Abstract

The evanescent wave coronagraph (EvWaCo) is a specific kind of band-limited coronagraph using the frustrated total internal reflection phenomenon to produce the coronagraphic effect (removing starlight from the image plane in order to make the stellar environment detectable). In this paper, we present a theoretical and experimental study of the EvWaCo coronagraphic mask. First, we calculate the theoretical transmission and we show that this mask is partially achromatic. Then, we present the experimental results obtained in unpolarized light at the wavelength λ≈900 nm and relative spectral bandwidth Δλ/λ≈6%. In particular, we show that the coronagraph provides a contrast down to a few 10−6 at an angular distance of about ten Airy radii.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  9. R. Park, L. M. Close, N. Siegler, E. L. Nielsen, and T. Stalcup, “A reflective Gaussian coronagraph for ExAO: laboratory performance,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 20–27 (1998).
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    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

C. Mackay, “High-efficiency lucky imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 464, 680–687 (2017).

2012 (2)

D. Mawet, L. Pueyoc, P. Lawson, L. Mugnier, W. Traub, A. Boccaletti, J. Trauger, S. Gladysz, E. Serabyn, J. Milli, R. Belikov, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, B. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, H. Barrett, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Devaney, J. Girard, O. Guyon, J. Krist, B. Mennesson, D. Mouillet, N. Murakami, L. Poyneer, D. Savransky, C. Verinaud, and J. K. Wallace, “Review of small-angle coronagraphic techniques in the wake of ground-based second-generation adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844204 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Voelkel, “Wafer-scale micro-optics fabrication,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 1, 135–150 (2012).

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, and S. T. Ridgway, “Theoretical limits on extrasolar terrestrial planet detection with coronagraphs,” ApJS 167(1), 81–99 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Cavarroc, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, T. Fusco, and D. Rouan, “Fundamental limitations on Earth-like planet detection with extremely large telescope,” A&A. 447(1), 397–403 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. W. Evans, G. Sommargren, B. A. Macintosh, S. Severson, and D. Dillon, “Effect of wavefront error on 10-7 contrast measurements,” Opt. Lett. 31(5), 565–567 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. Kuchner and W. A. Traub, “A coronagraph with a band-limited mask for finding terrestrial planets,” Astrophys. J. 570(2), 900–908 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

R. Park, L. M. Close, N. Siegler, E. L. Nielsen, and T. Stalcup, “A reflective Gaussian coronagraph for ExAO: laboratory performance,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 20–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

A. Burrows, M. Marley, W. B. Hubbard, J. I. Lunine, T. Guillot, D. Saumon, R. Freed-man, D. Sudarsky, and C. Sharp, “A nongray theory of extrasolar giant planets and brown dwarfs,” Astrophys. J. 491(2), 856–875 (1997).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

S. Zhu, A. W. Yu, D. Hawley, and R. Roy, “Frustrated total internal reflection: A demonstration and review,” Am. J. Phys. 54(7), 601–607 (1986).
[Crossref]

Barrett, H.

D. Mawet, L. Pueyoc, P. Lawson, L. Mugnier, W. Traub, A. Boccaletti, J. Trauger, S. Gladysz, E. Serabyn, J. Milli, R. Belikov, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, B. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, H. Barrett, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Devaney, J. Girard, O. Guyon, J. Krist, B. Mennesson, D. Mouillet, N. Murakami, L. Poyneer, D. Savransky, C. Verinaud, and J. K. Wallace, “Review of small-angle coronagraphic techniques in the wake of ground-based second-generation adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baudoz, P.

D. Mawet, L. Pueyoc, P. Lawson, L. Mugnier, W. Traub, A. Boccaletti, J. Trauger, S. Gladysz, E. Serabyn, J. Milli, R. Belikov, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, B. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, H. Barrett, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Devaney, J. Girard, O. Guyon, J. Krist, B. Mennesson, D. Mouillet, N. Murakami, L. Poyneer, D. Savransky, C. Verinaud, and J. K. Wallace, “Review of small-angle coronagraphic techniques in the wake of ground-based second-generation adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844204 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Cavarroc, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, T. Fusco, and D. Rouan, “Fundamental limitations on Earth-like planet detection with extremely large telescope,” A&A. 447(1), 397–403 (2006).
[Crossref]

Belikov, R.

D. Mawet, L. Pueyoc, P. Lawson, L. Mugnier, W. Traub, A. Boccaletti, J. Trauger, S. Gladysz, E. Serabyn, J. Milli, R. Belikov, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, B. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, H. Barrett, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Devaney, J. Girard, O. Guyon, J. Krist, B. Mennesson, D. Mouillet, N. Murakami, L. Poyneer, D. Savransky, C. Verinaud, and J. K. Wallace, “Review of small-angle coronagraphic techniques in the wake of ground-based second-generation adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Beuzit, J.-L.

D. Mawet, L. Pueyoc, P. Lawson, L. Mugnier, W. Traub, A. Boccaletti, J. Trauger, S. Gladysz, E. Serabyn, J. Milli, R. Belikov, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, B. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, H. Barrett, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Devaney, J. Girard, O. Guyon, J. Krist, B. Mennesson, D. Mouillet, N. Murakami, L. Poyneer, D. Savransky, C. Verinaud, and J. K. Wallace, “Review of small-angle coronagraphic techniques in the wake of ground-based second-generation adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boccaletti, A.

D. Mawet, L. Pueyoc, P. Lawson, L. Mugnier, W. Traub, A. Boccaletti, J. Trauger, S. Gladysz, E. Serabyn, J. Milli, R. Belikov, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, B. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, H. Barrett, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Devaney, J. Girard, O. Guyon, J. Krist, B. Mennesson, D. Mouillet, N. Murakami, L. Poyneer, D. Savransky, C. Verinaud, and J. K. Wallace, “Review of small-angle coronagraphic techniques in the wake of ground-based second-generation adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844204 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Cavarroc, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, T. Fusco, and D. Rouan, “Fundamental limitations on Earth-like planet detection with extremely large telescope,” A&A. 447(1), 397–403 (2006).
[Crossref]

Burrows, A.

A. Burrows, M. Marley, W. B. Hubbard, J. I. Lunine, T. Guillot, D. Saumon, R. Freed-man, D. Sudarsky, and C. Sharp, “A nongray theory of extrasolar giant planets and brown dwarfs,” Astrophys. J. 491(2), 856–875 (1997).
[Crossref]

Cavarroc, C.

C. Cavarroc, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, T. Fusco, and D. Rouan, “Fundamental limitations on Earth-like planet detection with extremely large telescope,” A&A. 447(1), 397–403 (2006).
[Crossref]

Close, L. M.

R. Park, L. M. Close, N. Siegler, E. L. Nielsen, and T. Stalcup, “A reflective Gaussian coronagraph for ExAO: laboratory performance,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 20–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

Collins, B.

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, and S. T. Ridgway, “Theoretical limits on extrasolar terrestrial planet detection with coronagraphs,” ApJS 167(1), 81–99 (2006).
[Crossref]

Devaney, N.

D. Mawet, L. Pueyoc, P. Lawson, L. Mugnier, W. Traub, A. Boccaletti, J. Trauger, S. Gladysz, E. Serabyn, J. Milli, R. Belikov, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, B. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, H. Barrett, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Devaney, J. Girard, O. Guyon, J. Krist, B. Mennesson, D. Mouillet, N. Murakami, L. Poyneer, D. Savransky, C. Verinaud, and J. K. Wallace, “Review of small-angle coronagraphic techniques in the wake of ground-based second-generation adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dillon, D.

Evans, J. W.

Freed-man, R.

A. Burrows, M. Marley, W. B. Hubbard, J. I. Lunine, T. Guillot, D. Saumon, R. Freed-man, D. Sudarsky, and C. Sharp, “A nongray theory of extrasolar giant planets and brown dwarfs,” Astrophys. J. 491(2), 856–875 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fusco, T.

C. Cavarroc, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, T. Fusco, and D. Rouan, “Fundamental limitations on Earth-like planet detection with extremely large telescope,” A&A. 447(1), 397–403 (2006).
[Crossref]

Girard, J.

D. Mawet, L. Pueyoc, P. Lawson, L. Mugnier, W. Traub, A. Boccaletti, J. Trauger, S. Gladysz, E. Serabyn, J. Milli, R. Belikov, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, B. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, H. Barrett, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Devaney, J. Girard, O. Guyon, J. Krist, B. Mennesson, D. Mouillet, N. Murakami, L. Poyneer, D. Savransky, C. Verinaud, and J. K. Wallace, “Review of small-angle coronagraphic techniques in the wake of ground-based second-generation adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gladysz, S.

D. Mawet, L. Pueyoc, P. Lawson, L. Mugnier, W. Traub, A. Boccaletti, J. Trauger, S. Gladysz, E. Serabyn, J. Milli, R. Belikov, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, B. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, H. Barrett, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Devaney, J. Girard, O. Guyon, J. Krist, B. Mennesson, D. Mouillet, N. Murakami, L. Poyneer, D. Savransky, C. Verinaud, and J. K. Wallace, “Review of small-angle coronagraphic techniques in the wake of ground-based second-generation adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Guillot, T.

A. Burrows, M. Marley, W. B. Hubbard, J. I. Lunine, T. Guillot, D. Saumon, R. Freed-man, D. Sudarsky, and C. Sharp, “A nongray theory of extrasolar giant planets and brown dwarfs,” Astrophys. J. 491(2), 856–875 (1997).
[Crossref]

Guyon, O.

D. Mawet, L. Pueyoc, P. Lawson, L. Mugnier, W. Traub, A. Boccaletti, J. Trauger, S. Gladysz, E. Serabyn, J. Milli, R. Belikov, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, B. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, H. Barrett, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Devaney, J. Girard, O. Guyon, J. Krist, B. Mennesson, D. Mouillet, N. Murakami, L. Poyneer, D. Savransky, C. Verinaud, and J. K. Wallace, “Review of small-angle coronagraphic techniques in the wake of ground-based second-generation adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844204 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, and S. T. Ridgway, “Theoretical limits on extrasolar terrestrial planet detection with coronagraphs,” ApJS 167(1), 81–99 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hawley, D.

S. Zhu, A. W. Yu, D. Hawley, and R. Roy, “Frustrated total internal reflection: A demonstration and review,” Am. J. Phys. 54(7), 601–607 (1986).
[Crossref]

Hubbard, W. B.

A. Burrows, M. Marley, W. B. Hubbard, J. I. Lunine, T. Guillot, D. Saumon, R. Freed-man, D. Sudarsky, and C. Sharp, “A nongray theory of extrasolar giant planets and brown dwarfs,” Astrophys. J. 491(2), 856–875 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kasper, M.

D. Mawet, L. Pueyoc, P. Lawson, L. Mugnier, W. Traub, A. Boccaletti, J. Trauger, S. Gladysz, E. Serabyn, J. Milli, R. Belikov, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, B. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, H. Barrett, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Devaney, J. Girard, O. Guyon, J. Krist, B. Mennesson, D. Mouillet, N. Murakami, L. Poyneer, D. Savransky, C. Verinaud, and J. K. Wallace, “Review of small-angle coronagraphic techniques in the wake of ground-based second-generation adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Krist, J.

D. Mawet, L. Pueyoc, P. Lawson, L. Mugnier, W. Traub, A. Boccaletti, J. Trauger, S. Gladysz, E. Serabyn, J. Milli, R. Belikov, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, B. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, H. Barrett, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Devaney, J. Girard, O. Guyon, J. Krist, B. Mennesson, D. Mouillet, N. Murakami, L. Poyneer, D. Savransky, C. Verinaud, and J. K. Wallace, “Review of small-angle coronagraphic techniques in the wake of ground-based second-generation adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kuchner, M.

M. Kuchner and W. A. Traub, “A coronagraph with a band-limited mask for finding terrestrial planets,” Astrophys. J. 570(2), 900–908 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kuchner, M. J.

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, and S. T. Ridgway, “Theoretical limits on extrasolar terrestrial planet detection with coronagraphs,” ApJS 167(1), 81–99 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lawson, P.

D. Mawet, L. Pueyoc, P. Lawson, L. Mugnier, W. Traub, A. Boccaletti, J. Trauger, S. Gladysz, E. Serabyn, J. Milli, R. Belikov, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, B. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, H. Barrett, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Devaney, J. Girard, O. Guyon, J. Krist, B. Mennesson, D. Mouillet, N. Murakami, L. Poyneer, D. Savransky, C. Verinaud, and J. K. Wallace, “Review of small-angle coronagraphic techniques in the wake of ground-based second-generation adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lunine, J. I.

A. Burrows, M. Marley, W. B. Hubbard, J. I. Lunine, T. Guillot, D. Saumon, R. Freed-man, D. Sudarsky, and C. Sharp, “A nongray theory of extrasolar giant planets and brown dwarfs,” Astrophys. J. 491(2), 856–875 (1997).
[Crossref]

Macintosh, B.

D. Mawet, L. Pueyoc, P. Lawson, L. Mugnier, W. Traub, A. Boccaletti, J. Trauger, S. Gladysz, E. Serabyn, J. Milli, R. Belikov, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, B. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, H. Barrett, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Devaney, J. Girard, O. Guyon, J. Krist, B. Mennesson, D. Mouillet, N. Murakami, L. Poyneer, D. Savransky, C. Verinaud, and J. K. Wallace, “Review of small-angle coronagraphic techniques in the wake of ground-based second-generation adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Macintosh, B. A.

Mackay, C.

C. Mackay, “High-efficiency lucky imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 464, 680–687 (2017).

Marley, M.

A. Burrows, M. Marley, W. B. Hubbard, J. I. Lunine, T. Guillot, D. Saumon, R. Freed-man, D. Sudarsky, and C. Sharp, “A nongray theory of extrasolar giant planets and brown dwarfs,” Astrophys. J. 491(2), 856–875 (1997).
[Crossref]

Marois, C.

D. Mawet, L. Pueyoc, P. Lawson, L. Mugnier, W. Traub, A. Boccaletti, J. Trauger, S. Gladysz, E. Serabyn, J. Milli, R. Belikov, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, B. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, H. Barrett, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Devaney, J. Girard, O. Guyon, J. Krist, B. Mennesson, D. Mouillet, N. Murakami, L. Poyneer, D. Savransky, C. Verinaud, and J. K. Wallace, “Review of small-angle coronagraphic techniques in the wake of ground-based second-generation adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mawet, D.

D. Mawet, L. Pueyoc, P. Lawson, L. Mugnier, W. Traub, A. Boccaletti, J. Trauger, S. Gladysz, E. Serabyn, J. Milli, R. Belikov, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, B. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, H. Barrett, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Devaney, J. Girard, O. Guyon, J. Krist, B. Mennesson, D. Mouillet, N. Murakami, L. Poyneer, D. Savransky, C. Verinaud, and J. K. Wallace, “Review of small-angle coronagraphic techniques in the wake of ground-based second-generation adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mennesson, B.

D. Mawet, L. Pueyoc, P. Lawson, L. Mugnier, W. Traub, A. Boccaletti, J. Trauger, S. Gladysz, E. Serabyn, J. Milli, R. Belikov, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, B. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, H. Barrett, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Devaney, J. Girard, O. Guyon, J. Krist, B. Mennesson, D. Mouillet, N. Murakami, L. Poyneer, D. Savransky, C. Verinaud, and J. K. Wallace, “Review of small-angle coronagraphic techniques in the wake of ground-based second-generation adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Milli, J.

D. Mawet, L. Pueyoc, P. Lawson, L. Mugnier, W. Traub, A. Boccaletti, J. Trauger, S. Gladysz, E. Serabyn, J. Milli, R. Belikov, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, B. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, H. Barrett, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Devaney, J. Girard, O. Guyon, J. Krist, B. Mennesson, D. Mouillet, N. Murakami, L. Poyneer, D. Savransky, C. Verinaud, and J. K. Wallace, “Review of small-angle coronagraphic techniques in the wake of ground-based second-generation adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mouillet, D.

D. Mawet, L. Pueyoc, P. Lawson, L. Mugnier, W. Traub, A. Boccaletti, J. Trauger, S. Gladysz, E. Serabyn, J. Milli, R. Belikov, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, B. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, H. Barrett, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Devaney, J. Girard, O. Guyon, J. Krist, B. Mennesson, D. Mouillet, N. Murakami, L. Poyneer, D. Savransky, C. Verinaud, and J. K. Wallace, “Review of small-angle coronagraphic techniques in the wake of ground-based second-generation adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mugnier, L.

D. Mawet, L. Pueyoc, P. Lawson, L. Mugnier, W. Traub, A. Boccaletti, J. Trauger, S. Gladysz, E. Serabyn, J. Milli, R. Belikov, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, B. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, H. Barrett, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Devaney, J. Girard, O. Guyon, J. Krist, B. Mennesson, D. Mouillet, N. Murakami, L. Poyneer, D. Savransky, C. Verinaud, and J. K. Wallace, “Review of small-angle coronagraphic techniques in the wake of ground-based second-generation adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Murakami, N.

D. Mawet, L. Pueyoc, P. Lawson, L. Mugnier, W. Traub, A. Boccaletti, J. Trauger, S. Gladysz, E. Serabyn, J. Milli, R. Belikov, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, B. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, H. Barrett, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Devaney, J. Girard, O. Guyon, J. Krist, B. Mennesson, D. Mouillet, N. Murakami, L. Poyneer, D. Savransky, C. Verinaud, and J. K. Wallace, “Review of small-angle coronagraphic techniques in the wake of ground-based second-generation adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nielsen, E. L.

R. Park, L. M. Close, N. Siegler, E. L. Nielsen, and T. Stalcup, “A reflective Gaussian coronagraph for ExAO: laboratory performance,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 20–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

Oppenheimer, B.

D. Mawet, L. Pueyoc, P. Lawson, L. Mugnier, W. Traub, A. Boccaletti, J. Trauger, S. Gladysz, E. Serabyn, J. Milli, R. Belikov, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, B. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, H. Barrett, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Devaney, J. Girard, O. Guyon, J. Krist, B. Mennesson, D. Mouillet, N. Murakami, L. Poyneer, D. Savransky, C. Verinaud, and J. K. Wallace, “Review of small-angle coronagraphic techniques in the wake of ground-based second-generation adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Park, R.

R. Park, L. M. Close, N. Siegler, E. L. Nielsen, and T. Stalcup, “A reflective Gaussian coronagraph for ExAO: laboratory performance,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 20–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pluzhnik, E. A.

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, and S. T. Ridgway, “Theoretical limits on extrasolar terrestrial planet detection with coronagraphs,” ApJS 167(1), 81–99 (2006).
[Crossref]

Poyneer, L.

D. Mawet, L. Pueyoc, P. Lawson, L. Mugnier, W. Traub, A. Boccaletti, J. Trauger, S. Gladysz, E. Serabyn, J. Milli, R. Belikov, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, B. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, H. Barrett, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Devaney, J. Girard, O. Guyon, J. Krist, B. Mennesson, D. Mouillet, N. Murakami, L. Poyneer, D. Savransky, C. Verinaud, and J. K. Wallace, “Review of small-angle coronagraphic techniques in the wake of ground-based second-generation adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pueyoc, L.

D. Mawet, L. Pueyoc, P. Lawson, L. Mugnier, W. Traub, A. Boccaletti, J. Trauger, S. Gladysz, E. Serabyn, J. Milli, R. Belikov, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, B. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, H. Barrett, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Devaney, J. Girard, O. Guyon, J. Krist, B. Mennesson, D. Mouillet, N. Murakami, L. Poyneer, D. Savransky, C. Verinaud, and J. K. Wallace, “Review of small-angle coronagraphic techniques in the wake of ground-based second-generation adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ridgway, S. T.

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, and S. T. Ridgway, “Theoretical limits on extrasolar terrestrial planet detection with coronagraphs,” ApJS 167(1), 81–99 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rouan, D.

C. Cavarroc, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, T. Fusco, and D. Rouan, “Fundamental limitations on Earth-like planet detection with extremely large telescope,” A&A. 447(1), 397–403 (2006).
[Crossref]

Roy, R.

S. Zhu, A. W. Yu, D. Hawley, and R. Roy, “Frustrated total internal reflection: A demonstration and review,” Am. J. Phys. 54(7), 601–607 (1986).
[Crossref]

Saumon, D.

A. Burrows, M. Marley, W. B. Hubbard, J. I. Lunine, T. Guillot, D. Saumon, R. Freed-man, D. Sudarsky, and C. Sharp, “A nongray theory of extrasolar giant planets and brown dwarfs,” Astrophys. J. 491(2), 856–875 (1997).
[Crossref]

Savransky, D.

D. Mawet, L. Pueyoc, P. Lawson, L. Mugnier, W. Traub, A. Boccaletti, J. Trauger, S. Gladysz, E. Serabyn, J. Milli, R. Belikov, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, B. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, H. Barrett, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Devaney, J. Girard, O. Guyon, J. Krist, B. Mennesson, D. Mouillet, N. Murakami, L. Poyneer, D. Savransky, C. Verinaud, and J. K. Wallace, “Review of small-angle coronagraphic techniques in the wake of ground-based second-generation adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Serabyn, E.

D. Mawet, L. Pueyoc, P. Lawson, L. Mugnier, W. Traub, A. Boccaletti, J. Trauger, S. Gladysz, E. Serabyn, J. Milli, R. Belikov, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, B. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, H. Barrett, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Devaney, J. Girard, O. Guyon, J. Krist, B. Mennesson, D. Mouillet, N. Murakami, L. Poyneer, D. Savransky, C. Verinaud, and J. K. Wallace, “Review of small-angle coronagraphic techniques in the wake of ground-based second-generation adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Severson, S.

Sharp, C.

A. Burrows, M. Marley, W. B. Hubbard, J. I. Lunine, T. Guillot, D. Saumon, R. Freed-man, D. Sudarsky, and C. Sharp, “A nongray theory of extrasolar giant planets and brown dwarfs,” Astrophys. J. 491(2), 856–875 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sidick, E.

Siegler, N.

R. Park, L. M. Close, N. Siegler, E. L. Nielsen, and T. Stalcup, “A reflective Gaussian coronagraph for ExAO: laboratory performance,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 20–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sommargren, G.

Stalcup, T.

R. Park, L. M. Close, N. Siegler, E. L. Nielsen, and T. Stalcup, “A reflective Gaussian coronagraph for ExAO: laboratory performance,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 20–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sudarsky, D.

A. Burrows, M. Marley, W. B. Hubbard, J. I. Lunine, T. Guillot, D. Saumon, R. Freed-man, D. Sudarsky, and C. Sharp, “A nongray theory of extrasolar giant planets and brown dwarfs,” Astrophys. J. 491(2), 856–875 (1997).
[Crossref]

Traub, W.

D. Mawet, L. Pueyoc, P. Lawson, L. Mugnier, W. Traub, A. Boccaletti, J. Trauger, S. Gladysz, E. Serabyn, J. Milli, R. Belikov, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, B. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, H. Barrett, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Devaney, J. Girard, O. Guyon, J. Krist, B. Mennesson, D. Mouillet, N. Murakami, L. Poyneer, D. Savransky, C. Verinaud, and J. K. Wallace, “Review of small-angle coronagraphic techniques in the wake of ground-based second-generation adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Traub, W. A.

M. Kuchner and W. A. Traub, “A coronagraph with a band-limited mask for finding terrestrial planets,” Astrophys. J. 570(2), 900–908 (2002).
[Crossref]

Trauger, J.

D. Mawet, L. Pueyoc, P. Lawson, L. Mugnier, W. Traub, A. Boccaletti, J. Trauger, S. Gladysz, E. Serabyn, J. Milli, R. Belikov, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, B. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, H. Barrett, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Devaney, J. Girard, O. Guyon, J. Krist, B. Mennesson, D. Mouillet, N. Murakami, L. Poyneer, D. Savransky, C. Verinaud, and J. K. Wallace, “Review of small-angle coronagraphic techniques in the wake of ground-based second-generation adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Verinaud, C.

D. Mawet, L. Pueyoc, P. Lawson, L. Mugnier, W. Traub, A. Boccaletti, J. Trauger, S. Gladysz, E. Serabyn, J. Milli, R. Belikov, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, B. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, H. Barrett, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Devaney, J. Girard, O. Guyon, J. Krist, B. Mennesson, D. Mouillet, N. Murakami, L. Poyneer, D. Savransky, C. Verinaud, and J. K. Wallace, “Review of small-angle coronagraphic techniques in the wake of ground-based second-generation adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Voelkel, R.

R. Voelkel, “Wafer-scale micro-optics fabrication,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 1, 135–150 (2012).

Wallace, J. K.

D. Mawet, L. Pueyoc, P. Lawson, L. Mugnier, W. Traub, A. Boccaletti, J. Trauger, S. Gladysz, E. Serabyn, J. Milli, R. Belikov, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, B. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, H. Barrett, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Devaney, J. Girard, O. Guyon, J. Krist, B. Mennesson, D. Mouillet, N. Murakami, L. Poyneer, D. Savransky, C. Verinaud, and J. K. Wallace, “Review of small-angle coronagraphic techniques in the wake of ground-based second-generation adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wilson, D. W.

Yu, A. W.

S. Zhu, A. W. Yu, D. Hawley, and R. Roy, “Frustrated total internal reflection: A demonstration and review,” Am. J. Phys. 54(7), 601–607 (1986).
[Crossref]

Zhu, S.

S. Zhu, A. W. Yu, D. Hawley, and R. Roy, “Frustrated total internal reflection: A demonstration and review,” Am. J. Phys. 54(7), 601–607 (1986).
[Crossref]

A&A. (1)

C. Cavarroc, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, T. Fusco, and D. Rouan, “Fundamental limitations on Earth-like planet detection with extremely large telescope,” A&A. 447(1), 397–403 (2006).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Technol. (1)

R. Voelkel, “Wafer-scale micro-optics fabrication,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 1, 135–150 (2012).

Am. J. Phys. (1)

S. Zhu, A. W. Yu, D. Hawley, and R. Roy, “Frustrated total internal reflection: A demonstration and review,” Am. J. Phys. 54(7), 601–607 (1986).
[Crossref]

ApJS (1)

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, and S. T. Ridgway, “Theoretical limits on extrasolar terrestrial planet detection with coronagraphs,” ApJS 167(1), 81–99 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astrophys. J. (2)

M. Kuchner and W. A. Traub, “A coronagraph with a band-limited mask for finding terrestrial planets,” Astrophys. J. 570(2), 900–908 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Burrows, M. Marley, W. B. Hubbard, J. I. Lunine, T. Guillot, D. Saumon, R. Freed-man, D. Sudarsky, and C. Sharp, “A nongray theory of extrasolar giant planets and brown dwarfs,” Astrophys. J. 491(2), 856–875 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

C. Mackay, “High-efficiency lucky imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 464, 680–687 (2017).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

R. Park, L. M. Close, N. Siegler, E. L. Nielsen, and T. Stalcup, “A reflective Gaussian coronagraph for ExAO: laboratory performance,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 20–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. Mawet, L. Pueyoc, P. Lawson, L. Mugnier, W. Traub, A. Boccaletti, J. Trauger, S. Gladysz, E. Serabyn, J. Milli, R. Belikov, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, B. Macintosh, C. Marois, B. Oppenheimer, H. Barrett, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Devaney, J. Girard, O. Guyon, J. Krist, B. Mennesson, D. Mouillet, N. Murakami, L. Poyneer, D. Savransky, C. Verinaud, and J. K. Wallace, “Review of small-angle coronagraphic techniques in the wake of ground-based second-generation adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 8442, 844204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

J. Crepp, “High-Contrast Imaging with a band-limited coronagraphic mask,” PhD thesis, University of Florida (2008).

P.R. Lawson, “Exoplanet Exploration Program Technology Plan, Appendix 2013,” JPL document D-81562, 2014.

C. Aime, R. Soumer, and Y. Rabbia, “Shared constraints and specific characters in Very High Dynamics Imaging,” in Proceedings of Astronomy with High Contrast Imaging, C. Aime and R. Soummer, eds., 8 (EAS Publication Series, 2003), pp. 65–78.

Optics In Motion, “Standard Fast Steering Mirrors”, http://www.opticsinmotion.net/fast_steering_mirrors.html (2012).

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Illustration of EvWaCo coronagraphic mask generic principle.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 EvWaCo mask principle. O is the point of contact between PMask and LMask and h(x,y) is the air thickness in the mask. The reflection and transmission coefficients of the mask, in intensity are denoted as R and T respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Model of EvWaco mask for the calculation of the coefficient of reflection in intensity. The glass medium LMask is represented by a succession of thin, homogeneous air gap of optical index n2 between two glasses of optical indices n1 and n3.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Left-side: PMask, OX in the plane of incidence and OY perpendicular. The footprint of the PSF on PMask hypotenuse is represented in yellow. The PSF beam footprint is larger by a factor equal to 21/2 along the OX axis due to the angle of incidence of the beam being equal to 45°. Right-side: close-view of the coronagraphic mask that comprises the prism PMask and the lens LMask. This lens is glued on a prism that transmits the starlight as represented in Fig. 10.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Variation of the reflection coefficients R and R// corresponding to the polarization perpendicular and parallel to the plane of incidence, respectively. This is the case for a thin, homogeneous air gap of thickness, h, delimited by two identical glass media made of BK7. We have used the wavelength λ = 880 nm, n1 = n3≈1.51 (BK7 optical index) and n2 = 1.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 PSF irradiance distribution and EvWaCo mask theoretical reflection coefficients R// and R along the Y axis at x = 0 for λ = 880 nm, Φ1 = 45°, n1 = n3 = 1.51 (N-BK7) and n2 = 1 (air). We have also represented the Full Width at Half Maximum, FWHM// and FWHM, of the mask.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Variation of the phase delays δΦ// and δΦ at reflection on the EvWaCo mask for the polarizations respectively parallel and perpendicular to the incident plane at the wavelength λ = 880 nm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 EvWaCo mask theoretical reflection coefficients R(λ1) and R(λ3) at the wavelengths λ1 = 0.8 μm and λ3 = 1 µm. We have also represented: the PSF irradiance distribution cross-section along the Y axis at the wavelength λ2 = 0.9 μm.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Variations versus the wavelength of the FWHM (blue curve) and of the Airy disk diameter (red curve) for the EvWaCo mask in unpolarized light.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Optical setup used for the demonstration of principle of the proposed coronagraphic mask.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Photograph of the setup optical components comprised between L2 and L3. The coronagraphic mask separates the incident beams in two distinct beams: the “star beam” transmitted by the mask and the “companion beam” reflected by the mask.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Image of the coronagraphic mask (left) and normalized transmission profile of the mask along the X and the Y axes (right). The data have been acquired by performing a flat-field illumination at the wavelength λ = 880 nm with relative spectral bandwidth Δλ/λ ≈6% in unpolarized light.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 On-axis PSF irradiance distribution centered on the mask in unpolarized light. This image has been acquired at the wavelength λ = 880 nm with a relative spectral bandwidth λ ≈6% with an integration time Δτ = 3s. We attribute the PSF irradiance profile asymmetries to the presence of contaminants between LMask and PMask, to the optical aberrations of the optical system and to the stray light effects.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 PSF normalized irradiance profiles along the X (left-hand side) and along the Y axis (right-hand side). The blue curves represent the cross-section of the PSF profile in the case of an on-axis source centered on the coronagraphic mask. The orange curves represent the case of a source located off-axis and far from the mask The represented signals are normalized with respect to the off-axis PSF maximum signal. The condition of acquisition of the on-axis images are identical to the Fig. 13. The off-axis images have been acquired in identical conditions by placing an optical density of transmission T = 0.0024 in front of the CCD.
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 On-axis and off-axis PSF irradiance distribution in unpolarized light at the wavelength λ = 880 nm with relative spectral bandwidth Δλ/λ ≈6%. The off-axis PSF is located at a distance equal to 30 λ.f2/DAS from the mask center. Identical visualization levels for the two images: Imin = 1300 ADU and IMax = 65469 ADU. Each image is the result of a median combination of 101 images acquired at integration time Δτ = 7s. The radius of the inner and outer green circles are equal to 10 λ.f2/DAS and 20 λ.f2/DAS respectively.
Fig. 16
Fig. 16 Left –side: cross-section along X-axis represented in logarithmic scale of the following signals: off-axis PSF (distance from mask center: 30 λ.f2/D) measured with a density of transmission TD = 3x10−3 and measured without density (grey and orange curves respectively); On-axis PSF centered on the mask measured without density (blue curve). Right –side: cross-section along Y-axis represented in logarithmic scale of the following signals: off-axis PSF (distance from mask center: 30 λ.f2/D) measured with a density of transmission TD = 3x10−3 and measured without density (grey and orange curves respectively); On-axis PSF centered on the mask measured without density (pink curve). The dash black line represents the variance of the background noise σBack ≈2.10−7. We have also represented in green lines the location of IWAX and IWAY. The data have been acquired in unpolarized light at the wavelength λ = 880 nm with a relative spectral bandwidth λ ≈6% with an integration time Δτ = 7s.
Fig. 17
Fig. 17 Example of a setup to measure the wavefront of the star light transmitted by the occulting mask and control a deformable mirror placed in a pupil plane to adjust the center the star on the mask. The required resolution on the fast steering mirror angle is equal to 5 arcsecond typically to guaranty the contrast performance at the level presented in the section “3.4 On-axis and off-axis PSF profiles with a Lyot stop”.

Equations (3)

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D PSF 2.44×λ×F#
R( x,y,λ )=1 1 αsin h 2 [ ( 2π h( x,y ) /λ ) ( n 1 2 sin 2 ϕ 1 n 2 2 ) 1/2 ]+β
h( x,y ) ( x 2 + y 2 ) / 2.RC

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