Abstract

In this paper we present a method for obtaining accurate finesse by recovering the Lorentzian profile of cavity resonances with a laser continuously locked to the cavity and apply it to weak gas absorption measurements. The technique was implemented on our noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy (NICE-OHMS) experimental setup. The measurement is performed in the cavity-locked regime, leading to high repeatability and easy automation. The technique involves locking the carrier to a fundamental mode of the cavity and sweeping a second set of sidebands across adjacent cavity modes. The Lorentzian line shape can be reconstructed through a measurement of the transmitted optical power of the auxiliary sidebands. The cavity finesse and gas absorption can then be extracted from these power measurements. The accuracy of our measurements was verified by comparing our results to those obtained with the cavity ring down technique. We demonstrate the use of the technique in spectroscopy by measuring the absorption coefficient of the R(14) line of 12C16O that has been well characterized by others. The gas absorption results obtained were consistent with other experimental measurements and theoretical calculations.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Corrections

5 April 2017: Corrections were made to Refs. 9 and 31.


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References

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2017 (1)

2016 (2)

2014 (3)

B. Bloom, T. Nicholson, J. Williams, S. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. Bromley, and J. Ye, “An optical lattice clock with accuracy and stability at the 10−18 level,” Nature 506, 71–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

M. Suter and P. Dietiker, “Calculation of the finesse of an ideal fabry–perot resonator,” Appl. Opt. 53, 7004–7010 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

P. Berceau, M. Fouché, R. Battesti, and C. Rizzo, “Magnetic linear birefringence measurements using pulsed fields,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 013837 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mhz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6, 687–692 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

A. M. Nobili, G. L. Comandi, S. Doravari, D. Bramanti, R. Kumar, F. Maccarrone, E. Polacco, S. G. Turyshev, M. Shao, J. Lipa, H. Dittus, C. Laemmerzhal, A. Peters, J. Mueller, C. Unnikrishnan, Ian. Roxburgh, A. Brillet, C. Marchal, J. Luo, J. Ha, V. Milyukov, V. Iafolla, D. Lucchesi, P. Tortora, P. Bernardis, F. Palmonari, S. Focardi, D. Zanello, S. Monaco, G. Mengali, L. Anselmo, L. Iorio, and Z. Knezevic, “’Galileo Galilei’(gg) a small satellite to test the equivalence principle of Galileo, Newton and Einstein,” Exp. Astron. 23, 689–710 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

E. Zavattini, G. Zavattini, G. Ruoso, G. Raiteri, E. Polacco, E. Milotti, V. Lozza, M. Karuza, U. Gastaldi, G. Di Domenico, F. Valle, R. Cimino, S. Carusotto, G. Cantatore, and M. Bregant, “New PVLAS results and limits on magnetically induced optical rotation and ellipticity in vacuum,” Phys. Rev. D 77, 032006 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

K. Sung and P. Varanasi, “Intensities, collision-broadened half-widths, and collision-induced line shifts in the second overtone band of 12C16O,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 83, 445–458 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

K. Danzmann and A. Rüdiger, “Lisa technology–concept, status, prospects,” Class. Quantum Grav. 20, S1 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

E. D. Black, “An introduction to pound–drever–hall laser frequency stabilization,” Am. J. Phys 69, 79–87 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

D. Romanini, A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, and F. Stoeckel, “Cw cavity ring down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316–322 (1997).
[Crossref]

VIRGO collaboration, “The virgo interferometer,” Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1461 (1997).

1995 (1)

N. Uehara and K. Ueda, “Accurate measurement of ultralow loss in a high-finesse fabry-perot interferometer using the frequency response functions,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 9–15 (1995).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

R. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Alfauwaz, A.

T. Schuldt, S. Saraf, A. Stochino, K. Döringshoff, S. Buchman, G. D. Cutler, J. Lipa, S. Tan, J. Hanson, B. Jaroux, S. Herrmann, C. Læmmerzahl, A. Peters, A. Alfauwaz, A. Alhussien, B. Alsuwaidan, A. Turki, H. Dittus, U. Johann, S. Worden, and R. Byer, “mstar: Testing special relativity in space using high performance optical frequency references” in 2015 Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium & the European Frequency and Time Forum (IEEE, 2015), pp. 47–50.

Alhussien, A.

T. Schuldt, S. Saraf, A. Stochino, K. Döringshoff, S. Buchman, G. D. Cutler, J. Lipa, S. Tan, J. Hanson, B. Jaroux, S. Herrmann, C. Læmmerzahl, A. Peters, A. Alfauwaz, A. Alhussien, B. Alsuwaidan, A. Turki, H. Dittus, U. Johann, S. Worden, and R. Byer, “mstar: Testing special relativity in space using high performance optical frequency references” in 2015 Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium & the European Frequency and Time Forum (IEEE, 2015), pp. 47–50.

Alsuwaidan, B.

T. Schuldt, S. Saraf, A. Stochino, K. Döringshoff, S. Buchman, G. D. Cutler, J. Lipa, S. Tan, J. Hanson, B. Jaroux, S. Herrmann, C. Læmmerzahl, A. Peters, A. Alfauwaz, A. Alhussien, B. Alsuwaidan, A. Turki, H. Dittus, U. Johann, S. Worden, and R. Byer, “mstar: Testing special relativity in space using high performance optical frequency references” in 2015 Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium & the European Frequency and Time Forum (IEEE, 2015), pp. 47–50.

Anselmo, L.

A. M. Nobili, G. L. Comandi, S. Doravari, D. Bramanti, R. Kumar, F. Maccarrone, E. Polacco, S. G. Turyshev, M. Shao, J. Lipa, H. Dittus, C. Laemmerzhal, A. Peters, J. Mueller, C. Unnikrishnan, Ian. Roxburgh, A. Brillet, C. Marchal, J. Luo, J. Ha, V. Milyukov, V. Iafolla, D. Lucchesi, P. Tortora, P. Bernardis, F. Palmonari, S. Focardi, D. Zanello, S. Monaco, G. Mengali, L. Anselmo, L. Iorio, and Z. Knezevic, “’Galileo Galilei’(gg) a small satellite to test the equivalence principle of Galileo, Newton and Einstein,” Exp. Astron. 23, 689–710 (2009).
[Crossref]

Babikov, Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Battesti, R.

P. Berceau, M. Fouché, R. Battesti, and C. Rizzo, “Magnetic linear birefringence measurements using pulsed fields,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 013837 (2012).
[Crossref]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Berceau, P.

Bernardis, P.

A. M. Nobili, G. L. Comandi, S. Doravari, D. Bramanti, R. Kumar, F. Maccarrone, E. Polacco, S. G. Turyshev, M. Shao, J. Lipa, H. Dittus, C. Laemmerzhal, A. Peters, J. Mueller, C. Unnikrishnan, Ian. Roxburgh, A. Brillet, C. Marchal, J. Luo, J. Ha, V. Milyukov, V. Iafolla, D. Lucchesi, P. Tortora, P. Bernardis, F. Palmonari, S. Focardi, D. Zanello, S. Monaco, G. Mengali, L. Anselmo, L. Iorio, and Z. Knezevic, “’Galileo Galilei’(gg) a small satellite to test the equivalence principle of Galileo, Newton and Einstein,” Exp. Astron. 23, 689–710 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bishof, M.

B. Bloom, T. Nicholson, J. Williams, S. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. Bromley, and J. Ye, “An optical lattice clock with accuracy and stability at the 10−18 level,” Nature 506, 71–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bizzocchi, L.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Black, E. D.

E. D. Black, “An introduction to pound–drever–hall laser frequency stabilization,” Am. J. Phys 69, 79–87 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bloom, B.

B. Bloom, T. Nicholson, J. Williams, S. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. Bromley, and J. Ye, “An optical lattice clock with accuracy and stability at the 10−18 level,” Nature 506, 71–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Bramanti, D.

A. M. Nobili, G. L. Comandi, S. Doravari, D. Bramanti, R. Kumar, F. Maccarrone, E. Polacco, S. G. Turyshev, M. Shao, J. Lipa, H. Dittus, C. Laemmerzhal, A. Peters, J. Mueller, C. Unnikrishnan, Ian. Roxburgh, A. Brillet, C. Marchal, J. Luo, J. Ha, V. Milyukov, V. Iafolla, D. Lucchesi, P. Tortora, P. Bernardis, F. Palmonari, S. Focardi, D. Zanello, S. Monaco, G. Mengali, L. Anselmo, L. Iorio, and Z. Knezevic, “’Galileo Galilei’(gg) a small satellite to test the equivalence principle of Galileo, Newton and Einstein,” Exp. Astron. 23, 689–710 (2009).
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Bregant, M.

E. Zavattini, G. Zavattini, G. Ruoso, G. Raiteri, E. Polacco, E. Milotti, V. Lozza, M. Karuza, U. Gastaldi, G. Di Domenico, F. Valle, R. Cimino, S. Carusotto, G. Cantatore, and M. Bregant, “New PVLAS results and limits on magnetically induced optical rotation and ellipticity in vacuum,” Phys. Rev. D 77, 032006 (2008).
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Brillet, A.

A. M. Nobili, G. L. Comandi, S. Doravari, D. Bramanti, R. Kumar, F. Maccarrone, E. Polacco, S. G. Turyshev, M. Shao, J. Lipa, H. Dittus, C. Laemmerzhal, A. Peters, J. Mueller, C. Unnikrishnan, Ian. Roxburgh, A. Brillet, C. Marchal, J. Luo, J. Ha, V. Milyukov, V. Iafolla, D. Lucchesi, P. Tortora, P. Bernardis, F. Palmonari, S. Focardi, D. Zanello, S. Monaco, G. Mengali, L. Anselmo, L. Iorio, and Z. Knezevic, “’Galileo Galilei’(gg) a small satellite to test the equivalence principle of Galileo, Newton and Einstein,” Exp. Astron. 23, 689–710 (2009).
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Bromley, S.

B. Bloom, T. Nicholson, J. Williams, S. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. Bromley, and J. Ye, “An optical lattice clock with accuracy and stability at the 10−18 level,” Nature 506, 71–75 (2014).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Buchman, S.

T. Schuldt, S. Saraf, A. Stochino, K. Döringshoff, S. Buchman, G. D. Cutler, J. Lipa, S. Tan, J. Hanson, B. Jaroux, S. Herrmann, C. Læmmerzahl, A. Peters, A. Alfauwaz, A. Alhussien, B. Alsuwaidan, A. Turki, H. Dittus, U. Johann, S. Worden, and R. Byer, “mstar: Testing special relativity in space using high performance optical frequency references” in 2015 Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium & the European Frequency and Time Forum (IEEE, 2015), pp. 47–50.

Byer, R.

S. Saraf, P. Berceau, A. Stochino, R. Byer, and J. Lipa, “Molecular frequency reference at 1.56 µ m using a 12C16O overtone transition with the noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy method,” Opt. Lett. 41, 2189–2192 (2016).
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Camp, J.

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Campbell, S.

B. Bloom, T. Nicholson, J. Williams, S. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. Bromley, and J. Ye, “An optical lattice clock with accuracy and stability at the 10−18 level,” Nature 506, 71–75 (2014).
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Cantatore, G.

E. Zavattini, G. Zavattini, G. Ruoso, G. Raiteri, E. Polacco, E. Milotti, V. Lozza, M. Karuza, U. Gastaldi, G. Di Domenico, F. Valle, R. Cimino, S. Carusotto, G. Cantatore, and M. Bregant, “New PVLAS results and limits on magnetically induced optical rotation and ellipticity in vacuum,” Phys. Rev. D 77, 032006 (2008).
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E. Zavattini, G. Zavattini, G. Ruoso, G. Raiteri, E. Polacco, E. Milotti, V. Lozza, M. Karuza, U. Gastaldi, G. Di Domenico, F. Valle, R. Cimino, S. Carusotto, G. Cantatore, and M. Bregant, “New PVLAS results and limits on magnetically induced optical rotation and ellipticity in vacuum,” Phys. Rev. D 77, 032006 (2008).
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Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Cimino, R.

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Cutler, G. D.

T. Schuldt, S. Saraf, A. Stochino, K. Döringshoff, S. Buchman, G. D. Cutler, J. Lipa, S. Tan, J. Hanson, B. Jaroux, S. Herrmann, C. Læmmerzahl, A. Peters, A. Alfauwaz, A. Alhussien, B. Alsuwaidan, A. Turki, H. Dittus, U. Johann, S. Worden, and R. Byer, “mstar: Testing special relativity in space using high performance optical frequency references” in 2015 Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium & the European Frequency and Time Forum (IEEE, 2015), pp. 47–50.

Danzmann, K.

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Dietiker, P.

Dittus, H.

A. M. Nobili, G. L. Comandi, S. Doravari, D. Bramanti, R. Kumar, F. Maccarrone, E. Polacco, S. G. Turyshev, M. Shao, J. Lipa, H. Dittus, C. Laemmerzhal, A. Peters, J. Mueller, C. Unnikrishnan, Ian. Roxburgh, A. Brillet, C. Marchal, J. Luo, J. Ha, V. Milyukov, V. Iafolla, D. Lucchesi, P. Tortora, P. Bernardis, F. Palmonari, S. Focardi, D. Zanello, S. Monaco, G. Mengali, L. Anselmo, L. Iorio, and Z. Knezevic, “’Galileo Galilei’(gg) a small satellite to test the equivalence principle of Galileo, Newton and Einstein,” Exp. Astron. 23, 689–710 (2009).
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T. Schuldt, S. Saraf, A. Stochino, K. Döringshoff, S. Buchman, G. D. Cutler, J. Lipa, S. Tan, J. Hanson, B. Jaroux, S. Herrmann, C. Læmmerzahl, A. Peters, A. Alfauwaz, A. Alhussien, B. Alsuwaidan, A. Turki, H. Dittus, U. Johann, S. Worden, and R. Byer, “mstar: Testing special relativity in space using high performance optical frequency references” in 2015 Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium & the European Frequency and Time Forum (IEEE, 2015), pp. 47–50.

Domenico, G. Di

E. Zavattini, G. Zavattini, G. Ruoso, G. Raiteri, E. Polacco, E. Milotti, V. Lozza, M. Karuza, U. Gastaldi, G. Di Domenico, F. Valle, R. Cimino, S. Carusotto, G. Cantatore, and M. Bregant, “New PVLAS results and limits on magnetically induced optical rotation and ellipticity in vacuum,” Phys. Rev. D 77, 032006 (2008).
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A. M. Nobili, G. L. Comandi, S. Doravari, D. Bramanti, R. Kumar, F. Maccarrone, E. Polacco, S. G. Turyshev, M. Shao, J. Lipa, H. Dittus, C. Laemmerzhal, A. Peters, J. Mueller, C. Unnikrishnan, Ian. Roxburgh, A. Brillet, C. Marchal, J. Luo, J. Ha, V. Milyukov, V. Iafolla, D. Lucchesi, P. Tortora, P. Bernardis, F. Palmonari, S. Focardi, D. Zanello, S. Monaco, G. Mengali, L. Anselmo, L. Iorio, and Z. Knezevic, “’Galileo Galilei’(gg) a small satellite to test the equivalence principle of Galileo, Newton and Einstein,” Exp. Astron. 23, 689–710 (2009).
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T. Schuldt, S. Saraf, A. Stochino, K. Döringshoff, S. Buchman, G. D. Cutler, J. Lipa, S. Tan, J. Hanson, B. Jaroux, S. Herrmann, C. Læmmerzahl, A. Peters, A. Alfauwaz, A. Alhussien, B. Alsuwaidan, A. Turki, H. Dittus, U. Johann, S. Worden, and R. Byer, “mstar: Testing special relativity in space using high performance optical frequency references” in 2015 Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium & the European Frequency and Time Forum (IEEE, 2015), pp. 47–50.

Drever, R.

R. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
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Drouin, B.J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Dubé, P.

Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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A. M. Nobili, G. L. Comandi, S. Doravari, D. Bramanti, R. Kumar, F. Maccarrone, E. Polacco, S. G. Turyshev, M. Shao, J. Lipa, H. Dittus, C. Laemmerzhal, A. Peters, J. Mueller, C. Unnikrishnan, Ian. Roxburgh, A. Brillet, C. Marchal, J. Luo, J. Ha, V. Milyukov, V. Iafolla, D. Lucchesi, P. Tortora, P. Bernardis, F. Palmonari, S. Focardi, D. Zanello, S. Monaco, G. Mengali, L. Anselmo, L. Iorio, and Z. Knezevic, “’Galileo Galilei’(gg) a small satellite to test the equivalence principle of Galileo, Newton and Einstein,” Exp. Astron. 23, 689–710 (2009).
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Ford, G.

R. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
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Gamache, R.R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Gastaldi, U.

E. Zavattini, G. Zavattini, G. Ruoso, G. Raiteri, E. Polacco, E. Milotti, V. Lozza, M. Karuza, U. Gastaldi, G. Di Domenico, F. Valle, R. Cimino, S. Carusotto, G. Cantatore, and M. Bregant, “New PVLAS results and limits on magnetically induced optical rotation and ellipticity in vacuum,” Phys. Rev. D 77, 032006 (2008).
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Gilbert, S.

Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Grebing, C.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mhz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6, 687–692 (2012).
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Ha, J.

A. M. Nobili, G. L. Comandi, S. Doravari, D. Bramanti, R. Kumar, F. Maccarrone, E. Polacco, S. G. Turyshev, M. Shao, J. Lipa, H. Dittus, C. Laemmerzhal, A. Peters, J. Mueller, C. Unnikrishnan, Ian. Roxburgh, A. Brillet, C. Marchal, J. Luo, J. Ha, V. Milyukov, V. Iafolla, D. Lucchesi, P. Tortora, P. Bernardis, F. Palmonari, S. Focardi, D. Zanello, S. Monaco, G. Mengali, L. Anselmo, L. Iorio, and Z. Knezevic, “’Galileo Galilei’(gg) a small satellite to test the equivalence principle of Galileo, Newton and Einstein,” Exp. Astron. 23, 689–710 (2009).
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Hagemann, C.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mhz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6, 687–692 (2012).
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Hall, J. L.

Halonen, L.

Hanna, D.

O. Svelto and D. Hanna, Principles of lasers, 4th ed. (Plenum Press, 1998).
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Hanson, J.

T. Schuldt, S. Saraf, A. Stochino, K. Döringshoff, S. Buchman, G. D. Cutler, J. Lipa, S. Tan, J. Hanson, B. Jaroux, S. Herrmann, C. Læmmerzahl, A. Peters, A. Alfauwaz, A. Alhussien, B. Alsuwaidan, A. Turki, H. Dittus, U. Johann, S. Worden, and R. Byer, “mstar: Testing special relativity in space using high performance optical frequency references” in 2015 Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium & the European Frequency and Time Forum (IEEE, 2015), pp. 47–50.

Harrison, J.J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Hartmann, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Optics, 4th ed. (Addison-Wesley, 2002).

Herrmann, S.

T. Schuldt, S. Saraf, A. Stochino, K. Döringshoff, S. Buchman, G. D. Cutler, J. Lipa, S. Tan, J. Hanson, B. Jaroux, S. Herrmann, C. Læmmerzahl, A. Peters, A. Alfauwaz, A. Alhussien, B. Alsuwaidan, A. Turki, H. Dittus, U. Johann, S. Worden, and R. Byer, “mstar: Testing special relativity in space using high performance optical frequency references” in 2015 Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium & the European Frequency and Time Forum (IEEE, 2015), pp. 47–50.

Hill, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Hodges, J.

D. Long, A. Fleisher, S. Wójtewicz, and J. Hodges, “Quantum-noise-limited cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 115, 149–153 (2014).
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Hodges, J.T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Hough, J.

R. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
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Iafolla, V.

A. M. Nobili, G. L. Comandi, S. Doravari, D. Bramanti, R. Kumar, F. Maccarrone, E. Polacco, S. G. Turyshev, M. Shao, J. Lipa, H. Dittus, C. Laemmerzhal, A. Peters, J. Mueller, C. Unnikrishnan, Ian. Roxburgh, A. Brillet, C. Marchal, J. Luo, J. Ha, V. Milyukov, V. Iafolla, D. Lucchesi, P. Tortora, P. Bernardis, F. Palmonari, S. Focardi, D. Zanello, S. Monaco, G. Mengali, L. Anselmo, L. Iorio, and Z. Knezevic, “’Galileo Galilei’(gg) a small satellite to test the equivalence principle of Galileo, Newton and Einstein,” Exp. Astron. 23, 689–710 (2009).
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Iorio, L.

A. M. Nobili, G. L. Comandi, S. Doravari, D. Bramanti, R. Kumar, F. Maccarrone, E. Polacco, S. G. Turyshev, M. Shao, J. Lipa, H. Dittus, C. Laemmerzhal, A. Peters, J. Mueller, C. Unnikrishnan, Ian. Roxburgh, A. Brillet, C. Marchal, J. Luo, J. Ha, V. Milyukov, V. Iafolla, D. Lucchesi, P. Tortora, P. Bernardis, F. Palmonari, S. Focardi, D. Zanello, S. Monaco, G. Mengali, L. Anselmo, L. Iorio, and Z. Knezevic, “’Galileo Galilei’(gg) a small satellite to test the equivalence principle of Galileo, Newton and Einstein,” Exp. Astron. 23, 689–710 (2009).
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Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Jaroux, B.

T. Schuldt, S. Saraf, A. Stochino, K. Döringshoff, S. Buchman, G. D. Cutler, J. Lipa, S. Tan, J. Hanson, B. Jaroux, S. Herrmann, C. Læmmerzahl, A. Peters, A. Alfauwaz, A. Alhussien, B. Alsuwaidan, A. Turki, H. Dittus, U. Johann, S. Worden, and R. Byer, “mstar: Testing special relativity in space using high performance optical frequency references” in 2015 Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium & the European Frequency and Time Forum (IEEE, 2015), pp. 47–50.

Johann, U.

T. Schuldt, S. Saraf, A. Stochino, K. Döringshoff, S. Buchman, G. D. Cutler, J. Lipa, S. Tan, J. Hanson, B. Jaroux, S. Herrmann, C. Læmmerzahl, A. Peters, A. Alfauwaz, A. Alhussien, B. Alsuwaidan, A. Turki, H. Dittus, U. Johann, S. Worden, and R. Byer, “mstar: Testing special relativity in space using high performance optical frequency references” in 2015 Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium & the European Frequency and Time Forum (IEEE, 2015), pp. 47–50.

Jolly, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Karuza, M.

E. Zavattini, G. Zavattini, G. Ruoso, G. Raiteri, E. Polacco, E. Milotti, V. Lozza, M. Karuza, U. Gastaldi, G. Di Domenico, F. Valle, R. Cimino, S. Carusotto, G. Cantatore, and M. Bregant, “New PVLAS results and limits on magnetically induced optical rotation and ellipticity in vacuum,” Phys. Rev. D 77, 032006 (2008).
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Kessler, T.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mhz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6, 687–692 (2012).
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Knezevic, Z.

A. M. Nobili, G. L. Comandi, S. Doravari, D. Bramanti, R. Kumar, F. Maccarrone, E. Polacco, S. G. Turyshev, M. Shao, J. Lipa, H. Dittus, C. Laemmerzhal, A. Peters, J. Mueller, C. Unnikrishnan, Ian. Roxburgh, A. Brillet, C. Marchal, J. Luo, J. Ha, V. Milyukov, V. Iafolla, D. Lucchesi, P. Tortora, P. Bernardis, F. Palmonari, S. Focardi, D. Zanello, S. Monaco, G. Mengali, L. Anselmo, L. Iorio, and Z. Knezevic, “’Galileo Galilei’(gg) a small satellite to test the equivalence principle of Galileo, Newton and Einstein,” Exp. Astron. 23, 689–710 (2009).
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Kowalski, F.

R. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
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Krainak, M. A.

Kumar, R.

A. M. Nobili, G. L. Comandi, S. Doravari, D. Bramanti, R. Kumar, F. Maccarrone, E. Polacco, S. G. Turyshev, M. Shao, J. Lipa, H. Dittus, C. Laemmerzhal, A. Peters, J. Mueller, C. Unnikrishnan, Ian. Roxburgh, A. Brillet, C. Marchal, J. Luo, J. Ha, V. Milyukov, V. Iafolla, D. Lucchesi, P. Tortora, P. Bernardis, F. Palmonari, S. Focardi, D. Zanello, S. Monaco, G. Mengali, L. Anselmo, L. Iorio, and Z. Knezevic, “’Galileo Galilei’(gg) a small satellite to test the equivalence principle of Galileo, Newton and Einstein,” Exp. Astron. 23, 689–710 (2009).
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Læmmerzahl, C.

T. Schuldt, S. Saraf, A. Stochino, K. Döringshoff, S. Buchman, G. D. Cutler, J. Lipa, S. Tan, J. Hanson, B. Jaroux, S. Herrmann, C. Læmmerzahl, A. Peters, A. Alfauwaz, A. Alhussien, B. Alsuwaidan, A. Turki, H. Dittus, U. Johann, S. Worden, and R. Byer, “mstar: Testing special relativity in space using high performance optical frequency references” in 2015 Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium & the European Frequency and Time Forum (IEEE, 2015), pp. 47–50.

Laemmerzhal, C.

A. M. Nobili, G. L. Comandi, S. Doravari, D. Bramanti, R. Kumar, F. Maccarrone, E. Polacco, S. G. Turyshev, M. Shao, J. Lipa, H. Dittus, C. Laemmerzhal, A. Peters, J. Mueller, C. Unnikrishnan, Ian. Roxburgh, A. Brillet, C. Marchal, J. Luo, J. Ha, V. Milyukov, V. Iafolla, D. Lucchesi, P. Tortora, P. Bernardis, F. Palmonari, S. Focardi, D. Zanello, S. Monaco, G. Mengali, L. Anselmo, L. Iorio, and Z. Knezevic, “’Galileo Galilei’(gg) a small satellite to test the equivalence principle of Galileo, Newton and Einstein,” Exp. Astron. 23, 689–710 (2009).
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Lamouroux, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Lantta, T.

Legero, T.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mhz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6, 687–692 (2012).
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Lehmann, K. K.

K. K. Lehmann, Dispersion and cavity-ringdown spectroscopy (American Chemical Society, 1999), Chap. 8.

Li, G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Lipa, J.

S. Saraf, P. Berceau, A. Stochino, R. Byer, and J. Lipa, “Molecular frequency reference at 1.56 µ m using a 12C16O overtone transition with the noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy method,” Opt. Lett. 41, 2189–2192 (2016).
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A. M. Nobili, G. L. Comandi, S. Doravari, D. Bramanti, R. Kumar, F. Maccarrone, E. Polacco, S. G. Turyshev, M. Shao, J. Lipa, H. Dittus, C. Laemmerzhal, A. Peters, J. Mueller, C. Unnikrishnan, Ian. Roxburgh, A. Brillet, C. Marchal, J. Luo, J. Ha, V. Milyukov, V. Iafolla, D. Lucchesi, P. Tortora, P. Bernardis, F. Palmonari, S. Focardi, D. Zanello, S. Monaco, G. Mengali, L. Anselmo, L. Iorio, and Z. Knezevic, “’Galileo Galilei’(gg) a small satellite to test the equivalence principle of Galileo, Newton and Einstein,” Exp. Astron. 23, 689–710 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Schuldt, S. Saraf, A. Stochino, K. Döringshoff, S. Buchman, G. D. Cutler, J. Lipa, S. Tan, J. Hanson, B. Jaroux, S. Herrmann, C. Læmmerzahl, A. Peters, A. Alfauwaz, A. Alhussien, B. Alsuwaidan, A. Turki, H. Dittus, U. Johann, S. Worden, and R. Byer, “mstar: Testing special relativity in space using high performance optical frequency references” in 2015 Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium & the European Frequency and Time Forum (IEEE, 2015), pp. 47–50.

Lipa, J. A.

Long, D.

D. Long, A. Fleisher, S. Wójtewicz, and J. Hodges, “Quantum-noise-limited cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 115, 149–153 (2014).
[Crossref]

Long, D.A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Loock, H.-P.

G. Gagliardi and H.-P. Loock, Cavity-enhanced spectroscopy and sensing (Springer, 2014).
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Lozza, V.

E. Zavattini, G. Zavattini, G. Ruoso, G. Raiteri, E. Polacco, E. Milotti, V. Lozza, M. Karuza, U. Gastaldi, G. Di Domenico, F. Valle, R. Cimino, S. Carusotto, G. Cantatore, and M. Bregant, “New PVLAS results and limits on magnetically induced optical rotation and ellipticity in vacuum,” Phys. Rev. D 77, 032006 (2008).
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Lucchesi, D.

A. M. Nobili, G. L. Comandi, S. Doravari, D. Bramanti, R. Kumar, F. Maccarrone, E. Polacco, S. G. Turyshev, M. Shao, J. Lipa, H. Dittus, C. Laemmerzhal, A. Peters, J. Mueller, C. Unnikrishnan, Ian. Roxburgh, A. Brillet, C. Marchal, J. Luo, J. Ha, V. Milyukov, V. Iafolla, D. Lucchesi, P. Tortora, P. Bernardis, F. Palmonari, S. Focardi, D. Zanello, S. Monaco, G. Mengali, L. Anselmo, L. Iorio, and Z. Knezevic, “’Galileo Galilei’(gg) a small satellite to test the equivalence principle of Galileo, Newton and Einstein,” Exp. Astron. 23, 689–710 (2009).
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Luo, J.

A. M. Nobili, G. L. Comandi, S. Doravari, D. Bramanti, R. Kumar, F. Maccarrone, E. Polacco, S. G. Turyshev, M. Shao, J. Lipa, H. Dittus, C. Laemmerzhal, A. Peters, J. Mueller, C. Unnikrishnan, Ian. Roxburgh, A. Brillet, C. Marchal, J. Luo, J. Ha, V. Milyukov, V. Iafolla, D. Lucchesi, P. Tortora, P. Bernardis, F. Palmonari, S. Focardi, D. Zanello, S. Monaco, G. Mengali, L. Anselmo, L. Iorio, and Z. Knezevic, “’Galileo Galilei’(gg) a small satellite to test the equivalence principle of Galileo, Newton and Einstein,” Exp. Astron. 23, 689–710 (2009).
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Maccarrone, F.

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Simplified layout of the experimental setup: PSL: pre-stabilized laser source; AOM, acousto- optic modulator; EOM, electro-optic modulator; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; FR, Faraday Rotator; PID, servo control stages; fPDH, PDH modulation frequency; fFSR, free spectral range frequency; PD1, reflection photodiode; PD2, input power photodiode; PD3, transmission photodiode; ΔΦ, phase shifter; LPF, low-pass filter; BPF, band- pass filter; [×], double balanced mixer; [+], RF combiner.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Optical power transmitted by the high finesse cavity as the FSR sideband frequency Ω2 is scanned across the resonance. The experimental data (orange circles, left axis) is fitted to Eq. (5) (blue line) yielding the finesse. The dispersion signal obtained in reflection is also plotted with the green dashed line (right axis). At the top of the figure we show the residuals of the fit in grey.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Histogram with associated Gaussian fit for finesse values measured by LRS.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Doppler broadened absorption profile for CO molecules at low pressure, as a function of laser relative frequency. In the CRDS technique (blue), the carrier (big arrow, at frequency fCRDS) is resonant with the gas transition, while in the LRS technique (orange), one of the sidebands (small arrow at frequency fLRSfFSR) is resonant with the gas transition.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Relative transmitted power observed in the LRS scanning configuration for several CO pressures between 0 and 28.4 mTorr. Frequencies are plotted relative to the absorption maximum.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Linear absorption coefficient of CO as a function of the pressure. Comparison of the CRDS (grey circles) and the LRS (blue squares) methods. The two linear fits to the data (CRDS: grey dash line, LRS: blue line) give compatible values of the absorption coefficient of CO. The uncertainty is given at 1σ confidence level. (a) Method 1: Direct evaluation from Eq. (10); (b) Method 2: Evaluation from maximum value of scans.

Equations (19)

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E i ( t ) = E 0 e i ( ω t + β 1 sin Ω 1 t + β 2 sin Ω 2 t ) = E 0 e i ω t N = + J N ( β 1 ) e i N Ω 1 t M = + J M ( β 2 ) e i M Ω 2 t
t FP ( ω ) = ( 1 R ) e i ω L / c 1 R e 2 i ω L / c
I t = A E t E t * = A ( t FP E i ) ( t FP E i ) *
I t = + J 0 ( β 1 ) J 0 ( β 2 ) Re [ t FP ( ω ) t FP * ( ω + Ω 2 ) t FP * ( ω ) t FP ( ω Ω 2 ) ] cos ( Ω 2 t ) + J 0 ( β 1 ) J 0 ( β 2 ) Im [ t FP ( ω ) t FP * ( ω + Ω 2 ) + t FP * ( ω ) t FP ( ω Ω 2 ) ] sin ( Ω 2 t ) +
I t = A E 0 2 T 0 , FP J 0 2 ( β 1 ) [ J 0 2 ( β 2 ) + M = 1 + 2 J M 2 ( β 2 ) 1 + ( 2 π ) 2 sin 2 ( M Ω 2 L c ) ] = T 0 , FP P c + M = 1 + 2 T 0 , FP P s , M 1 + ( 2 π ) 2 sin 2 ( M Ω 2 2 f FSR )
P c = A E 0 2 J 0 2 ( β 1 ) J 0 2 ( β 2 ) , P s , M = A E 0 2 J 0 2 ( β 1 ) J M 2 ( β 2 )
t gas , FP = T e i θ e α 0 L / 2 1 R e 2 i θ e α 0 L
n ( ω c ) = 1 + c π 0 α 0 ( P ) exp ( [ ( 2 ln 2 Δ ν D ) ( ω ω 0 ) ] 2 ) ω 2 ω c 2 d ω
| t gas , FP | 2 = T 2 e α 0 L ( 1 R e α 0 L ) 2 + 4 R sin 2 ( θ ) e α 0 L
I t = T 0 , FP P c + M = 2 + 2 T 0 , FP P s , M 1 + ( 2 0 π ) 2 sin 2 ( M Ω 2 2 f FSR ) + T 0 , FP P s , 1 1 + ( 2 0 π ) 2 sin 2 ( Ω 2 2 f FSR ) + T 0 , FP ( 1 R ) 2 e α 0 L ( 1 R e α 0 L ) 2 + 4 R sin 2 ( θ ) e α 0 L
s ( P , I ) = ( 10 mTorr P ) 2 I I 0 s | I 0 , P 0
η 1 = 1 / 1 + s 1 , sb
η 2 = J 1 2 ( β 2 ) / 1 + s 1 , sb ϵ J 1 2 ( β 2 ) / 1 + s 1 , sb + ϵ J 0 2 ( β 2 ) / 1 + s c + J 1 2 ( β 2 ) / 1 + s 1 , sb
α 0 = η α M = J 1 2 ( β 2 ) / 1 + s 1 , sb ϵ J 0 2 ( β 2 ) 1 + s 1 , sb 1 + s c + ( ϵ + 1 ) J 1 2 ( β 2 ) α M
I g . max = T 0 , FP [ J 1 2 ( β 2 ) ( 1 R ) 2 e α 0 L ( 1 R e α 0 L ) 2 + J 1 2 ( β 2 ) + M = 2 2 J M 2 ( β 2 ) ]
I 0 , max = T 0 , FP M = 1 2 J M 2 ( β 2 )
V 0 , max V g , max V 0 , max = I 0 , max I g , max I 0 , max
α 0 = η 1 R 1 + R [ ( 1 c 1 ( 1 V g , max V 0 , max ) ) 1 2 1 ] 2 L
α LRS , method 1 * = 2.19 ( 07 ) × 10 8 / cm mTorr 1 α LRS , method 2 * = 2.18 ( 11 ) × 10 8 / cm mTorr 1 α CRDS * = 2.21 ( 06 ) × 10 8 / cm mTorr 1

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