Abstract

A label-free optical biosensor based on a one-dimensional photonic crystal microring resonator with enhanced light-matter interaction is demonstrated. More than a 2-fold improvement in volumetric and surface sensing sensitivity is achieved compared to conventional microring sensors. The experimental bulk detection sensitivity is ~248nm/RIU and label-free detection of DNA and proteins is reported at the nanomolar scale. With a minimum feature size greater than 100nm, the photonic crystal microring resonator biosensor can be fabricated with the same standard lithographic techniques used to mass fabricate conventional microring resonators.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (1)

2016 (3)

2015 (1)

2014 (4)

S. Hu, Y. Zhao, K. Qin, S. Retterer, I. Kravchenko, and S. Weiss, “Enhancing the sensitivity of label-free silicon photonic biosensors through increased probe molecule density,” ACS Photonics 1(7), 590–597 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. McGarvey-Lechable and P. Bianucci, “Maximizing slow-light enhancement in one-dimensional photonic crystal ring resonators,” Opt. Express 22(21), 26032–26041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. De Leonardis, C. E. Campanella, B. Troia, A. G. Perri, and V. M. Passaro, “Performance of SOI Bragg grating ring resonator for nonlinear sensing applications,” Sensors (Basel) 14(9), 16017–16034 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Hu, K. Qin, I. Kravchenko, S. Retterer, and S. Weiss, “Suspended micro-ring resonator for enhanced biomolecule detection sensitivity,” Proc. SPIE 8933, 893306 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (5)

J. Y. Lee and P. M. Fauchet, “Slow-light dispersion in periodically patterned silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 37(1), 58–60 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. C. Lai, S. Chakravarty, Y. Zou, and R. T. Chen, “Silicon nano-membrane based photonic crystal microcavities for high sensitivity bio-sensing,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1208–1210 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kang, S. M. Weiss, Y. A. Vlasov, and S. Assefa, “Optimized light-matter interaction and defect hole placement in photonic crystal cavity sensors,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2850–2852 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chakravarty, Y. Zou, W. C. Lai, and R. T. Chen, “Slow light engineering for high Q high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors in silicon,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 38(1), 170–176 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, J. Covey, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, and R. Chen, “Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible high efficiency subwavelength grating couplers for silicon integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031109 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

S. Pal, E. Guillermain, R. Sriram, B. L. Miller, and P. M. Fauchet, “Silicon photonic crystal nanocavity-coupled waveguides for error-corrected optical biosensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(10), 4024–4031 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Scullion, A. Di Falco, and T. F. Krauss, “Slotted photonic crystal cavities with integrated microfluidics for biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 27(1), 101–105 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Qavi, J. T. Kindt, M. A. Gleeson, and R. C. Bailey, “Anti-DNA:RNA antibodies and silicon photonic microring resonators: increased sensitivity for multiplexed microRNA detection,” Anal. Chem. 83(15), 5949–5956 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

T. Claes, J. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (4)

2005 (2)

Assefa, S.

Baehr-Jones, T.

M. Iqbal, M. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Bailey, and L. Gunn, “Label-Free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

Bailey, R.

M. Iqbal, M. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Bailey, and L. Gunn, “Label-Free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bailey, R. C.

A. J. Qavi, J. T. Kindt, M. A. Gleeson, and R. C. Bailey, “Anti-DNA:RNA antibodies and silicon photonic microring resonators: increased sensitivity for multiplexed microRNA detection,” Anal. Chem. 83(15), 5949–5956 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balcytis, A.

Bartolozzi, I.

Beckx, S.

Bianucci, P.

Bienstman, P.

Bogaerts, W.

Buriak, J. M.

Buswell, S. C.

Campanella, C. E.

C. E. Campanella, F. De Leonardis, L. Mastronardi, P. Malara, G. Gagliardi, and V. M. Passaro, “Investigation of refractive index sensing based on Fano resonance in fiber Bragg grating ring resonators,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14301–14313 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. De Leonardis, C. E. Campanella, B. Troia, A. G. Perri, and V. M. Passaro, “Performance of SOI Bragg grating ring resonator for nonlinear sensing applications,” Sensors (Basel) 14(9), 16017–16034 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chakravarty, S.

S. Chakravarty, Y. Zou, W. C. Lai, and R. T. Chen, “Slow light engineering for high Q high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors in silicon,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 38(1), 170–176 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. C. Lai, S. Chakravarty, Y. Zou, and R. T. Chen, “Silicon nano-membrane based photonic crystal microcavities for high sensitivity bio-sensing,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1208–1210 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheben, P.

Chen, R.

X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, J. Covey, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, and R. Chen, “Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible high efficiency subwavelength grating couplers for silicon integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, R. T.

W. C. Lai, S. Chakravarty, Y. Zou, and R. T. Chen, “Silicon nano-membrane based photonic crystal microcavities for high sensitivity bio-sensing,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1208–1210 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chakravarty, Y. Zou, W. C. Lai, and R. T. Chen, “Slow light engineering for high Q high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors in silicon,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 38(1), 170–176 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheung, K. C.

Chrostowski, L.

Claes, T.

T. Claes, J. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Clarke, N.

Covey, J.

X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, J. Covey, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, and R. Chen, “Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible high efficiency subwavelength grating couplers for silicon integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031109 (2012).
[Crossref]

De Leonardis, F.

C. E. Campanella, F. De Leonardis, L. Mastronardi, P. Malara, G. Gagliardi, and V. M. Passaro, “Investigation of refractive index sensing based on Fano resonance in fiber Bragg grating ring resonators,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14301–14313 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. De Leonardis, C. E. Campanella, B. Troia, A. G. Perri, and V. M. Passaro, “Performance of SOI Bragg grating ring resonator for nonlinear sensing applications,” Sensors (Basel) 14(9), 16017–16034 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Vos, K.

T. Claes, J. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

Di Falco, A.

M. G. Scullion, A. Di Falco, and T. F. Krauss, “Slotted photonic crystal cavities with integrated microfluidics for biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 27(1), 101–105 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Donzella, V.

Dumon, P.

Evoy, S.

Fauchet, P. M.

Flueckiger, J.

Gabalis, M.

Gagliardi, G.

Gao, G.

G. Gao, Y. Zhang, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Q. Huang, and J. Xia, “Air-mode photonic crystal ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 19999 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gleeson, M.

M. Iqbal, M. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Bailey, and L. Gunn, “Label-Free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gleeson, M. A.

A. J. Qavi, J. T. Kindt, M. A. Gleeson, and R. C. Bailey, “Anti-DNA:RNA antibodies and silicon photonic microring resonators: increased sensitivity for multiplexed microRNA detection,” Anal. Chem. 83(15), 5949–5956 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldring, D.

Guillermain, E.

S. Pal, E. Guillermain, R. Sriram, B. L. Miller, and P. M. Fauchet, “Silicon photonic crystal nanocavity-coupled waveguides for error-corrected optical biosensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(10), 4024–4031 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gunn, L.

M. Iqbal, M. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Bailey, and L. Gunn, “Label-Free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gunn, W.

M. Iqbal, M. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Bailey, and L. Gunn, “Label-Free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hamidfar, T.

Hochberg, M.

M. Iqbal, M. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Bailey, and L. Gunn, “Label-Free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hosseini, A.

X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, J. Covey, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, and R. Chen, “Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible high efficiency subwavelength grating couplers for silicon integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hu, S.

S. Hu, Y. Zhao, K. Qin, S. Retterer, I. Kravchenko, and S. Weiss, “Enhancing the sensitivity of label-free silicon photonic biosensors through increased probe molecule density,” ACS Photonics 1(7), 590–597 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Hu, K. Qin, I. Kravchenko, S. Retterer, and S. Weiss, “Suspended micro-ring resonator for enhanced biomolecule detection sensitivity,” Proc. SPIE 8933, 893306 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, Q.

G. Gao, Y. Zhang, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Q. Huang, and J. Xia, “Air-mode photonic crystal ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 19999 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iqbal, M.

M. Iqbal, M. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Bailey, and L. Gunn, “Label-Free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Janz, S.

Kang, C.

Kindt, J. T.

A. J. Qavi, J. T. Kindt, M. A. Gleeson, and R. C. Bailey, “Anti-DNA:RNA antibodies and silicon photonic microring resonators: increased sensitivity for multiplexed microRNA detection,” Anal. Chem. 83(15), 5949–5956 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krauss, T. F.

M. G. Scullion, A. Di Falco, and T. F. Krauss, “Slotted photonic crystal cavities with integrated microfluidics for biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 27(1), 101–105 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kravchenko, I.

S. Hu, K. Qin, I. Kravchenko, S. Retterer, and S. Weiss, “Suspended micro-ring resonator for enhanced biomolecule detection sensitivity,” Proc. SPIE 8933, 893306 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Hu, Y. Zhao, K. Qin, S. Retterer, I. Kravchenko, and S. Weiss, “Enhancing the sensitivity of label-free silicon photonic biosensors through increased probe molecule density,” ACS Photonics 1(7), 590–597 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kwong, D.

X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, J. Covey, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, and R. Chen, “Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible high efficiency subwavelength grating couplers for silicon integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lai, W. C.

S. Chakravarty, Y. Zou, W. C. Lai, and R. T. Chen, “Slow light engineering for high Q high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors in silicon,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 38(1), 170–176 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. C. Lai, S. Chakravarty, Y. Zou, and R. T. Chen, “Silicon nano-membrane based photonic crystal microcavities for high sensitivity bio-sensing,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1208–1210 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lapointe, J.

Lee, J. Y.

Lee, M. R.

Lequin, R. M.

R. M. Lequin, “Enzyme immunoassay (EIA)/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA),” Clin. Chem. 51(12), 2415–2418 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levy, U.

Li, Y.

Liang, F.

Liu, Q. Y.

Loncar, M.

Lopinski, G.

Luyssaert, B.

Ma, R.

Malara, P.

Mastronardi, L.

McGarvey-Lechable, K.

Mendlovic, D.

Miller, B. L.

S. Pal, E. Guillermain, R. Sriram, B. L. Miller, and P. M. Fauchet, “Silicon photonic crystal nanocavity-coupled waveguides for error-corrected optical biosensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(10), 4024–4031 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Molera, J.

T. Claes, J. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pal, S.

S. Pal, E. Guillermain, R. Sriram, B. L. Miller, and P. M. Fauchet, “Silicon photonic crystal nanocavity-coupled waveguides for error-corrected optical biosensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(10), 4024–4031 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Passaro, V. M.

C. E. Campanella, F. De Leonardis, L. Mastronardi, P. Malara, G. Gagliardi, and V. M. Passaro, “Investigation of refractive index sensing based on Fano resonance in fiber Bragg grating ring resonators,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14301–14313 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. De Leonardis, C. E. Campanella, B. Troia, A. G. Perri, and V. M. Passaro, “Performance of SOI Bragg grating ring resonator for nonlinear sensing applications,” Sensors (Basel) 14(9), 16017–16034 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patel, D.

Patel, P.

Perri, A. G.

F. De Leonardis, C. E. Campanella, B. Troia, A. G. Perri, and V. M. Passaro, “Performance of SOI Bragg grating ring resonator for nonlinear sensing applications,” Sensors (Basel) 14(9), 16017–16034 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petruškevicius, R.

Phare, C. T.

Plant, D. V.

Qavi, A. J.

A. J. Qavi, J. T. Kindt, M. A. Gleeson, and R. C. Bailey, “Anti-DNA:RNA antibodies and silicon photonic microring resonators: increased sensitivity for multiplexed microRNA detection,” Anal. Chem. 83(15), 5949–5956 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qin, K.

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S. Hu, Y. Zhao, K. Qin, S. Retterer, I. Kravchenko, and S. Weiss, “Enhancing the sensitivity of label-free silicon photonic biosensors through increased probe molecule density,” ACS Photonics 1(7), 590–597 (2014).
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Ratner, D. M.

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S. Hu, K. Qin, I. Kravchenko, S. Retterer, and S. Weiss, “Suspended micro-ring resonator for enhanced biomolecule detection sensitivity,” Proc. SPIE 8933, 893306 (2014).
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S. Hu, Y. Zhao, K. Qin, S. Retterer, I. Kravchenko, and S. Weiss, “Enhancing the sensitivity of label-free silicon photonic biosensors through increased probe molecule density,” ACS Photonics 1(7), 590–597 (2014).
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Schacht, E.

T. Claes, J. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
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K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
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Schmidt, S.

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M. G. Scullion, A. Di Falco, and T. F. Krauss, “Slotted photonic crystal cavities with integrated microfluidics for biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 27(1), 101–105 (2011).
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M. Iqbal, M. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Bailey, and L. Gunn, “Label-Free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
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Sriram, R.

S. Pal, E. Guillermain, R. Sriram, B. L. Miller, and P. M. Fauchet, “Silicon photonic crystal nanocavity-coupled waveguides for error-corrected optical biosensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(10), 4024–4031 (2011).
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Subbaraman, H.

X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, J. Covey, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, and R. Chen, “Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible high efficiency subwavelength grating couplers for silicon integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031109 (2012).
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Taillaert, D.

Troia, B.

F. De Leonardis, C. E. Campanella, B. Troia, A. G. Perri, and V. M. Passaro, “Performance of SOI Bragg grating ring resonator for nonlinear sensing applications,” Sensors (Basel) 14(9), 16017–16034 (2014).
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M. Iqbal, M. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Bailey, and L. Gunn, “Label-Free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
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G. Gao, Y. Zhang, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Q. Huang, and J. Xia, “Air-mode photonic crystal ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 19999 (2016).
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S. Hu, K. Qin, I. Kravchenko, S. Retterer, and S. Weiss, “Suspended micro-ring resonator for enhanced biomolecule detection sensitivity,” Proc. SPIE 8933, 893306 (2014).
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G. Gao, Y. Zhang, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Q. Huang, and J. Xia, “Air-mode photonic crystal ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 19999 (2016).
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G. Gao, Y. Zhang, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Q. Huang, and J. Xia, “Air-mode photonic crystal ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 19999 (2016).
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Zhao, Y.

S. Hu, Y. Zhao, K. Qin, S. Retterer, I. Kravchenko, and S. Weiss, “Enhancing the sensitivity of label-free silicon photonic biosensors through increased probe molecule density,” ACS Photonics 1(7), 590–597 (2014).
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S. Chakravarty, Y. Zou, W. C. Lai, and R. T. Chen, “Slow light engineering for high Q high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors in silicon,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 38(1), 170–176 (2012).
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ACS Photonics (1)

S. Hu, Y. Zhao, K. Qin, S. Retterer, I. Kravchenko, and S. Weiss, “Enhancing the sensitivity of label-free silicon photonic biosensors through increased probe molecule density,” ACS Photonics 1(7), 590–597 (2014).
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Anal. Chem. (1)

A. J. Qavi, J. T. Kindt, M. A. Gleeson, and R. C. Bailey, “Anti-DNA:RNA antibodies and silicon photonic microring resonators: increased sensitivity for multiplexed microRNA detection,” Anal. Chem. 83(15), 5949–5956 (2011).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, J. Covey, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, and R. Chen, “Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible high efficiency subwavelength grating couplers for silicon integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (3)

M. G. Scullion, A. Di Falco, and T. F. Krauss, “Slotted photonic crystal cavities with integrated microfluidics for biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 27(1), 101–105 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chakravarty, Y. Zou, W. C. Lai, and R. T. Chen, “Slow light engineering for high Q high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors in silicon,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 38(1), 170–176 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Pal, E. Guillermain, R. Sriram, B. L. Miller, and P. M. Fauchet, “Silicon photonic crystal nanocavity-coupled waveguides for error-corrected optical biosensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(10), 4024–4031 (2011).
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Clin. Chem. (1)

R. M. Lequin, “Enzyme immunoassay (EIA)/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA),” Clin. Chem. 51(12), 2415–2418 (2005).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Iqbal, M. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Bailey, and L. Gunn, “Label-Free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

T. Claes, J. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
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J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Express (10)

D. Goldring, U. Levy, and D. Mendlovic, “Highly dispersive micro-ring resonator based on one dimensional photonic crystal waveguide design and analysis,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3156–3168 (2007).
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M. R. Lee and P. M. Fauchet, “Two-dimensional silicon photonic crystal based biosensing platform for protein detection,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4530–4535 (2007).
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K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
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F. Liang, N. Clarke, P. Patel, M. Loncar, and Q. Quan, “Scalable photonic crystal chips for high sensitivity protein detection,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32306–32312 (2013).
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K. McGarvey-Lechable and P. Bianucci, “Maximizing slow-light enhancement in one-dimensional photonic crystal ring resonators,” Opt. Express 22(21), 26032–26041 (2014).
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C. E. Campanella, F. De Leonardis, L. Mastronardi, P. Malara, G. Gagliardi, and V. M. Passaro, “Investigation of refractive index sensing based on Fano resonance in fiber Bragg grating ring resonators,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14301–14313 (2015).
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J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, V. Donzella, A. Sherwali, D. M. Ratner, L. Chrostowski, and K. C. Cheung, “Sub-wavelength grating for enhanced ring resonator biosensor,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15672–15686 (2016).
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S. C. Buswell, V. A. Wright, J. M. Buriak, V. Van, and S. Evoy, “Specific detection of proteins using photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15949–15957 (2008).
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K. McGarvey-Lechable, T. Hamidfar, D. Patel, L. Xu, D. V. Plant, and P. Bianucci, “Slow light in mass-produced, dispersion-engineered photonic crystal ring resonators,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3916–3926 (2017).
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Opt. Lett. (6)

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Hu, K. Qin, I. Kravchenko, S. Retterer, and S. Weiss, “Suspended micro-ring resonator for enhanced biomolecule detection sensitivity,” Proc. SPIE 8933, 893306 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

G. Gao, Y. Zhang, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Q. Huang, and J. Xia, “Air-mode photonic crystal ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 19999 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sensors (Basel) (1)

F. De Leonardis, C. E. Campanella, B. Troia, A. G. Perri, and V. M. Passaro, “Performance of SOI Bragg grating ring resonator for nonlinear sensing applications,” Sensors (Basel) 14(9), 16017–16034 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

S. Lo, S. Hu, S. Weiss, and P. Fauchet, “Photonic crystal microring resonator based sensors,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics:2014, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper JTu4A.79.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Top-view SEM image of the fabricated photonic crystal microring resonator. (b) Magnified SEM image of the coupling region of the PhCR (boxed region in (a)). (c) Finite-difference time-domain calculated optical mode profile when the photonic crystal microring resonator is on-resonance, which shows that a fraction of the optical field is located at the edge of air holes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured TE-polarized transmission spectrum of the PhCR. PBG: photonic band gap. (Inset) Measured transmission spectra of PhCR exposed to DI water and different concentrations of salt water solution. Resonances are red shifted when salt concentration is increased. (b) Resonance shifts of PhCR and control microring exposed to different concentrations of salt water solution. The solid lines are linear fits to the data.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured TE-polarized transmission spectra of a PhCR after various surface functionalization steps and after exposure to 500nM target DNA. (b) Resonance red shifts for PhCR and control microring resonators for each step of the DNA detection experiment. Three PhCRs were tested in the experiments.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Measured TE-polarized transmission spectra of the PhCR after various surface functionalization steps and after exposure to various concentrations of target proteins. (b) Resonance red shifts for PhCR and control microring resonators for each step of the protein detection experiment. STV: streptavidin.

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