Abstract

Numerous studies have been made to design switchable terahertz absorber for the application of amplitude modulator. However, it is still a challenge to achieve large modulation range while maintaining broad bandwidth. Here, we propose a switchable broadband absorber/reflector in the low-terahertz regime. By utilizing a hybrid graphene-gold metasurface on SiO2/pSi/PDMS substrate with an aluminum back, an excellent absorption across 0.53–1.05 THz with a wide incident angles for both TE and TM polarizations is achieved. By controlling the voltage across gold electrode and pSi, the chemical potential of graphene can be changed correspondingly. When the chemical potential of graphene varied from 0eV to 0.3eV, the state of the proposed structure can be switched from absorption (>90%) to reflection (>82%) over the whole operation bandwidth. Electric field intensity and surface loss density of the proposed absorber under different chemical potential are given to have a physical insight of the mechanisms. The switchable absorber/reflector can enable a wide application of high performance terahertz devices, such as active camouflage, imaging, modulators and electro-optic switches.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2017 (3)

2016 (4)

D. Jessop, S. Kindness, L. Xiao, P. Braeuninger-Weimer, H. Lin, Y. Ren, C. X. Ren, S. Hofmann, J. Zeitler, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and R. Degl’Innocenti, “Graphene based plasmonic terahertz amplitude modulator operating above 100 MHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(17), 171101 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Guo, Y. Liu, and T. Han, “Ultra-broadband infrared metasurface absorber,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20586–20592 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, K. Bi, B. Li, Q. Zhao, and J. Zhou, “Metamaterial perfect absorber based on artificial dielectric “atoms”,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20454–20460 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cheng, R. Gong, and Z. Cheng, “A photoexcited broadband switchable metamaterial absorber with polarization-insensitive and wide-angle absorption for terahertz waves,” Opt. Commun. 361, 41–46 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (7)

B. Zhang, L. Lv, T. He, T. Chen, M. Zang, L. Zhong, X. Wang, J. Shen, and Y. Hou, “Active terahertz device based on optically controlled organometal halide perovskite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 093301 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. He, B. Zhang, J. Shen, M. Zang, T. Chen, Y. Hu, and Y. Hou, “High-efficiency THz modulator based on phthalocyanine-compound organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053303 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Xu, R. Gao, C. Ding, L. Wu, Y. Zhang, D. Xu, and J. Yao, “Photoexited switchable metamaterial absorber at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Commun. 344, 125–128 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Balci, E. O. Polat, N. Kakenov, and C. Kocabas, “Graphene-enabled electrically switchable radar-absorbing surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6628 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Walia, C. Shah, P. Gutruf, H. Nili, D. Chowdhury, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, and S. Sriram, “Flexible metasurfaces and metamaterials: A review of materials and fabrication processes at micro-and nano-scales,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 2(1), 011303 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Yin, J. Zhu, W. Xu, W. Jiang, J. Yuan, G. Yin, L. Xie, Y. Ying, and Y. Ma, “High-performance terahertz wave absorbers made of silicon-based metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(7), 073903 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Cheng, W. Withayachumnankul, A. Upadhyay, D. Headland, Y. Nie, R. Z. Gong, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and D. Abbott, “Ultrabroadband plasmonic absorber for terahertz waves,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 376–380 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

P. Pitchappa, C. P. Ho, P. Kropelnicki, N. Singh, D. Kwong, and C. Lee, “Micro-electro-mechanically switchable near infrared complementary metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(20), 201114 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Grant, I. J. McCrindle, C. Li, and D. R. Cumming, “Multispectral metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39(5), 1227–1230 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Heyes, W. Withayachumnankul, N. Grady, D. Chowdhury, A. Azad, and H. Chen, “Hybrid metasurface for ultra-broadband terahertz modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(18), 181108 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4130 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (6)

F. Niesler, J. Gansel, S. Fischbach, and M. Wegener, “Metamaterial metal-based bolometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 203508 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Alves, B. Kearney, D. Grbovic, and G. Karunasiri, “Narrowband terahertz emitters using metamaterial films,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21025–21032 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lin, M. F. Pantoja, L. D. Angulo, J. Alvarez, R. G. Martin, and S. G. Garcia, “FDTD modeling of graphene devices using complex conjugate dispersion material model,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 22(12), 612–614 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Alaee, M. Farhat, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “A perfect absorber made of a graphene micro-ribbon metamaterial,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28017–28024 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pu, M. Wang, C. Hu, C. Huang, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, and X. Luo, “Engineering heavily doped silicon for broadband absorber in the terahertz regime,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25513–25519 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

2008 (2)

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Abbott, D.

Y. Cheng, W. Withayachumnankul, A. Upadhyay, D. Headland, Y. Nie, R. Z. Gong, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and D. Abbott, “Ultrabroadband plasmonic absorber for terahertz waves,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 376–380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alaee, R.

Alvarez, J.

H. Lin, M. F. Pantoja, L. D. Angulo, J. Alvarez, R. G. Martin, and S. G. Garcia, “FDTD modeling of graphene devices using complex conjugate dispersion material model,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 22(12), 612–614 (2012).
[Crossref]

Alves, F.

Angulo, L. D.

H. Lin, M. F. Pantoja, L. D. Angulo, J. Alvarez, R. G. Martin, and S. G. Garcia, “FDTD modeling of graphene devices using complex conjugate dispersion material model,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 22(12), 612–614 (2012).
[Crossref]

Azad, A.

J. Heyes, W. Withayachumnankul, N. Grady, D. Chowdhury, A. Azad, and H. Chen, “Hybrid metasurface for ultra-broadband terahertz modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(18), 181108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Balci, O.

O. Balci, E. O. Polat, N. Kakenov, and C. Kocabas, “Graphene-enabled electrically switchable radar-absorbing surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6628 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beere, H.

D. Jessop, S. Kindness, L. Xiao, P. Braeuninger-Weimer, H. Lin, Y. Ren, C. X. Ren, S. Hofmann, J. Zeitler, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and R. Degl’Innocenti, “Graphene based plasmonic terahertz amplitude modulator operating above 100 MHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(17), 171101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bhaskaran, M.

Y. Cheng, W. Withayachumnankul, A. Upadhyay, D. Headland, Y. Nie, R. Z. Gong, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and D. Abbott, “Ultrabroadband plasmonic absorber for terahertz waves,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 376–380 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Walia, C. Shah, P. Gutruf, H. Nili, D. Chowdhury, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, and S. Sriram, “Flexible metasurfaces and metamaterials: A review of materials and fabrication processes at micro-and nano-scales,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 2(1), 011303 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bi, K.

Braeuninger-Weimer, P.

D. Jessop, S. Kindness, L. Xiao, P. Braeuninger-Weimer, H. Lin, Y. Ren, C. X. Ren, S. Hofmann, J. Zeitler, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and R. Degl’Innocenti, “Graphene based plasmonic terahertz amplitude modulator operating above 100 MHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(17), 171101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

J. Heyes, W. Withayachumnankul, N. Grady, D. Chowdhury, A. Azad, and H. Chen, “Hybrid metasurface for ultra-broadband terahertz modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(18), 181108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, T.

B. Zhang, L. Lv, T. He, T. Chen, M. Zang, L. Zhong, X. Wang, J. Shen, and Y. Hou, “Active terahertz device based on optically controlled organometal halide perovskite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 093301 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. He, B. Zhang, J. Shen, M. Zang, T. Chen, Y. Hu, and Y. Hou, “High-efficiency THz modulator based on phthalocyanine-compound organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053303 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

Y. Cheng, R. Gong, and Z. Cheng, “A photoexcited broadband switchable metamaterial absorber with polarization-insensitive and wide-angle absorption for terahertz waves,” Opt. Commun. 361, 41–46 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Cheng, W. Withayachumnankul, A. Upadhyay, D. Headland, Y. Nie, R. Z. Gong, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and D. Abbott, “Ultrabroadband plasmonic absorber for terahertz waves,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 376–380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Z.

Y. Cheng, R. Gong, and Z. Cheng, “A photoexcited broadband switchable metamaterial absorber with polarization-insensitive and wide-angle absorption for terahertz waves,” Opt. Commun. 361, 41–46 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chern, R. L.

Chowdhury, D.

S. Walia, C. Shah, P. Gutruf, H. Nili, D. Chowdhury, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, and S. Sriram, “Flexible metasurfaces and metamaterials: A review of materials and fabrication processes at micro-and nano-scales,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 2(1), 011303 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Heyes, W. Withayachumnankul, N. Grady, D. Chowdhury, A. Azad, and H. Chen, “Hybrid metasurface for ultra-broadband terahertz modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(18), 181108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cole, M. T.

B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4130 (2014).
[PubMed]

Cumming, D. R.

Cumming, D. R. S.

Degl’Innocenti, R.

D. Jessop, S. Kindness, L. Xiao, P. Braeuninger-Weimer, H. Lin, Y. Ren, C. X. Ren, S. Hofmann, J. Zeitler, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and R. Degl’Innocenti, “Graphene based plasmonic terahertz amplitude modulator operating above 100 MHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(17), 171101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ding, C.

Z. Xu, R. Gao, C. Ding, L. Wu, Y. Zhang, D. Xu, and J. Yao, “Photoexited switchable metamaterial absorber at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Commun. 344, 125–128 (2015).
[Crossref]

Engheta, N.

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, K.

Fang, T.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farhat, M.

Feng, Y.

Fischbach, S.

F. Niesler, J. Gansel, S. Fischbach, and M. Wegener, “Metamaterial metal-based bolometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 203508 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fu, S. M.

Gansel, J.

F. Niesler, J. Gansel, S. Fischbach, and M. Wegener, “Metamaterial metal-based bolometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 203508 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gao, R.

Z. Xu, R. Gao, C. Ding, L. Wu, Y. Zhang, D. Xu, and J. Yao, “Photoexited switchable metamaterial absorber at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Commun. 344, 125–128 (2015).
[Crossref]

Garcia, S. G.

H. Lin, M. F. Pantoja, L. D. Angulo, J. Alvarez, R. G. Martin, and S. G. Garcia, “FDTD modeling of graphene devices using complex conjugate dispersion material model,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 22(12), 612–614 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gong, R.

Y. Cheng, R. Gong, and Z. Cheng, “A photoexcited broadband switchable metamaterial absorber with polarization-insensitive and wide-angle absorption for terahertz waves,” Opt. Commun. 361, 41–46 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gong, R. Z.

Y. Cheng, W. Withayachumnankul, A. Upadhyay, D. Headland, Y. Nie, R. Z. Gong, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and D. Abbott, “Ultrabroadband plasmonic absorber for terahertz waves,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 376–380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Grady, N.

J. Heyes, W. Withayachumnankul, N. Grady, D. Chowdhury, A. Azad, and H. Chen, “Hybrid metasurface for ultra-broadband terahertz modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(18), 181108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Grant, J.

Grbovic, D.

Guo, W.

Gutruf, P.

S. Walia, C. Shah, P. Gutruf, H. Nili, D. Chowdhury, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, and S. Sriram, “Flexible metasurfaces and metamaterials: A review of materials and fabrication processes at micro-and nano-scales,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 2(1), 011303 (2015).
[Crossref]

Han, T.

Hanson, G.

G. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hao, Y.

B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4130 (2014).
[PubMed]

He, T.

G. Wang, B. Zhang, H. Ji, X. Liu, T. He, L. Lv, Y. Hou, and J. Shen, “Monolayer graphene based organic optical terahertz modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(2), 023301 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. He, B. Zhang, J. Shen, M. Zang, T. Chen, Y. Hu, and Y. Hou, “High-efficiency THz modulator based on phthalocyanine-compound organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053303 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, L. Lv, T. He, T. Chen, M. Zang, L. Zhong, X. Wang, J. Shen, and Y. Hou, “Active terahertz device based on optically controlled organometal halide perovskite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 093301 (2015).
[Crossref]

Headland, D.

Y. Cheng, W. Withayachumnankul, A. Upadhyay, D. Headland, Y. Nie, R. Z. Gong, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and D. Abbott, “Ultrabroadband plasmonic absorber for terahertz waves,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 376–380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Heyes, J.

J. Heyes, W. Withayachumnankul, N. Grady, D. Chowdhury, A. Azad, and H. Chen, “Hybrid metasurface for ultra-broadband terahertz modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(18), 181108 (2014).
[Crossref]

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P. Pitchappa, C. P. Ho, P. Kropelnicki, N. Singh, D. Kwong, and C. Lee, “Micro-electro-mechanically switchable near infrared complementary metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(20), 201114 (2014).
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D. Jessop, S. Kindness, L. Xiao, P. Braeuninger-Weimer, H. Lin, Y. Ren, C. X. Ren, S. Hofmann, J. Zeitler, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and R. Degl’Innocenti, “Graphene based plasmonic terahertz amplitude modulator operating above 100 MHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(17), 171101 (2016).
[Crossref]

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G. Wang, B. Zhang, H. Ji, X. Liu, T. He, L. Lv, Y. Hou, and J. Shen, “Monolayer graphene based organic optical terahertz modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(2), 023301 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, L. Lv, T. He, T. Chen, M. Zang, L. Zhong, X. Wang, J. Shen, and Y. Hou, “Active terahertz device based on optically controlled organometal halide perovskite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 093301 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. He, B. Zhang, J. Shen, M. Zang, T. Chen, Y. Hu, and Y. Hou, “High-efficiency THz modulator based on phthalocyanine-compound organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053303 (2015).
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Hu, Y.

T. He, B. Zhang, J. Shen, M. Zang, T. Chen, Y. Hu, and Y. Hou, “High-efficiency THz modulator based on phthalocyanine-compound organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053303 (2015).
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Huang, J. Y.

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B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 780 (2012).
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B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 780 (2012).
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D. Jessop, S. Kindness, L. Xiao, P. Braeuninger-Weimer, H. Lin, Y. Ren, C. X. Ren, S. Hofmann, J. Zeitler, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and R. Degl’Innocenti, “Graphene based plasmonic terahertz amplitude modulator operating above 100 MHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(17), 171101 (2016).
[Crossref]

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G. Wang, B. Zhang, H. Ji, X. Liu, T. He, L. Lv, Y. Hou, and J. Shen, “Monolayer graphene based organic optical terahertz modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(2), 023301 (2017).
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S. Yin, J. Zhu, W. Xu, W. Jiang, J. Yuan, G. Yin, L. Xie, Y. Ying, and Y. Ma, “High-performance terahertz wave absorbers made of silicon-based metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(7), 073903 (2015).
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Kindness, S.

D. Jessop, S. Kindness, L. Xiao, P. Braeuninger-Weimer, H. Lin, Y. Ren, C. X. Ren, S. Hofmann, J. Zeitler, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and R. Degl’Innocenti, “Graphene based plasmonic terahertz amplitude modulator operating above 100 MHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(17), 171101 (2016).
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O. Balci, E. O. Polat, N. Kakenov, and C. Kocabas, “Graphene-enabled electrically switchable radar-absorbing surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6628 (2015).
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P. Pitchappa, C. P. Ho, P. Kropelnicki, N. Singh, D. Kwong, and C. Lee, “Micro-electro-mechanically switchable near infrared complementary metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(20), 201114 (2014).
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P. Pitchappa, C. P. Ho, P. Kropelnicki, N. Singh, D. Kwong, and C. Lee, “Micro-electro-mechanically switchable near infrared complementary metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(20), 201114 (2014).
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N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
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P. Pitchappa, C. P. Ho, P. Kropelnicki, N. Singh, D. Kwong, and C. Lee, “Micro-electro-mechanically switchable near infrared complementary metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(20), 201114 (2014).
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D. Jessop, S. Kindness, L. Xiao, P. Braeuninger-Weimer, H. Lin, Y. Ren, C. X. Ren, S. Hofmann, J. Zeitler, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and R. Degl’Innocenti, “Graphene based plasmonic terahertz amplitude modulator operating above 100 MHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(17), 171101 (2016).
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H. Lin, M. F. Pantoja, L. D. Angulo, J. Alvarez, R. G. Martin, and S. G. Garcia, “FDTD modeling of graphene devices using complex conjugate dispersion material model,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 22(12), 612–614 (2012).
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Liu, L.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 780 (2012).
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G. Wang, B. Zhang, H. Ji, X. Liu, T. He, L. Lv, Y. Hou, and J. Shen, “Monolayer graphene based organic optical terahertz modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(2), 023301 (2017).
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B. Zhang, L. Lv, T. He, T. Chen, M. Zang, L. Zhong, X. Wang, J. Shen, and Y. Hou, “Active terahertz device based on optically controlled organometal halide perovskite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 093301 (2015).
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S. Yin, J. Zhu, W. Xu, W. Jiang, J. Yuan, G. Yin, L. Xie, Y. Ying, and Y. Ma, “High-performance terahertz wave absorbers made of silicon-based metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(7), 073903 (2015).
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Milne, W. I.

B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4130 (2014).
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N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
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B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4130 (2014).
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Y. Cheng, W. Withayachumnankul, A. Upadhyay, D. Headland, Y. Nie, R. Z. Gong, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and D. Abbott, “Ultrabroadband plasmonic absorber for terahertz waves,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 376–380 (2015).
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H. Lin, M. F. Pantoja, L. D. Angulo, J. Alvarez, R. G. Martin, and S. G. Garcia, “FDTD modeling of graphene devices using complex conjugate dispersion material model,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 22(12), 612–614 (2012).
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Pitchappa, P.

P. Pitchappa, C. P. Ho, P. Kropelnicki, N. Singh, D. Kwong, and C. Lee, “Micro-electro-mechanically switchable near infrared complementary metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(20), 201114 (2014).
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O. Balci, E. O. Polat, N. Kakenov, and C. Kocabas, “Graphene-enabled electrically switchable radar-absorbing surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6628 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Ren, C. X.

D. Jessop, S. Kindness, L. Xiao, P. Braeuninger-Weimer, H. Lin, Y. Ren, C. X. Ren, S. Hofmann, J. Zeitler, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and R. Degl’Innocenti, “Graphene based plasmonic terahertz amplitude modulator operating above 100 MHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(17), 171101 (2016).
[Crossref]

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D. Jessop, S. Kindness, L. Xiao, P. Braeuninger-Weimer, H. Lin, Y. Ren, C. X. Ren, S. Hofmann, J. Zeitler, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and R. Degl’Innocenti, “Graphene based plasmonic terahertz amplitude modulator operating above 100 MHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(17), 171101 (2016).
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D. Jessop, S. Kindness, L. Xiao, P. Braeuninger-Weimer, H. Lin, Y. Ren, C. X. Ren, S. Hofmann, J. Zeitler, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and R. Degl’Innocenti, “Graphene based plasmonic terahertz amplitude modulator operating above 100 MHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(17), 171101 (2016).
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Rung, D.

Saha, S.

Sajuyigbe, S.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Shah, C.

S. Walia, C. Shah, P. Gutruf, H. Nili, D. Chowdhury, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, and S. Sriram, “Flexible metasurfaces and metamaterials: A review of materials and fabrication processes at micro-and nano-scales,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 2(1), 011303 (2015).
[Crossref]

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G. Wang, B. Zhang, H. Ji, X. Liu, T. He, L. Lv, Y. Hou, and J. Shen, “Monolayer graphene based organic optical terahertz modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(2), 023301 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. He, B. Zhang, J. Shen, M. Zang, T. Chen, Y. Hu, and Y. Hou, “High-efficiency THz modulator based on phthalocyanine-compound organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053303 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, L. Lv, T. He, T. Chen, M. Zang, L. Zhong, X. Wang, J. Shen, and Y. Hou, “Active terahertz device based on optically controlled organometal halide perovskite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 093301 (2015).
[Crossref]

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P. Pitchappa, C. P. Ho, P. Kropelnicki, N. Singh, D. Kwong, and C. Lee, “Micro-electro-mechanically switchable near infrared complementary metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(20), 201114 (2014).
[Crossref]

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N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. Cheng, W. Withayachumnankul, A. Upadhyay, D. Headland, Y. Nie, R. Z. Gong, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and D. Abbott, “Ultrabroadband plasmonic absorber for terahertz waves,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 376–380 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Walia, C. Shah, P. Gutruf, H. Nili, D. Chowdhury, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, and S. Sriram, “Flexible metasurfaces and metamaterials: A review of materials and fabrication processes at micro-and nano-scales,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 2(1), 011303 (2015).
[Crossref]

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B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4130 (2014).
[PubMed]

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Y. Cheng, W. Withayachumnankul, A. Upadhyay, D. Headland, Y. Nie, R. Z. Gong, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and D. Abbott, “Ultrabroadband plasmonic absorber for terahertz waves,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 376–380 (2015).
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[Crossref]

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G. Wang, B. Zhang, H. Ji, X. Liu, T. He, L. Lv, Y. Hou, and J. Shen, “Monolayer graphene based organic optical terahertz modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(2), 023301 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Wang, X.

B. Zhang, L. Lv, T. He, T. Chen, M. Zang, L. Zhong, X. Wang, J. Shen, and Y. Hou, “Active terahertz device based on optically controlled organometal halide perovskite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 093301 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Wang, Z.

Wegener, M.

F. Niesler, J. Gansel, S. Fischbach, and M. Wegener, “Metamaterial metal-based bolometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 203508 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Y. Cheng, W. Withayachumnankul, A. Upadhyay, D. Headland, Y. Nie, R. Z. Gong, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and D. Abbott, “Ultrabroadband plasmonic absorber for terahertz waves,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 376–380 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Walia, C. Shah, P. Gutruf, H. Nili, D. Chowdhury, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, and S. Sriram, “Flexible metasurfaces and metamaterials: A review of materials and fabrication processes at micro-and nano-scales,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 2(1), 011303 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Heyes, W. Withayachumnankul, N. Grady, D. Chowdhury, A. Azad, and H. Chen, “Hybrid metasurface for ultra-broadband terahertz modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(18), 181108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wu, B.

B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4130 (2014).
[PubMed]

Wu, L.

Z. Xu, R. Gao, C. Ding, L. Wu, Y. Zhang, D. Xu, and J. Yao, “Photoexited switchable metamaterial absorber at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Commun. 344, 125–128 (2015).
[Crossref]

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D. Jessop, S. Kindness, L. Xiao, P. Braeuninger-Weimer, H. Lin, Y. Ren, C. X. Ren, S. Hofmann, J. Zeitler, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and R. Degl’Innocenti, “Graphene based plasmonic terahertz amplitude modulator operating above 100 MHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(17), 171101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xie, L.

S. Yin, J. Zhu, W. Xu, W. Jiang, J. Yuan, G. Yin, L. Xie, Y. Ying, and Y. Ma, “High-performance terahertz wave absorbers made of silicon-based metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(7), 073903 (2015).
[Crossref]

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B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Z. Xu, R. Gao, C. Ding, L. Wu, Y. Zhang, D. Xu, and J. Yao, “Photoexited switchable metamaterial absorber at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Commun. 344, 125–128 (2015).
[Crossref]

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S. Yin, J. Zhu, W. Xu, W. Jiang, J. Yuan, G. Yin, L. Xie, Y. Ying, and Y. Ma, “High-performance terahertz wave absorbers made of silicon-based metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(7), 073903 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Z. Xu, R. Gao, C. Ding, L. Wu, Y. Zhang, D. Xu, and J. Yao, “Photoexited switchable metamaterial absorber at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Commun. 344, 125–128 (2015).
[Crossref]

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B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4130 (2014).
[PubMed]

Yao, J.

Z. Xu, R. Gao, C. Ding, L. Wu, Y. Zhang, D. Xu, and J. Yao, “Photoexited switchable metamaterial absorber at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Commun. 344, 125–128 (2015).
[Crossref]

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S. Yin, J. Zhu, W. Xu, W. Jiang, J. Yuan, G. Yin, L. Xie, Y. Ying, and Y. Ma, “High-performance terahertz wave absorbers made of silicon-based metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(7), 073903 (2015).
[Crossref]

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S. Yin, J. Zhu, W. Xu, W. Jiang, J. Yuan, G. Yin, L. Xie, Y. Ying, and Y. Ma, “High-performance terahertz wave absorbers made of silicon-based metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(7), 073903 (2015).
[Crossref]

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S. Yin, J. Zhu, W. Xu, W. Jiang, J. Yuan, G. Yin, L. Xie, Y. Ying, and Y. Ma, “High-performance terahertz wave absorbers made of silicon-based metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(7), 073903 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yuan, J.

S. Yin, J. Zhu, W. Xu, W. Jiang, J. Yuan, G. Yin, L. Xie, Y. Ying, and Y. Ma, “High-performance terahertz wave absorbers made of silicon-based metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(7), 073903 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zang, M.

B. Zhang, L. Lv, T. He, T. Chen, M. Zang, L. Zhong, X. Wang, J. Shen, and Y. Hou, “Active terahertz device based on optically controlled organometal halide perovskite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 093301 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. He, B. Zhang, J. Shen, M. Zang, T. Chen, Y. Hu, and Y. Hou, “High-efficiency THz modulator based on phthalocyanine-compound organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053303 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zeitler, J.

D. Jessop, S. Kindness, L. Xiao, P. Braeuninger-Weimer, H. Lin, Y. Ren, C. X. Ren, S. Hofmann, J. Zeitler, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and R. Degl’Innocenti, “Graphene based plasmonic terahertz amplitude modulator operating above 100 MHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(17), 171101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, B.

G. Wang, B. Zhang, H. Ji, X. Liu, T. He, L. Lv, Y. Hou, and J. Shen, “Monolayer graphene based organic optical terahertz modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(2), 023301 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. He, B. Zhang, J. Shen, M. Zang, T. Chen, Y. Hu, and Y. Hou, “High-efficiency THz modulator based on phthalocyanine-compound organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053303 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, L. Lv, T. He, T. Chen, M. Zang, L. Zhong, X. Wang, J. Shen, and Y. Hou, “Active terahertz device based on optically controlled organometal halide perovskite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 093301 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Z. Xu, R. Gao, C. Ding, L. Wu, Y. Zhang, D. Xu, and J. Yao, “Photoexited switchable metamaterial absorber at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Commun. 344, 125–128 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

Zhao, Q.

Zhao, Z.

Zhong, L.

B. Zhang, L. Lv, T. He, T. Chen, M. Zang, L. Zhong, X. Wang, J. Shen, and Y. Hou, “Active terahertz device based on optically controlled organometal halide perovskite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 093301 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhong, Y. K.

Zhou, J.

Zhu, B.

Zhu, J.

S. Yin, J. Zhu, W. Xu, W. Jiang, J. Yuan, G. Yin, L. Xie, Y. Ying, and Y. Ma, “High-performance terahertz wave absorbers made of silicon-based metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(7), 073903 (2015).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of (a) perspective view and (b) top view of the unit cell. The relevant geometrical dimensions are d1 = 70 μm; d2 = 6 μm; g1 = 2 μm; g2 = 90 μm; g3 = 2 μm. The thickness of the Au, SiO2, p-type Si, PDMS and Al layers are t1 = 0.5 μm; t2 = 0.3 μm; t3 = 0.5 μm; t4 = 65 μm and t5 = 1 μm, respectively. (c) Structure of the proposed graphene-enabled switchable absorber/reflector, with a terahertz plane wave normally illuminate on the hybrid graphene-gold metasurface. A DC bias voltage is applied between the gold electrode and p-type Si to change the sheet conductivity of graphene.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption spectra of the proposed broadband terahertz absorber. The spectra without graphene patch (w/o Graphene) or gold pattern (w/o Gold) shows a quite small absorption. The absorptivity spectra of lossy and lossless PDMS are roughly equal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Absorption spectra with different graphene chemical potential μc. The proposed absorber is in on state when μc = 0eV and in off state when μc = 0.3eV. (b) The surface loss density of the interface of graphene and gold at 0.8THz, which is normalized to 1 × 10^9 W/m2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross section of the normalized electric field intensity at 1THz. For (a) and (b), traveling wave is observed and the incident wave is strongly concentrated in the graphene-gold interface when μc = 0eV. For (c) and (d), the maximum density occurs in a fixed position. Standing wave is observed due to the high reflectivity of the absorber when μc = 0.3eV. All of the electric intensity distributions are normalized to 2.5 × 10^5 V/m. The inset on the right describe the schematic of the cross section.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Absorption spectrum for different polarization angles. (b) and (c) depict the absorption with various incident angles from 0° to 70° for TE and TM polarizations, respectively. The inset on the right describe the polarization angles and incident angles, and the origin of the coordinate is the center of the graphene patch.

Equations (1)

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ε= ε ω p 2 ω 2 +iγω .

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