Abstract

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy as well as all optical pump-probe techniques with ultrashort pulses relies on the exact knowledge of an optical delay between related laser pulses. Classical realizations of the measurement principle vary the optical path length for one of the pulses by mechanical translation of optical components. Most commonly, only an indirect measurement of the translation is carried out, which introduces inaccuracies due to imprecise mechanics or harsh environment. We present a comprehensive study on the effect of delay inaccuracies on the quality of terahertz spectra acquired with time-domain spectroscopy systems and present an interferometric technique to directly acquire the optical delay simultaneously to the terahertz measurement data. This measurement principle enables high-precision terahertz spectroscopy even in harsh environment with non-systematic disruptions.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (2)

S. Krimi, J. Klier, J. Jonuscheit, G. von Freymann, R. Urbansky, and R. Beigang, “Highly accurate thickness measurement of multi-layered automotive paints using terahertz technology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 021105 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Jahn, S. Lippert, M. Bisi, L. Oberto, J. C. Balzer, and M. Koch, “On the Influence of Delay Line Uncertainty in THz Time-Domain Spectroscopy,” J. Infrared Millimeter Terahertz Waves 37(6), 605–613 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

A. Soltani, T. Probst, S. F. Busch, M. Schwerdtfeger, E. Castro-Camus, and M. Koch, “Error from delay drift in terahertz attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 35(5), 468–477 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Withayachumnankul and M. Naftaly, “Fundamentals of measurement in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Infrared Millimeter Terahertz Waves 35(8), 610–637 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

M. Herrmann, F. Platte, K. Nalpantidis, R. Beigang, and H. M. Heise, “Combination of Kramers-Kronig transform and time-domain methods for the determination of optical constants in THz spectroscopy,” Vibrational Spectroscopy 60107–112 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

F. Ellrich, T. Weinland, D. Molter, J. Jonuscheit, and R. Beigang, “Compact fiber-coupled terahertz spectroscopy system pumped at 800 nm wavelength,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053102 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2005 (1)

1995 (1)

V. Greco, G. Molesini, and F. Quercioli, “Accurate polarization interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66(7), 3729–3734 (1995).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

1989 (2)

Abbott, D.

Araki, T.

Babikov, Y.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Balzer, J. C.

D. Jahn, S. Lippert, M. Bisi, L. Oberto, J. C. Balzer, and M. Koch, “On the Influence of Delay Line Uncertainty in THz Time-Domain Spectroscopy,” J. Infrared Millimeter Terahertz Waves 37(6), 605–613 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Rehn, D. Jahn, J. C. Balzer, and M. Koch, “Periodic Sampling Errors in THz Measurements,” in Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz waves (IRMMW-THz), 2016 41st International Conference on (IEEE, 2016).

Barbe, A.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Beigang, R.

S. Krimi, J. Klier, J. Jonuscheit, G. von Freymann, R. Urbansky, and R. Beigang, “Highly accurate thickness measurement of multi-layered automotive paints using terahertz technology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 021105 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Herrmann, F. Platte, K. Nalpantidis, R. Beigang, and H. M. Heise, “Combination of Kramers-Kronig transform and time-domain methods for the determination of optical constants in THz spectroscopy,” Vibrational Spectroscopy 60107–112 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Ellrich, T. Weinland, D. Molter, J. Jonuscheit, and R. Beigang, “Compact fiber-coupled terahertz spectroscopy system pumped at 800 nm wavelength,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053102 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Molter, F. Ellrich, T. Weinland, S. George, M. Goiran, F. Keilmann, R. Beigang, and J. Léotin, “High-speed terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of cyclotron resonance in pulsed magnetic field,” Opt. Express 1826163–26168 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernath, P.F.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bisi, M.

D. Jahn, S. Lippert, M. Bisi, L. Oberto, J. C. Balzer, and M. Koch, “On the Influence of Delay Line Uncertainty in THz Time-Domain Spectroscopy,” J. Infrared Millimeter Terahertz Waves 37(6), 605–613 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bizzocchi, L.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boudon, V.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brown, L.R.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Busch, S. F.

A. Soltani, T. Probst, S. F. Busch, M. Schwerdtfeger, E. Castro-Camus, and M. Koch, “Error from delay drift in terahertz attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 35(5), 468–477 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Reitemeier, S. F. Busch, T. Probst, M. Scheller, and M. Koch, “Low-cost delay line for fast terahertz imaging,” in Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), 2013 38th International Conference on (IEEE, 2013).

Campargue, A.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Castro-Camus, E.

A. Soltani, T. Probst, S. F. Busch, M. Schwerdtfeger, E. Castro-Camus, and M. Koch, “Error from delay drift in terahertz attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 35(5), 468–477 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chai, L.

Chance, K.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chris Benner, D.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cohen, E.A.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Coudert, L.H.

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F. Ellrich, T. Weinland, D. Molter, J. Jonuscheit, and R. Beigang, “Compact fiber-coupled terahertz spectroscopy system pumped at 800 nm wavelength,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053102 (2011).
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D. Molter, F. Ellrich, T. Weinland, S. George, M. Goiran, F. Keilmann, R. Beigang, and J. Léotin, “High-speed terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of cyclotron resonance in pulsed magnetic field,” Opt. Express 1826163–26168 (2010).
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Fang, F.

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Fayt, A.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Jolly, A.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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D. Jahn, S. Lippert, M. Bisi, L. Oberto, J. C. Balzer, and M. Koch, “On the Influence of Delay Line Uncertainty in THz Time-Domain Spectroscopy,” J. Infrared Millimeter Terahertz Waves 37(6), 605–613 (2016).
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B. Reitemeier, S. F. Busch, T. Probst, M. Scheller, and M. Koch, “Low-cost delay line for fast terahertz imaging,” in Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), 2013 38th International Conference on (IEEE, 2013).

Krimi, S.

S. Krimi, J. Klier, J. Jonuscheit, G. von Freymann, R. Urbansky, and R. Beigang, “Highly accurate thickness measurement of multi-layered automotive paints using terahertz technology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 021105 (2016).
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Lamouroux, J.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Li, G.

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Lin, H.

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D. Jahn, S. Lippert, M. Bisi, L. Oberto, J. C. Balzer, and M. Koch, “On the Influence of Delay Line Uncertainty in THz Time-Domain Spectroscopy,” J. Infrared Millimeter Terahertz Waves 37(6), 605–613 (2016).
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Long, D.A.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Mackie, C.J.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Massie, S.T.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Merbold, H.

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Mikhailenko, S.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Molesini, G.

V. Greco, G. Molesini, and F. Quercioli, “Accurate polarization interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66(7), 3729–3734 (1995).
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Molter, D.

F. Ellrich, T. Weinland, D. Molter, J. Jonuscheit, and R. Beigang, “Compact fiber-coupled terahertz spectroscopy system pumped at 800 nm wavelength,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053102 (2011).
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D. Molter, F. Ellrich, T. Weinland, S. George, M. Goiran, F. Keilmann, R. Beigang, and J. Léotin, “High-speed terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of cyclotron resonance in pulsed magnetic field,” Opt. Express 1826163–26168 (2010).
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Müller, H.S.P.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Naftaly, M.

W. Withayachumnankul and M. Naftaly, “Fundamentals of measurement in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Infrared Millimeter Terahertz Waves 35(8), 610–637 (2014).
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Nalpantidis, K.

M. Herrmann, F. Platte, K. Nalpantidis, R. Beigang, and H. M. Heise, “Combination of Kramers-Kronig transform and time-domain methods for the determination of optical constants in THz spectroscopy,” Vibrational Spectroscopy 60107–112 (2012).
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Naumenko, O.V.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Nikitin, A.V.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Oberto, L.

D. Jahn, S. Lippert, M. Bisi, L. Oberto, J. C. Balzer, and M. Koch, “On the Influence of Delay Line Uncertainty in THz Time-Domain Spectroscopy,” J. Infrared Millimeter Terahertz Waves 37(6), 605–613 (2016).
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Orphal, J.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Perevalov, V.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Perrin, A.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Platte, F.

M. Herrmann, F. Platte, K. Nalpantidis, R. Beigang, and H. M. Heise, “Combination of Kramers-Kronig transform and time-domain methods for the determination of optical constants in THz spectroscopy,” Vibrational Spectroscopy 60107–112 (2012).
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Polovtseva, E.R.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Probst, T.

A. Soltani, T. Probst, S. F. Busch, M. Schwerdtfeger, E. Castro-Camus, and M. Koch, “Error from delay drift in terahertz attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 35(5), 468–477 (2014).
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B. Reitemeier, S. F. Busch, T. Probst, M. Scheller, and M. Koch, “Low-cost delay line for fast terahertz imaging,” in Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), 2013 38th International Conference on (IEEE, 2013).

Quercioli, F.

V. Greco, G. Molesini, and F. Quercioli, “Accurate polarization interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66(7), 3729–3734 (1995).
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Rehn, A.

A. Rehn, D. Jahn, J. C. Balzer, and M. Koch, “Periodic Sampling Errors in THz Measurements,” in Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz waves (IRMMW-THz), 2016 41st International Conference on (IEEE, 2016).

Reitemeier, B.

B. Reitemeier, S. F. Busch, T. Probst, M. Scheller, and M. Koch, “Low-cost delay line for fast terahertz imaging,” in Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), 2013 38th International Conference on (IEEE, 2013).

Richard, C.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rothman, L.S.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sawanaka, K.-i.

Scheller, M.

B. Reitemeier, S. F. Busch, T. Probst, M. Scheller, and M. Koch, “Low-cost delay line for fast terahertz imaging,” in Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), 2013 38th International Conference on (IEEE, 2013).

Schwerdtfeger, M.

A. Soltani, T. Probst, S. F. Busch, M. Schwerdtfeger, E. Castro-Camus, and M. Koch, “Error from delay drift in terahertz attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 35(5), 468–477 (2014).
[Crossref]

Smith, M.A.H.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Soltani, A.

A. Soltani, T. Probst, S. F. Busch, M. Schwerdtfeger, E. Castro-Camus, and M. Koch, “Error from delay drift in terahertz attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 35(5), 468–477 (2014).
[Crossref]

Starikova, E.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sung, K.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Tashkun, S.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Tennyson, J.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Toon, G.C.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Tyuterev, Vl.G.

L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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S. Krimi, J. Klier, J. Jonuscheit, G. von Freymann, R. Urbansky, and R. Beigang, “Highly accurate thickness measurement of multi-layered automotive paints using terahertz technology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 021105 (2016).
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H. Merbold, D. J. H. C. Maas, and J. L. M. van Mechelen, “Multiparameter sensing of paper sheets using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy: Caliper, fiber orientation, moisture, and the role of spatial inhomogeneity,” in SENSORS, 2016 IEEE (IEEE, 2016) pp. 1–3.
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S. Krimi, J. Klier, J. Jonuscheit, G. von Freymann, R. Urbansky, and R. Beigang, “Highly accurate thickness measurement of multi-layered automotive paints using terahertz technology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 021105 (2016).
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L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L.R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E.A. Cohen, L.H. Coudert, V.M. Devi, B.J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R.R. Gamache, J.J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J.T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R.J. Le Roy, G. Li, D.A. Long, O.M. Lyulin, C.J. Mackie, S.T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H.S.P. Müller, O.V. Naumenko, A.V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E.R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M.A.H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G.C. Toon, Vl.G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantitatve Spectroscopy Radiative Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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F. Ellrich, T. Weinland, D. Molter, J. Jonuscheit, and R. Beigang, “Compact fiber-coupled terahertz spectroscopy system pumped at 800 nm wavelength,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 053102 (2011).
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D. Molter, F. Ellrich, T. Weinland, S. George, M. Goiran, F. Keilmann, R. Beigang, and J. Léotin, “High-speed terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of cyclotron resonance in pulsed magnetic field,” Opt. Express 1826163–26168 (2010).
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W. Withayachumnankul and M. Naftaly, “Fundamentals of measurement in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Infrared Millimeter Terahertz Waves 35(8), 610–637 (2014).
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W. Withayachumnankul, B. M. Fischer, H. Lin, and D. Abbott, “Uncertainty in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy measurement,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(6), 1059–1072 (2008).
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S. Krimi, J. Klier, J. Jonuscheit, G. von Freymann, R. Urbansky, and R. Beigang, “Highly accurate thickness measurement of multi-layered automotive paints using terahertz technology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 021105 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Infrared Millimeter Terahertz Waves (2)

W. Withayachumnankul and M. Naftaly, “Fundamentals of measurement in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Infrared Millimeter Terahertz Waves 35(8), 610–637 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Jahn, S. Lippert, M. Bisi, L. Oberto, J. C. Balzer, and M. Koch, “On the Influence of Delay Line Uncertainty in THz Time-Domain Spectroscopy,” J. Infrared Millimeter Terahertz Waves 37(6), 605–613 (2016).
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A. Soltani, T. Probst, S. F. Busch, M. Schwerdtfeger, E. Castro-Camus, and M. Koch, “Error from delay drift in terahertz attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 35(5), 468–477 (2014).
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[Crossref]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme of the simulation to determine the effect of delay distortion on terahertz time-domain spectra. Starting from HITRAN data, a water vapor absorption spectrum is calculated taking into account the optical path length, temperature, relative humidity, pressure and partial gas pressure. Kramers-Kronig transformations are used to calculate the complex refractive index. The information of the complex index of refraction is added to the simulated spectrum without absorption features (obtained from a pulse model in the time-domain and following Fourier transformation) to retrieve a perfect spectrum with water vapor absorption lines. Subsequent inverse fast Fourier transformation provides the undistorted pulse with absorption features. Its linear time base is superimposed with a distortion and the resulting distorted pulse is transfered to the frequency domain by fast Fourier transform.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulation result of a high frequency delay deviation typical for motor-driven linear axes. The upper part of this figure shows the assumed deviation, which consists of two frequency components (periodicities of 6.7 ps and 0.1 ps). The lower part shows the influence of this deviation on the terahertz spectrum. Besides the asymmetry of the water vapor absorption lines, a very prominent ghost spectrum around 10 THz appears, whose location is related to the periodicity in the time domain.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulation results of low frequency delay deviations typical for voice-coil driven delay units. Different amplitudes lead to different shifts, whereas the phase of the deviation determines the direction of frequency shift and asymmetry. The spectra are vertically shifted for clarity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup. A helium-neon laser driven Mach-Zehnder interferometer (green beam path) is integrated into a Ti:Sapphire laser pumped (red beam path) terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system. Both systems share one delay section, in which several different delay lines can be investigated without changing adjustment. This section is only schematically depicted and will be described in more detail in subsection 3.3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Delay section of the experimental setup. To evaluate the influence of different delay units, several of them were set up in series. Two stepper-motor controlled linear axes with different spindles (leadscrew and ballscrew version), one linear axis with an attached servo motor (Graupner HBS860MG) as well as a voice-coil driven device were used in the experiments.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Delay deviation in dependence on velocity for two different delay lines based on two types of linear stages. Even though both have characteristic resonances, the leadscrew axis shows orders of magnitude higher deviations. The periodicity of 6.7 ps corresponds to the spindle pitch of 1 mm in both cases.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Terahertz spectra acquired with the two types of linear axes at different scan velocities. In general, the ballscrew version leads to a better quality of the spectrum, which can be seen in a less pronounced ghost spectrum and a better line shape. Corresponding to Fig. 6 and as expected from theory, the ghost spectrum is stronger when scanning on a resonance of the deviation characteristic. For the leadscrew type, the spectrum scanned at a resonance speed of 18 ps/s shows the most impact.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Delay deviation and deviation span of a voice-coil driven delay line. The internal sensor shows a delay deviation, which is dependent on scan direction, amplitude and frequency. In the upper plot, three examples are shown for maximum amplitude and different frequencies. The deviation span is shown in the lower plot and reveals several resonances.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Improvement in spectral quality when using the lookup-table method. Correction traces are recorded in advance in a separate interferometry setup and transferred onto the time-domain spectroscopy system, in which the delay unit was integrated. Systematic errors can be corrected with this method. Spectra are vertically shifted for clarity.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Terahertz spectrum measured with a servo motor driven delay unit using the interferometry-aided terahertz time-domain spectroscopy method in comparison to a simulated spectrum (shifted vertically). Even though, the servo motor provides no position feedback, nor a constant velocity during movement, the absorption features are measured well up to 5 THz. The scanned time-domain span was 200 ps and the acquisition time was about 10 s.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Comparison of the influence of mechanical shock onto a fiber-coupled terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system without and with interferometrically aided delay lines. For evaluation, the 1.41 THz water vapor absorption line was analyzed for its center frequency continuously. The shock was induced by dropping a 500 g steel ball onto the table, the system was placed on. Without interferometer (conventional method), strong deviations greater than 10 GHz occur, whose decay time is more than a second. With interferometrically tracked delay line, the system shows almost no deviation (within the shown time window, the steel ball was also dropped six times). Small deviations up to 1.4 GHz occur, but decay very fast.

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