Abstract

We report scanning hard x-ray imaging with a monolithic focusing optic consisting of two multilayer Laue lenses (MLLs) bonded together. With optics pre-characterization and accurate control of the bonding process, we show that a common focal plane for both MLLs can be realized at 9.317 keV. Using bonded MLLs, we obtained a scanning transmission image of a star test pattern with a resolution of 50 × 50 nm2. By applying a ptychography algorithm, we obtained a probe size of 17 × 38 nm2 and an object image with a resolution of 13 × 13 nm2. The significant reduction in alignment complexity for bonded MLLs will greatly extend the application range in both scanning and full-field x-ray microscopies.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue Lenses as High-Resolution X-ray Optics,” Proc. SPIE 5539, 185–194 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  2. H. Yan, R. Conley, N. Bouet, and Y. S. Chu, “Hard x-ray nanofocusing by multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(26), 263001 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. Conley, N. Bouet, Y. S. Chu, X. Huang, H. C. Kang, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, G. B. Stephenson, and H. Yan, “Multilayer Laue Lens: A Brief History and Current Status,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 29(4), 16–20 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. A. J. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9892 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. A. T. Macrander, A. Kubec, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, M. Wojcik, and J. Maser, “Efficiency of a multilayer-Laue-lens with a 102 mu m aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081904 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  8. H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(2), 336–341 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  13. S. Niese, P. Krüger, A. Kubec, S. Braun, J. Patommel, C. G. Schroer, A. Leson, and E. Zschech, “Full-field X-ray microscopy with crossed partial multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20008–20013 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. H. Yan, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, A. Macrander, and B. Stephenson, “A theoretical study of two-dimensional point focusing by two multilayer Laue lenses,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 70770Q (2008).
    [Crossref]
  15. E. Nazaretski, W. Xu, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, X. Huang, and Y. S. Chu, “Development and characterization of monolithic multilayer Laue lens nanofocusing optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(26), 261102 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  16. R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, Y. Chu, K. Lauer, J. Miller, L. Chu, and N. Jahedi, “Advanced multilayer Laue lens fabrication at NSLS-II,” Proc. SPIE 8502, 850202 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  17. H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, C. M. Kewish, C. Liu, R. Conley, and G. B. Stephenson, “Characterization of a multilayer Laue lens with imperfections,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582(1), 126–128 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  18. N. Bouet, R. P. Conley, J. Biancarosa, R. N. S. Divan, and A. T. Macrander, “WSi2/Si multilayer sectioning by reactive ion etching for multilayer Laue lens fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 7802, 780203 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  19. E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C. H. Lin, Y. S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(3), 033707 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. H. F. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  21. T. Y. Chen, Y. T. Chen, C. L. Wang, I. M. Kempson, W. K. Lee, Y. S. Chu, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field microimaging with 8 keV X-rays achieves a spatial resolutions better than 20 nm,” Opt. Express 19(21), 19919–19924 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. S. Vogt, G. Schneider, A. Steuernagel, J. Lucchesi, E. Schulze, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “X-ray microscopic studies of the Drosophila dosage compensation complex,” J. Struct. Biol. 132(2), 123–132 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(10), 1256–1262 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, “Movable aperture lensless transmission microscopy: A novel phase retrieval algorithm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 023903 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-Resolution Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. M. Guizar-Sicairos, M. Holler, A. Diaz, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “Role of the illumination spatial-frequency spectrum for ptychography,” Phys. Rev. B 86(10), 100103 (2012).
    [Crossref]

2016 (2)

R. Conley, N. Bouet, Y. S. Chu, X. Huang, H. C. Kang, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, G. B. Stephenson, and H. Yan, “Multilayer Laue Lens: A Brief History and Current Status,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 29(4), 16–20 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Nazaretski, W. Xu, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, X. Huang, and Y. S. Chu, “Development and characterization of monolithic multilayer Laue lens nanofocusing optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(26), 261102 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

A. J. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. Macrander, A. Kubec, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, M. Wojcik, and J. Maser, “Efficiency of a multilayer-Laue-lens with a 102 mu m aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081904 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(2), 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

H. Yan, R. Conley, N. Bouet, and Y. S. Chu, “Hard x-ray nanofocusing by multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(26), 263001 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Niese, P. Krüger, A. Kubec, S. Braun, J. Patommel, C. G. Schroer, A. Leson, and E. Zschech, “Full-field X-ray microscopy with crossed partial multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20008–20013 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C. H. Lin, Y. S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(3), 033707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pešić, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(3), 033701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, Y. Chu, K. Lauer, J. Miller, L. Chu, and N. Jahedi, “Advanced multilayer Laue lens fabrication at NSLS-II,” Proc. SPIE 8502, 850202 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, M. Holler, A. Diaz, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “Role of the illumination spatial-frequency spectrum for ptychography,” Phys. Rev. B 86(10), 100103 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

N. Bouet, R. P. Conley, J. Biancarosa, R. N. S. Divan, and A. T. Macrander, “WSi2/Si multilayer sectioning by reactive ion etching for multilayer Laue lens fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 7802, 780203 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(10), 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-Resolution Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, A. Macrander, and B. Stephenson, “A theoretical study of two-dimensional point focusing by two multilayer Laue lenses,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 70770Q (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, C. M. Kewish, C. Liu, R. Conley, and G. B. Stephenson, “Characterization of a multilayer Laue lens with imperfections,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582(1), 126–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. F. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. A. Liu, R. Conley, J. Qian, C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, H. Yan, and G. B. Stephenson, “Bonded Multilayer Laue Lens for focusing hard X-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582(1), 123–125 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue Lenses as High-Resolution X-ray Optics,” Proc. SPIE 5539, 185–194 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, “Movable aperture lensless transmission microscopy: A novel phase retrieval algorithm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 023903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

S. Vogt, G. Schneider, A. Steuernagel, J. Lucchesi, E. Schulze, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “X-ray microscopic studies of the Drosophila dosage compensation complex,” J. Struct. Biol. 132(2), 123–132 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andrejczuk, A.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aquila, A.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bajt, S.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barthelmess, M.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barty, A.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bean, R. J.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biancarosa, J.

N. Bouet, R. P. Conley, J. Biancarosa, R. N. S. Divan, and A. T. Macrander, “WSi2/Si multilayer sectioning by reactive ion etching for multilayer Laue lens fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 7802, 780203 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bouet, N.

E. Nazaretski, W. Xu, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, X. Huang, and Y. S. Chu, “Development and characterization of monolithic multilayer Laue lens nanofocusing optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(26), 261102 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Conley, N. Bouet, Y. S. Chu, X. Huang, H. C. Kang, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, G. B. Stephenson, and H. Yan, “Multilayer Laue Lens: A Brief History and Current Status,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 29(4), 16–20 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. T. Macrander, A. Kubec, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, M. Wojcik, and J. Maser, “Efficiency of a multilayer-Laue-lens with a 102 mu m aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081904 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(2), 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C. H. Lin, Y. S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(3), 033707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, R. Conley, N. Bouet, and Y. S. Chu, “Hard x-ray nanofocusing by multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(26), 263001 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, Y. Chu, K. Lauer, J. Miller, L. Chu, and N. Jahedi, “Advanced multilayer Laue lens fabrication at NSLS-II,” Proc. SPIE 8502, 850202 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Bouet, R. P. Conley, J. Biancarosa, R. N. S. Divan, and A. T. Macrander, “WSi2/Si multilayer sectioning by reactive ion etching for multilayer Laue lens fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 7802, 780203 (2010).
[Crossref]

Braun, S.

Bunk, O.

M. Guizar-Sicairos, M. Holler, A. Diaz, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “Role of the illumination spatial-frequency spectrum for ptychography,” Phys. Rev. B 86(10), 100103 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-Resolution Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chapman, H. N.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T. Y.

Chen, Y. S.

E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C. H. Lin, Y. S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(3), 033707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. T.

Chu, L.

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, Y. Chu, K. Lauer, J. Miller, L. Chu, and N. Jahedi, “Advanced multilayer Laue lens fabrication at NSLS-II,” Proc. SPIE 8502, 850202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chu, Y.

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, Y. Chu, K. Lauer, J. Miller, L. Chu, and N. Jahedi, “Advanced multilayer Laue lens fabrication at NSLS-II,” Proc. SPIE 8502, 850202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chu, Y. S.

E. Nazaretski, W. Xu, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, X. Huang, and Y. S. Chu, “Development and characterization of monolithic multilayer Laue lens nanofocusing optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(26), 261102 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Conley, N. Bouet, Y. S. Chu, X. Huang, H. C. Kang, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, G. B. Stephenson, and H. Yan, “Multilayer Laue Lens: A Brief History and Current Status,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 29(4), 16–20 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(2), 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C. H. Lin, Y. S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(3), 033707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, R. Conley, N. Bouet, and Y. S. Chu, “Hard x-ray nanofocusing by multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(26), 263001 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pešić, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(3), 033701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Y. Chen, Y. T. Chen, C. L. Wang, I. M. Kempson, W. K. Lee, Y. S. Chu, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field microimaging with 8 keV X-rays achieves a spatial resolutions better than 20 nm,” Opt. Express 19(21), 19919–19924 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Conley, R.

R. Conley, N. Bouet, Y. S. Chu, X. Huang, H. C. Kang, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, G. B. Stephenson, and H. Yan, “Multilayer Laue Lens: A Brief History and Current Status,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 29(4), 16–20 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. T. Macrander, A. Kubec, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, M. Wojcik, and J. Maser, “Efficiency of a multilayer-Laue-lens with a 102 mu m aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081904 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(2), 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C. H. Lin, Y. S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(3), 033707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, R. Conley, N. Bouet, and Y. S. Chu, “Hard x-ray nanofocusing by multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(26), 263001 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, Y. Chu, K. Lauer, J. Miller, L. Chu, and N. Jahedi, “Advanced multilayer Laue lens fabrication at NSLS-II,” Proc. SPIE 8502, 850202 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Liu, R. Conley, J. Qian, C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, H. Yan, and G. B. Stephenson, “Bonded Multilayer Laue Lens for focusing hard X-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582(1), 123–125 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, C. M. Kewish, C. Liu, R. Conley, and G. B. Stephenson, “Characterization of a multilayer Laue lens with imperfections,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582(1), 126–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue Lenses as High-Resolution X-ray Optics,” Proc. SPIE 5539, 185–194 (2004).
[Crossref]

Conley, R. P.

N. Bouet, R. P. Conley, J. Biancarosa, R. N. S. Divan, and A. T. Macrander, “WSi2/Si multilayer sectioning by reactive ion etching for multilayer Laue lens fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 7802, 780203 (2010).
[Crossref]

David, C.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-Resolution Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diaz, A.

M. Guizar-Sicairos, M. Holler, A. Diaz, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “Role of the illumination spatial-frequency spectrum for ptychography,” Phys. Rev. B 86(10), 100103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dierolf, M.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-Resolution Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Divan, R. N. S.

N. Bouet, R. P. Conley, J. Biancarosa, R. N. S. Divan, and A. T. Macrander, “WSi2/Si multilayer sectioning by reactive ion etching for multilayer Laue lens fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 7802, 780203 (2010).
[Crossref]

Eom, D.

E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C. H. Lin, Y. S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(3), 033707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pešić, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(3), 033701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faulkner, H. M. L.

H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, “Movable aperture lensless transmission microscopy: A novel phase retrieval algorithm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 023903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gofron, K.

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(2), 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Graafsma, H.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guizar-Sicairos, M.

M. Guizar-Sicairos, M. Holler, A. Diaz, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “Role of the illumination spatial-frequency spectrum for ptychography,” Phys. Rev. B 86(10), 100103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Harder, R.

X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C. H. Lin, Y. S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(3), 033707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holler, M.

M. Guizar-Sicairos, M. Holler, A. Diaz, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “Role of the illumination spatial-frequency spectrum for ptychography,” Phys. Rev. B 86(10), 100103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Holt, M.

Huang, X.

R. Conley, N. Bouet, Y. S. Chu, X. Huang, H. C. Kang, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, G. B. Stephenson, and H. Yan, “Multilayer Laue Lens: A Brief History and Current Status,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 29(4), 16–20 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Nazaretski, W. Xu, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, X. Huang, and Y. S. Chu, “Development and characterization of monolithic multilayer Laue lens nanofocusing optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(26), 261102 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(2), 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C. H. Lin, Y. S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(3), 033707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwu, Y.

E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C. H. Lin, Y. S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(3), 033707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Y. Chen, Y. T. Chen, C. L. Wang, I. M. Kempson, W. K. Lee, Y. S. Chu, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field microimaging with 8 keV X-rays achieves a spatial resolutions better than 20 nm,” Opt. Express 19(21), 19919–19924 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jahedi, N.

Kalbfleisch, S.

X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(2), 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, H. C.

R. Conley, N. Bouet, Y. S. Chu, X. Huang, H. C. Kang, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, G. B. Stephenson, and H. Yan, “Multilayer Laue Lens: A Brief History and Current Status,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 29(4), 16–20 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, A. Macrander, and B. Stephenson, “A theoretical study of two-dimensional point focusing by two multilayer Laue lenses,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 70770Q (2008).
[Crossref]

H. F. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, C. M. Kewish, C. Liu, R. Conley, and G. B. Stephenson, “Characterization of a multilayer Laue lens with imperfections,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582(1), 126–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. A. Liu, R. Conley, J. Qian, C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, H. Yan, and G. B. Stephenson, “Bonded Multilayer Laue Lens for focusing hard X-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582(1), 123–125 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue Lenses as High-Resolution X-ray Optics,” Proc. SPIE 5539, 185–194 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kempson, I. M.

Kewish, C. M.

C. A. Liu, R. Conley, J. Qian, C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, H. Yan, and G. B. Stephenson, “Bonded Multilayer Laue Lens for focusing hard X-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582(1), 123–125 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, C. M. Kewish, C. Liu, R. Conley, and G. B. Stephenson, “Characterization of a multilayer Laue lens with imperfections,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582(1), 126–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pešić, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(3), 033701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krüger, P.

Krzywinski, J.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kubec, A.

A. T. Macrander, A. Kubec, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, M. Wojcik, and J. Maser, “Efficiency of a multilayer-Laue-lens with a 102 mu m aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081904 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Niese, P. Krüger, A. Kubec, S. Braun, J. Patommel, C. G. Schroer, A. Leson, and E. Zschech, “Full-field X-ray microscopy with crossed partial multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20008–20013 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lauer, K.

X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(2), 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C. H. Lin, Y. S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(3), 033707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pešić, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(3), 033701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, Y. Chu, K. Lauer, J. Miller, L. Chu, and N. Jahedi, “Advanced multilayer Laue lens fabrication at NSLS-II,” Proc. SPIE 8502, 850202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, W. K.

Legnini, D.

E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C. H. Lin, Y. S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(3), 033707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leson, A.

Li, L.

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lima, E.

Lin, C. H.

E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C. H. Lin, Y. S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(3), 033707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, C.

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, C. M. Kewish, C. Liu, R. Conley, and G. B. Stephenson, “Characterization of a multilayer Laue lens with imperfections,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582(1), 126–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue Lenses as High-Resolution X-ray Optics,” Proc. SPIE 5539, 185–194 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, C. A.

C. A. Liu, R. Conley, J. Qian, C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, H. Yan, and G. B. Stephenson, “Bonded Multilayer Laue Lens for focusing hard X-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582(1), 123–125 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lu, M.

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(2), 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lucchesi, J.

S. Vogt, G. Schneider, A. Steuernagel, J. Lucchesi, E. Schulze, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “X-ray microscopic studies of the Drosophila dosage compensation complex,” J. Struct. Biol. 132(2), 123–132 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Macrander, A.

X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, A. Macrander, and B. Stephenson, “A theoretical study of two-dimensional point focusing by two multilayer Laue lenses,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 70770Q (2008).
[Crossref]

H. F. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue Lenses as High-Resolution X-ray Optics,” Proc. SPIE 5539, 185–194 (2004).
[Crossref]

Macrander, A. T.

R. Conley, N. Bouet, Y. S. Chu, X. Huang, H. C. Kang, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, G. B. Stephenson, and H. Yan, “Multilayer Laue Lens: A Brief History and Current Status,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 29(4), 16–20 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. T. Macrander, A. Kubec, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, M. Wojcik, and J. Maser, “Efficiency of a multilayer-Laue-lens with a 102 mu m aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081904 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bouet, R. P. Conley, J. Biancarosa, R. N. S. Divan, and A. T. Macrander, “WSi2/Si multilayer sectioning by reactive ion etching for multilayer Laue lens fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 7802, 780203 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, C. M. Kewish, C. Liu, R. Conley, and G. B. Stephenson, “Characterization of a multilayer Laue lens with imperfections,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582(1), 126–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. A. Liu, R. Conley, J. Qian, C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, H. Yan, and G. B. Stephenson, “Bonded Multilayer Laue Lens for focusing hard X-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582(1), 123–125 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maiden, A. M.

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(10), 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Margaritondo, G.

Maser, J.

R. Conley, N. Bouet, Y. S. Chu, X. Huang, H. C. Kang, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, G. B. Stephenson, and H. Yan, “Multilayer Laue Lens: A Brief History and Current Status,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 29(4), 16–20 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. T. Macrander, A. Kubec, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, M. Wojcik, and J. Maser, “Efficiency of a multilayer-Laue-lens with a 102 mu m aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081904 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pešić, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(3), 033701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, A. Macrander, and B. Stephenson, “A theoretical study of two-dimensional point focusing by two multilayer Laue lenses,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 70770Q (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, C. M. Kewish, C. Liu, R. Conley, and G. B. Stephenson, “Characterization of a multilayer Laue lens with imperfections,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582(1), 126–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. F. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. A. Liu, R. Conley, J. Qian, C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, H. Yan, and G. B. Stephenson, “Bonded Multilayer Laue Lens for focusing hard X-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582(1), 123–125 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue Lenses as High-Resolution X-ray Optics,” Proc. SPIE 5539, 185–194 (2004).
[Crossref]

Meents, A.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Menzel, A.

M. Guizar-Sicairos, M. Holler, A. Diaz, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “Role of the illumination spatial-frequency spectrum for ptychography,” Phys. Rev. B 86(10), 100103 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-Resolution Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miller, J.

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, Y. Chu, K. Lauer, J. Miller, L. Chu, and N. Jahedi, “Advanced multilayer Laue lens fabrication at NSLS-II,” Proc. SPIE 8502, 850202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Morgan, A. J.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nazaretski, E.

E. Nazaretski, W. Xu, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, X. Huang, and Y. S. Chu, “Development and characterization of monolithic multilayer Laue lens nanofocusing optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(26), 261102 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Conley, N. Bouet, Y. S. Chu, X. Huang, H. C. Kang, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, G. B. Stephenson, and H. Yan, “Multilayer Laue Lens: A Brief History and Current Status,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 29(4), 16–20 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(2), 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C. H. Lin, Y. S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(3), 033707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pešić, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(3), 033701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Niese, S.

Oberthuer, D.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patommel, J.

Pennicard, D.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pešic, Z.

E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pešić, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(3), 033701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfeiffer, F.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-Resolution Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prasciolu, M.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qian, J.

C. A. Liu, R. Conley, J. Qian, C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, H. Yan, and G. B. Stephenson, “Bonded Multilayer Laue Lens for focusing hard X-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582(1), 123–125 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rau, C.

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(2), 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pešić, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(3), 033701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robinson, I. K.

X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodenburg, J. M.

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(10), 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, “Movable aperture lensless transmission microscopy: A novel phase retrieval algorithm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 023903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rose, V.

Rudolph, D.

S. Vogt, G. Schneider, A. Steuernagel, J. Lucchesi, E. Schulze, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “X-ray microscopic studies of the Drosophila dosage compensation complex,” J. Struct. Biol. 132(2), 123–132 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmahl, G.

S. Vogt, G. Schneider, A. Steuernagel, J. Lucchesi, E. Schulze, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “X-ray microscopic studies of the Drosophila dosage compensation complex,” J. Struct. Biol. 132(2), 123–132 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schneider, G.

S. Vogt, G. Schneider, A. Steuernagel, J. Lucchesi, E. Schulze, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “X-ray microscopic studies of the Drosophila dosage compensation complex,” J. Struct. Biol. 132(2), 123–132 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schroer, C. G.

Schulze, E.

S. Vogt, G. Schneider, A. Steuernagel, J. Lucchesi, E. Schulze, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “X-ray microscopic studies of the Drosophila dosage compensation complex,” J. Struct. Biol. 132(2), 123–132 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Q.

H. F. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shu, D.

E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pešić, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(3), 033701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stephenson, B.

H. Yan, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, A. Macrander, and B. Stephenson, “A theoretical study of two-dimensional point focusing by two multilayer Laue lenses,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 70770Q (2008).
[Crossref]

Stephenson, G. B.

R. Conley, N. Bouet, Y. S. Chu, X. Huang, H. C. Kang, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, G. B. Stephenson, and H. Yan, “Multilayer Laue Lens: A Brief History and Current Status,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 29(4), 16–20 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Liu, R. Conley, J. Qian, C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, H. Yan, and G. B. Stephenson, “Bonded Multilayer Laue Lens for focusing hard X-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582(1), 123–125 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. F. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, C. M. Kewish, C. Liu, R. Conley, and G. B. Stephenson, “Characterization of a multilayer Laue lens with imperfections,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582(1), 126–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue Lenses as High-Resolution X-ray Optics,” Proc. SPIE 5539, 185–194 (2004).
[Crossref]

Steuernagel, A.

S. Vogt, G. Schneider, A. Steuernagel, J. Lucchesi, E. Schulze, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “X-ray microscopic studies of the Drosophila dosage compensation complex,” J. Struct. Biol. 132(2), 123–132 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thibault, P.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-Resolution Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vila-Comamala, J.

M. Guizar-Sicairos, M. Holler, A. Diaz, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “Role of the illumination spatial-frequency spectrum for ptychography,” Phys. Rev. B 86(10), 100103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vogt, S.

H. F. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue Lenses as High-Resolution X-ray Optics,” Proc. SPIE 5539, 185–194 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Vogt, G. Schneider, A. Steuernagel, J. Lucchesi, E. Schulze, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “X-ray microscopic studies of the Drosophila dosage compensation complex,” J. Struct. Biol. 132(2), 123–132 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wagner, U.

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(2), 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pešić, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(3), 033701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, C. L.

Wojcik, M.

A. T. Macrander, A. Kubec, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, M. Wojcik, and J. Maser, “Efficiency of a multilayer-Laue-lens with a 102 mu m aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, W.

E. Nazaretski, W. Xu, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, X. Huang, and Y. S. Chu, “Development and characterization of monolithic multilayer Laue lens nanofocusing optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(26), 261102 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(2), 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C. H. Lin, Y. S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(3), 033707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, H.

E. Nazaretski, W. Xu, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, X. Huang, and Y. S. Chu, “Development and characterization of monolithic multilayer Laue lens nanofocusing optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(26), 261102 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Conley, N. Bouet, Y. S. Chu, X. Huang, H. C. Kang, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, G. B. Stephenson, and H. Yan, “Multilayer Laue Lens: A Brief History and Current Status,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 29(4), 16–20 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(2), 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C. H. Lin, Y. S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(3), 033707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, R. Conley, N. Bouet, and Y. S. Chu, “Hard x-ray nanofocusing by multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(26), 263001 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pešić, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(3), 033701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, Y. Chu, K. Lauer, J. Miller, L. Chu, and N. Jahedi, “Advanced multilayer Laue lens fabrication at NSLS-II,” Proc. SPIE 8502, 850202 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, A. Macrander, and B. Stephenson, “A theoretical study of two-dimensional point focusing by two multilayer Laue lenses,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 70770Q (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, C. M. Kewish, C. Liu, R. Conley, and G. B. Stephenson, “Characterization of a multilayer Laue lens with imperfections,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582(1), 126–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. A. Liu, R. Conley, J. Qian, C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, H. Yan, and G. B. Stephenson, “Bonded Multilayer Laue Lens for focusing hard X-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582(1), 123–125 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yan, H. F.

H. F. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yefanov, O.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yun, W.

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue Lenses as High-Resolution X-ray Optics,” Proc. SPIE 5539, 185–194 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

E. Nazaretski, W. Xu, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, X. Huang, and Y. S. Chu, “Development and characterization of monolithic multilayer Laue lens nanofocusing optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(26), 261102 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(2), 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. Macrander, A. Kubec, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, M. Wojcik, and J. Maser, “Efficiency of a multilayer-Laue-lens with a 102 mu m aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081904 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, A. Macrander, J. Maser, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, S. Kalbfleisch, and Y. S. Chu, “Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12496–12507 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C. H. Lin, Y. S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(3), 033707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, Y. Chu, K. Lauer, J. Miller, L. Chu, and N. Jahedi, “Advanced multilayer Laue lens fabrication at NSLS-II,” Proc. SPIE 8502, 850202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zschech, E.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. T. Macrander, A. Kubec, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, M. Wojcik, and J. Maser, “Efficiency of a multilayer-Laue-lens with a 102 mu m aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081904 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Nazaretski, W. Xu, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, X. Huang, and Y. S. Chu, “Development and characterization of monolithic multilayer Laue lens nanofocusing optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(26), 261102 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Yan, R. Conley, N. Bouet, and Y. S. Chu, “Hard x-ray nanofocusing by multilayer Laue lenses,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(26), 263001 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Struct. Biol. (1)

S. Vogt, G. Schneider, A. Steuernagel, J. Lucchesi, E. Schulze, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “X-ray microscopic studies of the Drosophila dosage compensation complex,” J. Struct. Biol. 132(2), 123–132 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (1)

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22(2), 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (2)

C. A. Liu, R. Conley, J. Qian, C. M. Kewish, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, H. Yan, and G. B. Stephenson, “Bonded Multilayer Laue Lens for focusing hard X-rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582(1), 123–125 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, J. Maser, A. T. Macrander, C. M. Kewish, C. Liu, R. Conley, and G. B. Stephenson, “Characterization of a multilayer Laue lens with imperfections,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 582(1), 126–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

M. Guizar-Sicairos, M. Holler, A. Diaz, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “Role of the illumination spatial-frequency spectrum for ptychography,” Phys. Rev. B 86(10), 100103 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. F. Yan, J. Maser, A. Macrander, Q. Shen, S. Vogt, G. B. Stephenson, and H. C. Kang, “Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115438 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, “Movable aperture lensless transmission microscopy: A novel phase retrieval algorithm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 023903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (4)

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue Lenses as High-Resolution X-ray Optics,” Proc. SPIE 5539, 185–194 (2004).
[Crossref]

N. Bouet, R. P. Conley, J. Biancarosa, R. N. S. Divan, and A. T. Macrander, “WSi2/Si multilayer sectioning by reactive ion etching for multilayer Laue lens fabrication,” Proc. SPIE 7802, 780203 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, J. Maser, H. C. Kang, A. Macrander, and B. Stephenson, “A theoretical study of two-dimensional point focusing by two multilayer Laue lenses,” Proc. SPIE 7077, 70770Q (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, Y. Chu, K. Lauer, J. Miller, L. Chu, and N. Jahedi, “Advanced multilayer Laue lens fabrication at NSLS-II,” Proc. SPIE 8502, 850202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

E. Nazaretski, X. Huang, H. Yan, K. Lauer, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, W. Xu, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, C. H. Lin, Y. S. Chen, Y. Hwu, and Y. S. Chu, “Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(3), 033707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, D. Eom, D. Shu, J. Maser, Z. Pešić, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Performance and characterization of the prototype nm-scale spatial resolution scanning multilayer Laue lenses microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(3), 033701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (2)

X. Huang, H. Yan, E. Nazaretski, R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, K. Lauer, L. Li, D. Eom, D. Legnini, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3562 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-Resolution Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Synchrotron Radiat. News (1)

R. Conley, N. Bouet, Y. S. Chu, X. Huang, H. C. Kang, A. T. Macrander, J. Maser, E. Nazaretski, G. B. Stephenson, and H. Yan, “Multilayer Laue Lens: A Brief History and Current Status,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 29(4), 16–20 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ultramicroscopy (1)

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(10), 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

D. Shu, E. Nazaretski, J. Kim, H. Yan, K. Lauer, B. Mullany, D. Kuhne, J. Maser, and Y. S. Chu, “Optomechanical Design of a Multilayer Laue Lens Test Bed for 10-nm Focusing of Hard X-rays,” 11th International Conference on X-Ray Microscopy (XRM2012), 463 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) SEM image of the MLL. Marker layers are clearly visible. The inset is a magnified image in the thinner zone region. b) Linear fits of the marker layer positions vs. square root n (where n is the zone index) of two MLLs used in bonding. These MLLs have apertures of 43 and 53 μm. Insets show residual errors after fitting, which indicate the perfection of the lens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) A SEM image of the cross-bonded MLLs. Because of the viewing angle, the two MLLs appear as if they were not centered to each other. Significant glue residues are visible on the vertical MLL with 43 μm aperture. b) A schematic of the lens alignment. Three translational and two rotational degrees of freedoms are needed to fully align the bonded MLLs. An OSA is used to block the direct beam and high diffraction orders. c) Far-field diffraction recorded on a detector with 55 μm pixel size and with a distance 0.64 m to the optics.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) A scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) image of a star test pattern, 50 × 50 pixels with 20 nm step size. The two dark pixels correspond to two bad frames with missing data. The scale bar is 250 nm. b) A power spectral density (PSD) analysis of a) shows a slightly better resolution in x direction, as expected. If we ignore this small difference, the resolution is roughly 50 × 50 nm2 (cut-off frequency of 0.01 nm−1). c) Reconstructed complex object function from ptychography; its brightness and color represents the amplitude and phase, respectively (see the inset image in e). Note that some edges are not very sharp because of the imperfection of the test pattern and carbon deposition. Because of the small step size and high overlap ratio, the two locations with missing data were covered sufficiently by neighboring data points and successful reconstructions were still achieved. d) A PSD analysis of c) shows a resolution of 13 × 13 nm2 (cut-off frequency of 0.04 nm−1). e) The reconstructed complex probe in the sample plane; a point focus is evident, though there are side lobes due to imperfections of MLLs and the bonding process. The projected intensity profiles indicate a FWHM size of 17 nm in horizontal and 38 nm in vertical direction.

Equations (1)

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x n = λfn