Abstract

Reactive sputtering with a mixture of argon and nitrogen (N2 partial pressure of 4%, 8%, and 15%) as the working gas is used to develop the high reflectance Pd/B4C multilayers for soft X-ray region application. Compared to the pure Ar fabricated sample, the interface roughness of the nitridated multilayer is slightly increased while the compressive stress is essentially relaxed from -623 MPa (pure Ar) to -85 MPa (15% N2). A maximum reflectance of 32% is measured at the wavelength of 9.5 nm for the multilayer fabricated with 15% N2. After storing the multilayers in an air environment for 6–17 months, a distinct aging effect is observed on the nitridated samples. The transmission electron microscopy results indicate that a large part of the top layers of the nitridated samples is deteriorated with severe interdiffusion, essential decrease in d-spacing, and compacted multilayer structure. The deterioration is less pronounced for the multilayers fabricated with a higher ratio of N2. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy reveals that the concentration of nitrogen and boron in the degraded area is much reduced compared to the intact layers. A primitive model of upward diffusion of nitrogen and boron is proposed to explain the aging effects of the nitridated structure.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (2)

R. Supruangnet, C. Morawe, J. C. Peffen, H. Nakajima, S. Rattanasuporn, P. Photongkam, N. Jearanaikoon, and W. Busayaporn, “Chemical modification of B4C cap layers on Pd/B4C multilayers,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 367, 347–353 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Wen, Q. Huang, S. Ma, W. Li, R. She, J. Peng, A. Giglia, I. V. Kozhevnikov, H. Feng, Z. Zhang, and Z. Wang, “Improvement of interface structure and polarization performance of Co/C multilayers by incorporation of nitrogen,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27166–27176 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

2012 (3)

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, Y. Chu, K. Lauer, J. Miller, L. Chu, and N. Jahedi, “Advanced multilayer Laue lens fabrication at NSLS-II,” Proc. SPIE 8502, 850202 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Moskalioviene and A. Galdikas, “Stress induced and concentration dependent diffusion of nitrogen in plasma nitrided austenitic stainless steel,” Vacuum 86(10), 1552–1557 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. J. Corso, P. Zuppella, D. L. Windt, M. Zangrando, and M. G. Pelizzo, “Extreme ultraviolet multilayer for the FERMI@Elettra free electron laser beam transport system,” Opt. Express 20(7), 8006–8014 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, T. Tsarfati, and F. Bijkerk, “Nanometer interface and materials control for multilayer EUV-optical applications,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86(11-12), 255–294 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Rack, T. Weitkamp, M. Riotte, D. Grigoriev, T. Rack, L. Helfen, T. Baumbach, R. Dietsch, T. Holz, M. Krämer, F. Siewert, M. Meduna, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “Comparative study of multilayers used in monochromators for synchrotron-based coherent hard X-ray imaging,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(4), 496–510 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Reflectivity and structural evolution of Cr/Sc and nitrogen containing Cr/Sc multilayers during thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 063516 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Ghafoor, F. Eriksson, E. Gullikson, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Incorporation of nitrogen in Cr/Sc multilayers giving improved soft x-ray reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091913 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

D. L. Windt, “Reduction of stress and roughness by reactive sputtering in W/B4C X-ray multilayer films,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 66880R (2007).
[Crossref]

H. C. Barshilia, B. Deepthi, N. Selvakumar, A. Jain, and K. S. Rajam, “Nanolayered multilayer coatings of CrN/CrAlN prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(11), 5076–5083 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at Elettra,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 450–453 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

I. V. Kozhevnikov, “Analysis of X-ray scattering from a rough multilayer mirror in the first order perturbation theory,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 498(1-3), 482–495 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

L. Hultman, “Thermal stability of nitride thin films,” Vacuum 57(1), 1–30 (2000).
[Crossref]

D. G. Stearns and E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular scattering from extreme ultraviolet multilayer coatings,” Physica B 283(1-3), 84–91 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

Akre, R.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

Antonio, D.

S. Wang, D. Antonio, X. Yu, J. Zhang, A. L. Cornelius, D. He, and Y. Zhao, “The hardest superconducting metal nitride,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13733 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arthur, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

Barshilia, H. C.

H. C. Barshilia, B. Deepthi, N. Selvakumar, A. Jain, and K. S. Rajam, “Nanolayered multilayer coatings of CrN/CrAlN prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(11), 5076–5083 (2007).
[Crossref]

Baumbach, T.

A. Rack, T. Weitkamp, M. Riotte, D. Grigoriev, T. Rack, L. Helfen, T. Baumbach, R. Dietsch, T. Holz, M. Krämer, F. Siewert, M. Meduna, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “Comparative study of multilayers used in monochromators for synchrotron-based coherent hard X-ray imaging,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(4), 496–510 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bellotti, J. A.

Bijkerk, F.

D. S. Kuznetsov, A. E. Yakshin, J. M. Sturm, R. W. van de Kruijs, E. Louis, and F. Bijkerk, “High-reflectance La/B-based multilayer mirror for 6.x nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3778–3781 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, T. Tsarfati, and F. Bijkerk, “Nanometer interface and materials control for multilayer EUV-optical applications,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86(11-12), 255–294 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bionta, R.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

Birch, J.

N. Ghafoor, F. Eriksson, E. Gullikson, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Incorporation of nitrogen in Cr/Sc multilayers giving improved soft x-ray reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091913 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Reflectivity and structural evolution of Cr/Sc and nitrogen containing Cr/Sc multilayers during thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 063516 (2008).
[Crossref]

Borgatti, F.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at Elettra,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 450–453 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bostedt, C.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bouet, N.

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, Y. Chu, K. Lauer, J. Miller, L. Chu, and N. Jahedi, “Advanced multilayer Laue lens fabrication at NSLS-II,” Proc. SPIE 8502, 850202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bozek, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

Brachmann, A.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bucksbaum, P.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

Busayaporn, W.

R. Supruangnet, C. Morawe, J. C. Peffen, H. Nakajima, S. Rattanasuporn, P. Photongkam, N. Jearanaikoon, and W. Busayaporn, “Chemical modification of B4C cap layers on Pd/B4C multilayers,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 367, 347–353 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chaker, M.

Chu, L.

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, Y. Chu, K. Lauer, J. Miller, L. Chu, and N. Jahedi, “Advanced multilayer Laue lens fabrication at NSLS-II,” Proc. SPIE 8502, 850202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chu, Y.

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, Y. Chu, K. Lauer, J. Miller, L. Chu, and N. Jahedi, “Advanced multilayer Laue lens fabrication at NSLS-II,” Proc. SPIE 8502, 850202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cloetens, P.

A. Rack, T. Weitkamp, M. Riotte, D. Grigoriev, T. Rack, L. Helfen, T. Baumbach, R. Dietsch, T. Holz, M. Krämer, F. Siewert, M. Meduna, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “Comparative study of multilayers used in monochromators for synchrotron-based coherent hard X-ray imaging,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(4), 496–510 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coffee, R.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

Conley, R.

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, Y. Chu, K. Lauer, J. Miller, L. Chu, and N. Jahedi, “Advanced multilayer Laue lens fabrication at NSLS-II,” Proc. SPIE 8502, 850202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cornelius, A. L.

S. Wang, D. Antonio, X. Yu, J. Zhang, A. L. Cornelius, D. He, and Y. Zhao, “The hardest superconducting metal nitride,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13733 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corso, A. J.

Decker, F.-J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

Deepthi, B.

H. C. Barshilia, B. Deepthi, N. Selvakumar, A. Jain, and K. S. Rajam, “Nanolayered multilayer coatings of CrN/CrAlN prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(11), 5076–5083 (2007).
[Crossref]

DeLuisa, A.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at Elettra,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 450–453 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dietsch, R.

A. Rack, T. Weitkamp, M. Riotte, D. Grigoriev, T. Rack, L. Helfen, T. Baumbach, R. Dietsch, T. Holz, M. Krämer, F. Siewert, M. Meduna, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “Comparative study of multilayers used in monochromators for synchrotron-based coherent hard X-ray imaging,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(4), 496–510 (2010).
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Ding, Y.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
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Dowell, D.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
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Doyle, B. P.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at Elettra,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 450–453 (2004).
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Edstrom, S.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

Emma, P.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

Eriksson, F.

F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Reflectivity and structural evolution of Cr/Sc and nitrogen containing Cr/Sc multilayers during thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 063516 (2008).
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N. Ghafoor, F. Eriksson, E. Gullikson, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Incorporation of nitrogen in Cr/Sc multilayers giving improved soft x-ray reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091913 (2008).
[Crossref]

Falco, C. M.

Feng, H.

Finetti, P.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at Elettra,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 450–453 (2004).
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Fisher, A.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

Frisch, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
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Galayda, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

Galdikas, A.

T. Moskalioviene and A. Galdikas, “Stress induced and concentration dependent diffusion of nitrogen in plasma nitrided austenitic stainless steel,” Vacuum 86(10), 1552–1557 (2012).
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Gazzadi, G. C.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at Elettra,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 450–453 (2004).
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Ghafoor, N.

F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Reflectivity and structural evolution of Cr/Sc and nitrogen containing Cr/Sc multilayers during thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 063516 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Ghafoor, F. Eriksson, E. Gullikson, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Incorporation of nitrogen in Cr/Sc multilayers giving improved soft x-ray reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091913 (2008).
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Giglia, A.

Gilevich, S.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
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Grigoriev, D.

A. Rack, T. Weitkamp, M. Riotte, D. Grigoriev, T. Rack, L. Helfen, T. Baumbach, R. Dietsch, T. Holz, M. Krämer, F. Siewert, M. Meduna, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “Comparative study of multilayers used in monochromators for synchrotron-based coherent hard X-ray imaging,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(4), 496–510 (2010).
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Gullikson, E.

N. Ghafoor, F. Eriksson, E. Gullikson, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Incorporation of nitrogen in Cr/Sc multilayers giving improved soft x-ray reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091913 (2008).
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Gullikson, E. M.

D. L. Windt and E. M. Gullikson, “Pd/B4C/Y multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet applications near 10 nm wavelength,” Appl. Opt. 54(18), 5850–5860 (2015).
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D. G. Stearns and E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular scattering from extreme ultraviolet multilayer coatings,” Physica B 283(1-3), 84–91 (2000).
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Hastings, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
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Hays, G.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
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He, D.

S. Wang, D. Antonio, X. Yu, J. Zhang, A. L. Cornelius, D. He, and Y. Zhao, “The hardest superconducting metal nitride,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13733 (2015).
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Helfen, L.

A. Rack, T. Weitkamp, M. Riotte, D. Grigoriev, T. Rack, L. Helfen, T. Baumbach, R. Dietsch, T. Holz, M. Krämer, F. Siewert, M. Meduna, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “Comparative study of multilayers used in monochromators for synchrotron-based coherent hard X-ray imaging,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(4), 496–510 (2010).
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Hering, P.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
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Holz, T.

A. Rack, T. Weitkamp, M. Riotte, D. Grigoriev, T. Rack, L. Helfen, T. Baumbach, R. Dietsch, T. Holz, M. Krämer, F. Siewert, M. Meduna, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “Comparative study of multilayers used in monochromators for synchrotron-based coherent hard X-ray imaging,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(4), 496–510 (2010).
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Huang, Q.

Huang, Z.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
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Hultman, L.

N. Ghafoor, F. Eriksson, E. Gullikson, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Incorporation of nitrogen in Cr/Sc multilayers giving improved soft x-ray reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091913 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Reflectivity and structural evolution of Cr/Sc and nitrogen containing Cr/Sc multilayers during thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 063516 (2008).
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L. Hultman, “Thermal stability of nitride thin films,” Vacuum 57(1), 1–30 (2000).
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Iverson, R.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
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Jahedi, N.

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, Y. Chu, K. Lauer, J. Miller, L. Chu, and N. Jahedi, “Advanced multilayer Laue lens fabrication at NSLS-II,” Proc. SPIE 8502, 850202 (2012).
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Jain, A.

H. C. Barshilia, B. Deepthi, N. Selvakumar, A. Jain, and K. S. Rajam, “Nanolayered multilayer coatings of CrN/CrAlN prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(11), 5076–5083 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jearanaikoon, N.

R. Supruangnet, C. Morawe, J. C. Peffen, H. Nakajima, S. Rattanasuporn, P. Photongkam, N. Jearanaikoon, and W. Busayaporn, “Chemical modification of B4C cap layers on Pd/B4C multilayers,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 367, 347–353 (2016).
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Jonnard, P.

Kearney, P. A.

Kozhevnikov, I. V.

Krämer, M.

A. Rack, T. Weitkamp, M. Riotte, D. Grigoriev, T. Rack, L. Helfen, T. Baumbach, R. Dietsch, T. Holz, M. Krämer, F. Siewert, M. Meduna, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “Comparative study of multilayers used in monochromators for synchrotron-based coherent hard X-ray imaging,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(4), 496–510 (2010).
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Kuznetsov, D. S.

Lauer, K.

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, Y. Chu, K. Lauer, J. Miller, L. Chu, and N. Jahedi, “Advanced multilayer Laue lens fabrication at NSLS-II,” Proc. SPIE 8502, 850202 (2012).
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Li, P.

Li, W.

Loos, H.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
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Louis, E.

D. S. Kuznetsov, A. E. Yakshin, J. M. Sturm, R. W. van de Kruijs, E. Louis, and F. Bijkerk, “High-reflectance La/B-based multilayer mirror for 6.x nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3778–3781 (2015).
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E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, T. Tsarfati, and F. Bijkerk, “Nanometer interface and materials control for multilayer EUV-optical applications,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86(11-12), 255–294 (2011).
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Ma, S.

Mahne, N.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at Elettra,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 450–453 (2004).
[Crossref]

Meduna, M.

A. Rack, T. Weitkamp, M. Riotte, D. Grigoriev, T. Rack, L. Helfen, T. Baumbach, R. Dietsch, T. Holz, M. Krämer, F. Siewert, M. Meduna, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “Comparative study of multilayers used in monochromators for synchrotron-based coherent hard X-ray imaging,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(4), 496–510 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Messerschmidt, M.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

Miahnahri, A.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

Miller, J.

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, Y. Chu, K. Lauer, J. Miller, L. Chu, and N. Jahedi, “Advanced multilayer Laue lens fabrication at NSLS-II,” Proc. SPIE 8502, 850202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Moeller, S.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

Montcalm, C.

Morawe, C.

R. Supruangnet, C. Morawe, J. C. Peffen, H. Nakajima, S. Rattanasuporn, P. Photongkam, N. Jearanaikoon, and W. Busayaporn, “Chemical modification of B4C cap layers on Pd/B4C multilayers,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 367, 347–353 (2016).
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C. Morawe, R. Supruangnet, and J. C. Peffen, “Structural modifications in Pd/B4C multilayers for X-ray optical applications,” Thin Solid Films 588, 1–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Moskalioviene, T.

T. Moskalioviene and A. Galdikas, “Stress induced and concentration dependent diffusion of nitrogen in plasma nitrided austenitic stainless steel,” Vacuum 86(10), 1552–1557 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nakajima, H.

R. Supruangnet, C. Morawe, J. C. Peffen, H. Nakajima, S. Rattanasuporn, P. Photongkam, N. Jearanaikoon, and W. Busayaporn, “Chemical modification of B4C cap layers on Pd/B4C multilayers,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 367, 347–353 (2016).
[Crossref]

Naletto, G.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at Elettra,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 450–453 (2004).
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Nannarone, S.

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Nuhn, H.-D.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
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Pasquali, L.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at Elettra,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 450–453 (2004).
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Pedio, M.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at Elettra,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 450–453 (2004).
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Peffen, J. C.

R. Supruangnet, C. Morawe, J. C. Peffen, H. Nakajima, S. Rattanasuporn, P. Photongkam, N. Jearanaikoon, and W. Busayaporn, “Chemical modification of B4C cap layers on Pd/B4C multilayers,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 367, 347–353 (2016).
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C. Morawe, R. Supruangnet, and J. C. Peffen, “Structural modifications in Pd/B4C multilayers for X-ray optical applications,” Thin Solid Films 588, 1–10 (2015).
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Pelizzo, M. G.

A. J. Corso, P. Zuppella, D. L. Windt, M. Zangrando, and M. G. Pelizzo, “Extreme ultraviolet multilayer for the FERMI@Elettra free electron laser beam transport system,” Opt. Express 20(7), 8006–8014 (2012).
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S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at Elettra,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 450–453 (2004).
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Peng, J.

Pépin, H.

Photongkam, P.

R. Supruangnet, C. Morawe, J. C. Peffen, H. Nakajima, S. Rattanasuporn, P. Photongkam, N. Jearanaikoon, and W. Busayaporn, “Chemical modification of B4C cap layers on Pd/B4C multilayers,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 367, 347–353 (2016).
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Pile, G.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
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Rack, A.

A. Rack, T. Weitkamp, M. Riotte, D. Grigoriev, T. Rack, L. Helfen, T. Baumbach, R. Dietsch, T. Holz, M. Krämer, F. Siewert, M. Meduna, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “Comparative study of multilayers used in monochromators for synchrotron-based coherent hard X-ray imaging,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(4), 496–510 (2010).
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Rack, T.

A. Rack, T. Weitkamp, M. Riotte, D. Grigoriev, T. Rack, L. Helfen, T. Baumbach, R. Dietsch, T. Holz, M. Krämer, F. Siewert, M. Meduna, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “Comparative study of multilayers used in monochromators for synchrotron-based coherent hard X-ray imaging,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(4), 496–510 (2010).
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Rajam, K. S.

H. C. Barshilia, B. Deepthi, N. Selvakumar, A. Jain, and K. S. Rajam, “Nanolayered multilayer coatings of CrN/CrAlN prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(11), 5076–5083 (2007).
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P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rattanasuporn, S.

R. Supruangnet, C. Morawe, J. C. Peffen, H. Nakajima, S. Rattanasuporn, P. Photongkam, N. Jearanaikoon, and W. Busayaporn, “Chemical modification of B4C cap layers on Pd/B4C multilayers,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 367, 347–353 (2016).
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A. Rack, T. Weitkamp, M. Riotte, D. Grigoriev, T. Rack, L. Helfen, T. Baumbach, R. Dietsch, T. Holz, M. Krämer, F. Siewert, M. Meduna, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “Comparative study of multilayers used in monochromators for synchrotron-based coherent hard X-ray imaging,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(4), 496–510 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rzepiela, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schultz, D.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

Selvaggi, G.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at Elettra,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 450–453 (2004).
[Crossref]

Selvakumar, N.

H. C. Barshilia, B. Deepthi, N. Selvakumar, A. Jain, and K. S. Rajam, “Nanolayered multilayer coatings of CrN/CrAlN prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(11), 5076–5083 (2007).
[Crossref]

She, R.

Siewert, F.

A. Rack, T. Weitkamp, M. Riotte, D. Grigoriev, T. Rack, L. Helfen, T. Baumbach, R. Dietsch, T. Holz, M. Krämer, F. Siewert, M. Meduna, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “Comparative study of multilayers used in monochromators for synchrotron-based coherent hard X-ray imaging,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(4), 496–510 (2010).
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Slaughter, J. M.

Smith, T.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stearns, D. G.

D. G. Stearns and E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular scattering from extreme ultraviolet multilayer coatings,” Physica B 283(1-3), 84–91 (2000).
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P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
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Sturm, J. M.

Sullivan, B. T.

Supruangnet, R.

R. Supruangnet, C. Morawe, J. C. Peffen, H. Nakajima, S. Rattanasuporn, P. Photongkam, N. Jearanaikoon, and W. Busayaporn, “Chemical modification of B4C cap layers on Pd/B4C multilayers,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 367, 347–353 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Morawe, R. Supruangnet, and J. C. Peffen, “Structural modifications in Pd/B4C multilayers for X-ray optical applications,” Thin Solid Films 588, 1–10 (2015).
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Tompkins, H.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
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Tondello, G.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at Elettra,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 450–453 (2004).
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Tsarfati, T.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, T. Tsarfati, and F. Bijkerk, “Nanometer interface and materials control for multilayer EUV-optical applications,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86(11-12), 255–294 (2011).
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Turner, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
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van de Kruijs, R. W.

Wang, K.

Wang, S.

S. Wang, D. Antonio, X. Yu, J. Zhang, A. L. Cornelius, D. He, and Y. Zhao, “The hardest superconducting metal nitride,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13733 (2015).
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Wang, Z.

Weitkamp, T.

A. Rack, T. Weitkamp, M. Riotte, D. Grigoriev, T. Rack, L. Helfen, T. Baumbach, R. Dietsch, T. Holz, M. Krämer, F. Siewert, M. Meduna, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “Comparative study of multilayers used in monochromators for synchrotron-based coherent hard X-ray imaging,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(4), 496–510 (2010).
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Welch, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
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White, W.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
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Windt, D. L.

Wu, J.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
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Xu, D.

Yakshin, A. E.

D. S. Kuznetsov, A. E. Yakshin, J. M. Sturm, R. W. van de Kruijs, E. Louis, and F. Bijkerk, “High-reflectance La/B-based multilayer mirror for 6.x nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3778–3781 (2015).
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E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, T. Tsarfati, and F. Bijkerk, “Nanometer interface and materials control for multilayer EUV-optical applications,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86(11-12), 255–294 (2011).
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Yan, H.

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, Y. Chu, K. Lauer, J. Miller, L. Chu, and N. Jahedi, “Advanced multilayer Laue lens fabrication at NSLS-II,” Proc. SPIE 8502, 850202 (2012).
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Yocky, G.

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
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Yu, X.

S. Wang, D. Antonio, X. Yu, J. Zhang, A. L. Cornelius, D. He, and Y. Zhao, “The hardest superconducting metal nitride,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13733 (2015).
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Zangrando, M.

Zhang, J.

S. Wang, D. Antonio, X. Yu, J. Zhang, A. L. Cornelius, D. He, and Y. Zhao, “The hardest superconducting metal nitride,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13733 (2015).
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Zhang, Z.

Zhao, Y.

S. Wang, D. Antonio, X. Yu, J. Zhang, A. L. Cornelius, D. He, and Y. Zhao, “The hardest superconducting metal nitride,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13733 (2015).
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Zhou, J.

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, Y. Chu, K. Lauer, J. Miller, L. Chu, and N. Jahedi, “Advanced multilayer Laue lens fabrication at NSLS-II,” Proc. SPIE 8502, 850202 (2012).
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A. Rack, T. Weitkamp, M. Riotte, D. Grigoriev, T. Rack, L. Helfen, T. Baumbach, R. Dietsch, T. Holz, M. Krämer, F. Siewert, M. Meduna, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “Comparative study of multilayers used in monochromators for synchrotron-based coherent hard X-ray imaging,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(4), 496–510 (2010).
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Zuppella, P.

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at Elettra,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 450–453 (2004).
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Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. Ghafoor, F. Eriksson, E. Gullikson, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Incorporation of nitrogen in Cr/Sc multilayers giving improved soft x-ray reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091913 (2008).
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H. C. Barshilia, B. Deepthi, N. Selvakumar, A. Jain, and K. S. Rajam, “Nanolayered multilayer coatings of CrN/CrAlN prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(11), 5076–5083 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Supruangnet, C. Morawe, J. C. Peffen, H. Nakajima, S. Rattanasuporn, P. Photongkam, N. Jearanaikoon, and W. Busayaporn, “Chemical modification of B4C cap layers on Pd/B4C multilayers,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 367, 347–353 (2016).
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F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Reflectivity and structural evolution of Cr/Sc and nitrogen containing Cr/Sc multilayers during thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 063516 (2008).
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A. Rack, T. Weitkamp, M. Riotte, D. Grigoriev, T. Rack, L. Helfen, T. Baumbach, R. Dietsch, T. Holz, M. Krämer, F. Siewert, M. Meduna, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “Comparative study of multilayers used in monochromators for synchrotron-based coherent hard X-ray imaging,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(4), 496–510 (2010).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

P. Emma, R. Akre, J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A. Brachmann, P. Bucksbaum, R. Coffee, F.-J. Decker, Y. Ding, D. Dowell, S. Edstrom, A. Fisher, J. Frisch, S. Gilevich, J. Hastings, G. Hays, P. Hering, Z. Huang, R. Iverson, H. Loos, M. Messerschmidt, A. Miahnahri, S. Moeller, H.-D. Nuhn, G. Pile, D. Ratner, J. Rzepiela, D. Schultz, T. Smith, P. Stefan, H. Tompkins, J. Turner, J. Welch, W. White, J. Wu, G. Yocky, and J. Galayda, “First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 641–647 (2010).
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Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Physica B (1)

D. G. Stearns and E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular scattering from extreme ultraviolet multilayer coatings,” Physica B 283(1-3), 84–91 (2000).
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Proc. SPIE (3)

R. Conley, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, H. Yan, Y. Chu, K. Lauer, J. Miller, L. Chu, and N. Jahedi, “Advanced multilayer Laue lens fabrication at NSLS-II,” Proc. SPIE 8502, 850202 (2012).
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Prog. Surf. Sci. (1)

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, T. Tsarfati, and F. Bijkerk, “Nanometer interface and materials control for multilayer EUV-optical applications,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86(11-12), 255–294 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

S. Wang, D. Antonio, X. Yu, J. Zhang, A. L. Cornelius, D. He, and Y. Zhao, “The hardest superconducting metal nitride,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13733 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (1)

C. Morawe, R. Supruangnet, and J. C. Peffen, “Structural modifications in Pd/B4C multilayers for X-ray optical applications,” Thin Solid Films 588, 1–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vacuum (2)

L. Hultman, “Thermal stability of nitride thin films,” Vacuum 57(1), 1–30 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. Moskalioviene and A. Galdikas, “Stress induced and concentration dependent diffusion of nitrogen in plasma nitrided austenitic stainless steel,” Vacuum 86(10), 1552–1557 (2012).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

L. B. Freund and S. Suresh, Thin Film Materials-Stress, Defect Formation and Surface Evolution (Cambridge University, 2003).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 X-ray reflectivity (λ = 0.154 nm) versus the grazing angle of the as-deposited Pd/B4C multilayers (thick grey lines), the same multilayers after 6 months storage (thin red lines), and 17 months storage (dashed blue lines). Four samples were fabricated by magnetron sputtering using the working gas of pure Ar (a) and a mixture of Ar and N2, where the content of nitrogen (its partial pressure) was 4% (b), 8% (c) and 15% (d).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 X-ray scattering measurements (λ = 0.154 nm) of the four as-deposited Pd/B4C multilayers, fabricated with pure Ar and different ratio of mixture of Ar and N2.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured stress as a function of the content ratio of N2 gas for the fabricated Pd/B4C multilayers.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Spectral dependence of the SXR reflectivity of Pd/B4C multilayers measured promptly after deposition (solid spheres) and after six months keeping in air (open spheres), fabricated by pure Ar (a), Ar + 4%N2 (b), Ar + 8%N2 (c), Ar + 15%N2 (d).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 TEM and electron diffraction images of the multilayer fabricated by pure Ar (A0, B0, C0, D0), 4% N2 (A4, B4, C4, D4), and 15% N2 (A15, B15, C15, D15). For the 4% N2 sample, Figs. (B4 top, C4 top), (B4 mid), and (B4 bottom, C4 bot.) correspond to the top, middle and bottom part of the stack.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 TEM image (a) and EDX line scan (b) of the surface area of the multilayer fabricated with 15% N2 after 17 months storage.

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