R. Krupke, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Fully integrated quantum photonic circuit with an electrically driven light source,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 727–732 (2016).
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J. J. Renema, R. Gaudio, Q. Wang, Z. Zhou, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Sahin, M. J. A. de Dood, A. Fiore, and M. P. van Exter, “Experimental test of theories of the detection mechanism in a nanowire superconducting single photon detector,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(11), 117604 (2014).
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J. J. Renema, G. Frucci, Z. Zhou, F. Mattioli, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, M. J. A. de Dood, A. Fiore, and M. P. van Exter, “Modified detector tomography technique applied to a superconducting multiphoton nanodetector,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2806–2813 (2012).
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Y. P. Gousev, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. D. Semenov, E. M. Gershenzon, R. S. Nebosis, M. A. Heusinger, and K. F. Renk, “Broadband ultrafast superconducting NbN detector for electromagnetic radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 75(7), 3695–3697 (1994).
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A. Vetter, S. Ferrari, P. Rath, R. Alaee, O. Kahl, V. Kovalyuk, S. Diewald, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, C. Rockstuhl, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Cavity-enhanced and ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7085–7092 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Khasminskaya, F. Pyatkov, K. Słowik, S. Ferrari, O. Kahl, V. Kovalyuk, P. Rath, A. Vetter, F. Hennrich, M. M. Kappes, G. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, C. Rockstuhl, R. Krupke, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Fully integrated quantum photonic circuit with an electrically driven light source,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 727–732 (2016).
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Sahin, D.

J. J. Renema, R. Gaudio, Q. Wang, Z. Zhou, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Sahin, M. J. A. de Dood, A. Fiore, and M. P. van Exter, “Experimental test of theories of the detection mechanism in a nanowire superconducting single photon detector,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(11), 117604 (2014).
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J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181110 (2011).
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F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Fiore, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Divochiy, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, and G. Gol’tsman, “Superconducting parallel nanowire detector with photon number resolving functionality,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2-3), 334–344 (2009).
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Sergienko, A. V.

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
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F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
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G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
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C. P. Dietrich, A. Fiore, M. G. Thompson, M. Kamp, and S. Höfling, “GaAs integrated quantum photonics: Towards compact and multi-functional quantum photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 870–894 (2016).
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R. Lusche, A. Semenov, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, Y. Korneeva, A. Trifonov, A. Korneev, G. Gol’tsman, D. Vodolazov, and H.-W. Hübers, “Effect of the wire width on the intrinsic detection efficiency of superconducting-nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 043906 (2014).
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J. J. Renema, G. Frucci, Z. Zhou, F. Mattioli, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, M. J. A. de Dood, A. Fiore, and M. P. van Exter, “Modified detector tomography technique applied to a superconducting multiphoton nanodetector,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2806–2813 (2012).
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J. J. Renema, R. Gaudio, Q. Wang, Z. Zhou, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Sahin, M. J. A. de Dood, A. Fiore, and M. P. van Exter, “Experimental test of theories of the detection mechanism in a nanowire superconducting single photon detector,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(11), 117604 (2014).
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G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
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Z. Zhou, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, S. Jahanmirinejad, T. B. Hoang, and A. Fiore, “Ultrasensitive N-photon interferometric autocorrelator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(13), 133605 (2013).
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A. N. Zotova and D. Y. Vodolazov, “Photon detection by current-carrying superconducting film: A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach,” Phys. Rev. B 85(2), 024509 (2012).
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J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181110 (2011).
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F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Fiore, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Divochiy, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, and G. Gol’tsman, “Superconducting parallel nanowire detector with photon number resolving functionality,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2-3), 334–344 (2009).
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C. P. Dietrich, A. Fiore, M. G. Thompson, M. Kamp, and S. Höfling, “GaAs integrated quantum photonics: Towards compact and multi-functional quantum photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 870–894 (2016).
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W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
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S. Khasminskaya, F. Pyatkov, K. Słowik, S. Ferrari, O. Kahl, V. Kovalyuk, P. Rath, A. Vetter, F. Hennrich, M. M. Kappes, G. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, C. Rockstuhl, R. Krupke, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Fully integrated quantum photonic circuit with an electrically driven light source,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 727–732 (2016).
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A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
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R. H. Hadfield, “Single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 696–705 (2009).
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M. Sidorova, A. Semenov, A. Korneev, G. Chulkova, Y. Korneeva, M. Mikhailov, A. Devizenko, A. Kozorezov, and G. Gol’tsman, “Electron-phonon relaxation time in ultrathin tungsten silicon film,” https://arxiv.org/abs/1607.07321

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup for the hot-spot relaxation time measurement. (a) Optical setup: the two delayed pulses are generated injecting a single laser pulse to a Mach-Zehnder interferometer consisting of two fiber beam splitters and a variable optical delay line. The pump and probe pulses are subsequently attenuated and send to the detector through a nanophotonic calibration circuit at the low temperature stage. A calibrated lightwave multimeter is used to determine the photon flux at the detector. (b) Electrical setup: a stable source is used to bias the detector through a bias tee and two low noise amplifiers are adopted to obtain a detection signal which can be registered by a pulse counter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Detection probability vs average number of photons per pulse at different bias current. The dashed lines represent a fit of the slope of the detection probability curve for single-photon detection regime (red curve) and two-photon regime (blue curve). The horizontal black dashed line indicates the dark count level, which in this current range and is mainly limited by electronic noise and has a constant value of 25Hz. The vertical yellow solid line indicates the average input photon number used for the relaxation time experiment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized detection probability as a function of the pump-probe photon delay time for different bias currents. The fluctuation at Δ t 0     is the field autocorrelation trace of the pulsed laser. The solid lines indicate the Lorentzian fit of the measured curves.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Detection probability curve fitting result for a bias current of 0.65 ISW, following Eq. (6). The red shaded area represents the pure single photon working regime as defined by the range in which the photon regime dominates aver all the others by 3dB [20]. (b) Reconstruction of the detection regime obtained as the first derivative of the detection probability curve as defined in Eq. (7) for the raw data (dots) and the fitting results (solid line). The red shaded area represents the pure single photon working regime resulting from the calculation of the detection probability derivative. We note that the detector driven at 0.65 ISW can give a single-photon response only in a very small input photon flux range.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Tomography of the detection working regimes at different bias currents and illumination obtained applying the fit introduced in Eq. (7). The solid contour lines indicate the pure n = 0 (Dark counts), n = 1 single-, and n = 2 two-photon detection regime. This map allows to have a straightforward understanding of the working conditions which have to be tuned in order to operate the detector in the desired photon sensitivity region. A similar map at different working temperatures and/or at different input photon wavelength could allow to have a complete operative description of the detector.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Reconstruction of the detection probability contrast at different bias currents, obtained by fitting the detection probability curve, as described in Eqs. (6) and (7), to obtain n and applying Eq. (5). The inset represents a comparison of measured and reconstructed detection probability contrast, exhibiting a good agreement.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Hot-spot relaxation time at different bias currents extracted as the HWHM of the Lorentzian fit of the measurement curves presented in Fig. 3. In the inset the fitting results of the 0 to 1 normalized detection probability vs pump-probe delay time are presented. The arrow indicates the increase of the relaxation time with the bias current.

Equations (8)

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m = λ h c P i n R R C E S W T
D P n ( | α | 2 ) n n !
D P n ( Δ t = 0 ) η n m n n !
D P n ( Δ t ) = 2 η n ( m 2 ) n n ! = 1 2 n 1 D P n ( Δ t = 0 )
D P n ( Δ t = 0 ) D P n ( Δ t ) = 2 n 1
D P t o t = n D P n = n η n m n n !
n = d ( log 10 ( D P t o t ) ) d ( log 10 ( m ) )
τ r e c 1 = τ e p h 1 π ( 2 Δ k T c ) 5 / 2 T T c exp ( Δ / k T )

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