Abstract

3D printing based on additive manufacturing is an advanced manufacturing technique that allows the fabrication of arbitrary macroscopic and microscopic objects. Many 3D printing systems require large optical elements or nozzles in proximity to the built structure. This prevents their use in applications in which there is no direct access to the area where the objects have to be printed. Here, we demonstrate three-dimensional microfabrication based on two-photon polymerization (TPP) through an ultra-thin printing nozzle of 560 µm in diameter. Using wavefront shaping, femtosecond infrared pulses are focused and scanned through a multimode optical fiber (MMF) inside a photoresist that polymerizes via two-photon absorption. We show the construction of arbitrary 3D structures built with voxels of diameters down to 400 nm on the other side of the fiber. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of microfabrication through a multimode optical fiber. The proposed printing nozzle can reach and manufacture micro-structures in otherwise inaccessible areas through small apertures. Our work represents a new area which we refer to as endofabrication.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (1)

L. Jonušauskas, D. Gailevičius, L. Mikoliūnaitė, D. Sakalauskas, S. Šakirzanovas, S. Juodkazis, and M. Malinauskas, “Optically clear and resilient free-form µ-optics 3D-printed via ultrafast laser lithography,” Materials (Basel) 10(1), 12 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

K. Maximova, X. Wang, A. Balčytis, L. Fan, J. Li, and S. Juodkazis, “Silk patterns made by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Biomicrofluidics 10(5), 054101 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Conkey, N. Stasio, E. E. Morales-Delgado, M. Romito, C. Moser, and D. Psaltis, “Lensless two-photon imaging through a multicore fiber with coherence-gated digital phase conjugation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(4), 45002 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Gissibl, S. Thiele, A. Herkommer, and H. Giessen, “Two-photon direct laser writing of ultracompact multi-lens objectives,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 554–560 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. J. Jiang, J. H. Campbell, Y. F. Lu, T. Bernat, and N. Petta, “Direct writing target structures by two-photon polymerization,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 70(2), 295–309 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Gissibl, M. Schmid, and H. Giessen, “Spatial beam intensity shaping using phase masks on single-mode optical fibers fabricated by femtosecond direct laser writing,” Optica 3(4), 448–451 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

E. E. Morales-Delgado, S. Farahi, I. N. Papadopoulos, D. Psaltis, and C. Moser, “Delivery of focused short pulses through a multimode fiber,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9109–9120 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Loterie, S. Farahi, I. Papadopoulos, A. Goy, D. Psaltis, and C. Moser, “Digital confocal microscopy through a multimode fiber,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23845–23858 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. E. Morales-Delgado, D. Psaltis, and C. Moser, “Two-photon imaging through a multimode fiber,” Opt. Express 23(25), 32158–32170 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Xing, M. L. Zheng, and X. M. Duan, “Two-photon polymerization microfabrication of hydrogels: an advanced 3D printing technology for tissue engineering and drug delivery,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(15), 5031–5039 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Plöschner, T. Tyc, and T. Cizmar, “Seeing through chaos in multimode fibres,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 529–535 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Spagnolo, V. Brunetti, G. Leménager, E. De Luca, L. Sileo, T. Pellegrino, P. Paolo Pompa, M. De Vittorio, and F. Pisanello, “Three-dimensional cage-like microscaffolds for cell invasion studies,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10531 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

2013 (5)

2012 (7)

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, and W. Choi, “Scanner-free and wide-field endoscopic imaging by using a single multimode optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(20), 203901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Cižmár and K. Dholakia, “Exploiting multimode waveguides for pure fibre-based imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1027 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kim, Y. Choi, C. Yoon, W. Choi, J. Kim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, “Maximal energy transport through disordered media with the implementation of transmission eigenchannels,” Nat. Photonics 6(9), 583–587 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Sun, W. F. Dong, R. Z. Yang, X. Meng, L. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, “Dynamically tunable protein microlenses,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(7), 1558–1562 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. C. Lee, Y. J. Heo, and S. Takeuchi, “Wall-less liquid pathways formed with three-dimensional microring arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(11), 114108 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. B. Conkey, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, and R. Piestun, “High-speed scattering medium characterization with application to focusing light through turbid media,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1733–1740 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. N. Papadopoulos, S. Farahi, C. Moser, and D. Psaltis, “Focusing and scanning light through a multimode optical fiber using digital phase conjugation,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10583–10590 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

2010 (4)

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, V. Purlys, K. Belazaras, A. Momot, D. Paipulas, R. Gadonas, A. Piskarskas, H. Gilbergs, A. Gaidukeviciute, I. Sakellari, M. Farsari, and S. Juodkazis, “Femtosecond laser polymerization of hybrid/integrated micro-optical elements and their characterization,” J. Opt. 12(12), 124010 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Thiel, J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional submicron structures using a continuous-wave laser at 532 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 221102 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Malinauskas, H. Gilbergs, A. Zukauskas, V. Purlys, D. Paipulas, and R. Gadonas, “A femtosecond laser-induced two-photon photopolymerization technique for structuring microlenses,” J. Opt. 12(3), 035204 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, “Achieving lambda/20 resolution by one-color initiation and deactivation of polymerization,” Science 324(5929), 910–913 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Göppert-Mayer, “Elementary processes with two quantum transitions,” Ann. Phys-Berlin 18(7-8), 466–479 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Universal optimal transmission of light through disordered materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 120601 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Multicolor polymer nanocomposites: In situ synthesis and fabrication of 3D microstructures,” Adv. Mater. 20(5), 914–919 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

J. F. Xing, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, X. M. Duan, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Improving spatial resolution of two-photon microfabrication by using photoinitiator with high initiating efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131106 (2007).
[Crossref]

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Focusing coherent light through opaque strongly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2309–2311 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, D. Y. Yang, N. C. Cho, and K. S. Lee, “Fabrication of a bunch of sub-30-nm nanofibers inside microchannels using photopolymerization via a long exposure technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173133 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

R. Yang, W. J. Wang, and S. A. Soper, “Out-of-plane microlens array fabricated using ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161110 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 444–447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

E. Andrzejewska, M. B. Bogacki, M. Andrzejewski, and M. Janaszczyk, “Termination mechanism during the photo-induced radical cross-linking polymerization in the presence and absence of oxygen,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5(12), 2635–2642 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

O. Lammel and A. Penzkofer, “Femtosecond pulse duration measurement by two-photon fluorescence detection,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32(10), 1147–1160 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. M. Lane, A. L. P. Dlugan, R. Richards-Kortum, and C. E. Macaulay, “Fiber-optic confocal microscopy using a spatial light modulator,” Opt. Lett. 25(24), 1780–1782 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

I. V. Khudyakov, J. C. Legg, M. B. Purvis, and B. J. Overton, “Kinetics of photopolymerization of acrylates with functionality of 1-6,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 38(9), 3353–3359 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization of resin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(6), 786–788 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. W. Perry, B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, and S. R. Marder, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

1991 (1)

1987 (1)

1978 (1)

Ananthavel, S. P.

J. W. Perry, B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, and S. R. Marder, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Andresen, E. R.

Andrzejewska, E.

E. Andrzejewska, M. B. Bogacki, M. Andrzejewski, and M. Janaszczyk, “Termination mechanism during the photo-induced radical cross-linking polymerization in the presence and absence of oxygen,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5(12), 2635–2642 (2003).
[Crossref]

Andrzejewski, M.

E. Andrzejewska, M. B. Bogacki, M. Andrzejewski, and M. Janaszczyk, “Termination mechanism during the photo-induced radical cross-linking polymerization in the presence and absence of oxygen,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5(12), 2635–2642 (2003).
[Crossref]

Balcytis, A.

K. Maximova, X. Wang, A. Balčytis, L. Fan, J. Li, and S. Juodkazis, “Silk patterns made by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Biomicrofluidics 10(5), 054101 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barlow, S.

J. W. Perry, B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, and S. R. Marder, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bastmeyer, M.

F. Klein, B. Richter, T. Striebel, C. M. Franz, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, and M. Bastmeyer, “Two-component polymer scaffolds for controlled three-dimensional cell culture,” Adv. Mater. 23(11), 1341–1345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beckwith, P.

Belazaras, K.

M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, V. Purlys, K. Belazaras, A. Momot, D. Paipulas, R. Gadonas, A. Piskarskas, H. Gilbergs, A. Gaidukeviciute, I. Sakellari, M. Farsari, and S. Juodkazis, “Femtosecond laser polymerization of hybrid/integrated micro-optical elements and their characterization,” J. Opt. 12(12), 124010 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bernat, T.

L. J. Jiang, J. H. Campbell, Y. F. Lu, T. Bernat, and N. Petta, “Direct writing target structures by two-photon polymerization,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 70(2), 295–309 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bianchi, S.

Boccara, A. C.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bogacki, M. B.

E. Andrzejewska, M. B. Bogacki, M. Andrzejewski, and M. Janaszczyk, “Termination mechanism during the photo-induced radical cross-linking polymerization in the presence and absence of oxygen,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5(12), 2635–2642 (2003).
[Crossref]

Boiko, D. L.

Bouwmans, G.

Brakenhoff, G. J.

Brauer, N. B.

Bromberg, Y.

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, “Focusing and compression of ultrashort pulses through scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 372–377 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brugger, J.

Brunetti, V.

B. Spagnolo, V. Brunetti, G. Leménager, E. De Luca, L. Sileo, T. Pellegrino, P. Paolo Pompa, M. De Vittorio, and F. Pisanello, “Three-dimensional cage-like microscaffolds for cell invasion studies,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10531 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Busch, K.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 444–447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, J. H.

L. J. Jiang, J. H. Campbell, Y. F. Lu, T. Bernat, and N. Petta, “Direct writing target structures by two-photon polymerization,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 70(2), 295–309 (2016).
[Crossref]

Caravaca-Aguirre, A. M.

Carminati, R.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Charbon, E.

Chen, Q. D.

Y. L. Sun, W. F. Dong, R. Z. Yang, X. Meng, L. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, “Dynamically tunable protein microlenses,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(7), 1558–1562 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W. Q.

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Multicolor polymer nanocomposites: In situ synthesis and fabrication of 3D microstructures,” Adv. Mater. 20(5), 914–919 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. F. Xing, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, X. M. Duan, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Improving spatial resolution of two-photon microfabrication by using photoinitiator with high initiating efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cho, N. C.

S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, D. Y. Yang, N. C. Cho, and K. S. Lee, “Fabrication of a bunch of sub-30-nm nanofibers inside microchannels using photopolymerization via a long exposure technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173133 (2006).
[Crossref]

Choi, W.

D. Kim, J. Moon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, J. Kim, E. Chung, and W. Choi, “Toward a miniature endomicroscope: pixelation-free and diffraction-limited imaging through a fiber bundle,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 1921–1924 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kim, Y. Choi, C. Yoon, W. Choi, J. Kim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, “Maximal energy transport through disordered media with the implementation of transmission eigenchannels,” Nat. Photonics 6(9), 583–587 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Kim, Y. Choi, C. Yoon, W. Choi, J. Kim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, “Maximal energy transport through disordered media with the implementation of transmission eigenchannels,” Nat. Photonics 6(9), 583–587 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, and W. Choi, “Scanner-free and wide-field endoscopic imaging by using a single multimode optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(20), 203901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, Y.

M. Kim, Y. Choi, C. Yoon, W. Choi, J. Kim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, “Maximal energy transport through disordered media with the implementation of transmission eigenchannels,” Nat. Photonics 6(9), 583–587 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, and W. Choi, “Scanner-free and wide-field endoscopic imaging by using a single multimode optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(20), 203901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, E.

Cizmar, T.

M. Plöschner, T. Tyc, and T. Cizmar, “Seeing through chaos in multimode fibres,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 529–535 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cižmár, T.

Conkey, D. B.

D. B. Conkey, N. Stasio, E. E. Morales-Delgado, M. Romito, C. Moser, and D. Psaltis, “Lensless two-photon imaging through a multicore fiber with coherence-gated digital phase conjugation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(4), 45002 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Conkey, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, and R. Piestun, “High-speed scattering medium characterization with application to focusing light through turbid media,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1733–1740 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cumpston, B. H.

J. W. Perry, B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, and S. R. Marder, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dasari, R. R.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, and W. Choi, “Scanner-free and wide-field endoscopic imaging by using a single multimode optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(20), 203901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Luca, E.

B. Spagnolo, V. Brunetti, G. Leménager, E. De Luca, L. Sileo, T. Pellegrino, P. Paolo Pompa, M. De Vittorio, and F. Pisanello, “Three-dimensional cage-like microscaffolds for cell invasion studies,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10531 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Vittorio, M.

B. Spagnolo, V. Brunetti, G. Leménager, E. De Luca, L. Sileo, T. Pellegrino, P. Paolo Pompa, M. De Vittorio, and F. Pisanello, “Three-dimensional cage-like microscaffolds for cell invasion studies,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10531 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deubel, M.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 444–447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dholakia, K.

Di Fabrizio, E.

Di Leonardo, R.

Dlugan, A. L. P.

Dong, W. F.

Y. L. Sun, W. F. Dong, R. Z. Yang, X. Meng, L. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, “Dynamically tunable protein microlenses,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(7), 1558–1562 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, X. Z.

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Multicolor polymer nanocomposites: In situ synthesis and fabrication of 3D microstructures,” Adv. Mater. 20(5), 914–919 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. F. Xing, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, X. M. Duan, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Improving spatial resolution of two-photon microfabrication by using photoinitiator with high initiating efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Duan, X. M.

J. F. Xing, M. L. Zheng, and X. M. Duan, “Two-photon polymerization microfabrication of hydrogels: an advanced 3D printing technology for tissue engineering and drug delivery,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(15), 5031–5039 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Multicolor polymer nanocomposites: In situ synthesis and fabrication of 3D microstructures,” Adv. Mater. 20(5), 914–919 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. F. Xing, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, X. M. Duan, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Improving spatial resolution of two-photon microfabrication by using photoinitiator with high initiating efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dyer, D. L.

J. W. Perry, B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, and S. R. Marder, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ehrlich, J. E.

J. W. Perry, B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, and S. R. Marder, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Erskine, L. L.

J. W. Perry, B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, and S. R. Marder, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fakhfouri, V.

Fan, L.

K. Maximova, X. Wang, A. Balčytis, L. Fan, J. Li, and S. Juodkazis, “Silk patterns made by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Biomicrofluidics 10(5), 054101 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang-Yen, C.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, and W. Choi, “Scanner-free and wide-field endoscopic imaging by using a single multimode optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(20), 203901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farahi, S.

Farsari, M.

M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, V. Purlys, K. Belazaras, A. Momot, D. Paipulas, R. Gadonas, A. Piskarskas, H. Gilbergs, A. Gaidukeviciute, I. Sakellari, M. Farsari, and S. Juodkazis, “Femtosecond laser polymerization of hybrid/integrated micro-optical elements and their characterization,” J. Opt. 12(12), 124010 (2010).
[Crossref]

Feit, M. D.

Ferrara, L.

Fink, M.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fischer, J.

J. B. Mueller, J. Fischer, F. Mayer, M. Kadic, and M. Wegener, “Polymerization kinetics in three-dimensional direct laser writing,” Adv. Mater. 26(38), 6566–6571 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Fischer and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional optical laser lithography beyond the diffraction limit,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 22–44 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Thiel, J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional submicron structures using a continuous-wave laser at 532 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 221102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fleck, J. A.

Forman, P. R.

Fourkas, J. T.

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, “Achieving lambda/20 resolution by one-color initiation and deactivation of polymerization,” Science 324(5929), 910–913 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Franz, C. M.

F. Klein, B. Richter, T. Striebel, C. M. Franz, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, and M. Bastmeyer, “Two-component polymer scaffolds for controlled three-dimensional cell culture,” Adv. Mater. 23(11), 1341–1345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freppon, D. J.

Gadonas, R.

M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, V. Purlys, K. Belazaras, A. Momot, D. Paipulas, R. Gadonas, A. Piskarskas, H. Gilbergs, A. Gaidukeviciute, I. Sakellari, M. Farsari, and S. Juodkazis, “Femtosecond laser polymerization of hybrid/integrated micro-optical elements and their characterization,” J. Opt. 12(12), 124010 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Malinauskas, H. Gilbergs, A. Zukauskas, V. Purlys, D. Paipulas, and R. Gadonas, “A femtosecond laser-induced two-photon photopolymerization technique for structuring microlenses,” J. Opt. 12(3), 035204 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gaidukeviciute, A.

M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, V. Purlys, K. Belazaras, A. Momot, D. Paipulas, R. Gadonas, A. Piskarskas, H. Gilbergs, A. Gaidukeviciute, I. Sakellari, M. Farsari, and S. Juodkazis, “Femtosecond laser polymerization of hybrid/integrated micro-optical elements and their characterization,” J. Opt. 12(12), 124010 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gailevicius, D.

L. Jonušauskas, D. Gailevičius, L. Mikoliūnaitė, D. Sakalauskas, S. Šakirzanovas, S. Juodkazis, and M. Malinauskas, “Optically clear and resilient free-form µ-optics 3D-printed via ultrafast laser lithography,” Materials (Basel) 10(1), 12 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gattass, R. R.

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, “Achieving lambda/20 resolution by one-color initiation and deactivation of polymerization,” Science 324(5929), 910–913 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gershgoren, E.

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, “Achieving lambda/20 resolution by one-color initiation and deactivation of polymerization,” Science 324(5929), 910–913 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

T. Gissibl, M. Schmid, and H. Giessen, “Spatial beam intensity shaping using phase masks on single-mode optical fibers fabricated by femtosecond direct laser writing,” Optica 3(4), 448–451 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Gissibl, S. Thiele, A. Herkommer, and H. Giessen, “Two-photon direct laser writing of ultracompact multi-lens objectives,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 554–560 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gigan, S.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gilbergs, H.

M. Malinauskas, H. Gilbergs, A. Zukauskas, V. Purlys, D. Paipulas, and R. Gadonas, “A femtosecond laser-induced two-photon photopolymerization technique for structuring microlenses,” J. Opt. 12(3), 035204 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, V. Purlys, K. Belazaras, A. Momot, D. Paipulas, R. Gadonas, A. Piskarskas, H. Gilbergs, A. Gaidukeviciute, I. Sakellari, M. Farsari, and S. Juodkazis, “Femtosecond laser polymerization of hybrid/integrated micro-optical elements and their characterization,” J. Opt. 12(12), 124010 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gissibl, T.

T. Gissibl, S. Thiele, A. Herkommer, and H. Giessen, “Two-photon direct laser writing of ultracompact multi-lens objectives,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 554–560 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Gissibl, M. Schmid, and H. Giessen, “Spatial beam intensity shaping using phase masks on single-mode optical fibers fabricated by femtosecond direct laser writing,” Optica 3(4), 448–451 (2016).
[Crossref]

Göppert-Mayer, M.

M. Göppert-Mayer, “Elementary processes with two quantum transitions,” Ann. Phys-Berlin 18(7-8), 466–479 (2009).
[Crossref]

Goy, A.

Grutzner, G.

Heikal, A. A.

J. W. Perry, B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, and S. R. Marder, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Heo, Y. J.

W. C. Lee, Y. J. Heo, and S. Takeuchi, “Wall-less liquid pathways formed with three-dimensional microring arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(11), 114108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Herkommer, A.

T. Gissibl, S. Thiele, A. Herkommer, and H. Giessen, “Two-photon direct laser writing of ultracompact multi-lens objectives,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 554–560 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hwang, H.

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, “Achieving lambda/20 resolution by one-color initiation and deactivation of polymerization,” Science 324(5929), 910–913 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jahoda, F. C.

Janaszczyk, M.

E. Andrzejewska, M. B. Bogacki, M. Andrzejewski, and M. Janaszczyk, “Termination mechanism during the photo-induced radical cross-linking polymerization in the presence and absence of oxygen,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5(12), 2635–2642 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jiang, L. J.

L. J. Jiang, J. H. Campbell, Y. F. Lu, T. Bernat, and N. Petta, “Direct writing target structures by two-photon polymerization,” Fus. Sci. Technol. 70(2), 295–309 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jonušauskas, L.

L. Jonušauskas, D. Gailevičius, L. Mikoliūnaitė, D. Sakalauskas, S. Šakirzanovas, S. Juodkazis, and M. Malinauskas, “Optically clear and resilient free-form µ-optics 3D-printed via ultrafast laser lithography,” Materials (Basel) 10(1), 12 (2017).
[Crossref]

Juodkazis, S.

L. Jonušauskas, D. Gailevičius, L. Mikoliūnaitė, D. Sakalauskas, S. Šakirzanovas, S. Juodkazis, and M. Malinauskas, “Optically clear and resilient free-form µ-optics 3D-printed via ultrafast laser lithography,” Materials (Basel) 10(1), 12 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Maximova, X. Wang, A. Balčytis, L. Fan, J. Li, and S. Juodkazis, “Silk patterns made by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Biomicrofluidics 10(5), 054101 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, V. Purlys, K. Belazaras, A. Momot, D. Paipulas, R. Gadonas, A. Piskarskas, H. Gilbergs, A. Gaidukeviciute, I. Sakellari, M. Farsari, and S. Juodkazis, “Femtosecond laser polymerization of hybrid/integrated micro-optical elements and their characterization,” J. Opt. 12(12), 124010 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kadic, M.

J. B. Mueller, J. Fischer, F. Mayer, M. Kadic, and M. Wegener, “Polymerization kinetics in three-dimensional direct laser writing,” Adv. Mater. 26(38), 6566–6571 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Katz, O.

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, “Focusing and compression of ultrashort pulses through scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 372–377 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kawata, S.

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Multicolor polymer nanocomposites: In situ synthesis and fabrication of 3D microstructures,” Adv. Mater. 20(5), 914–919 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. F. Xing, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, X. M. Duan, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Improving spatial resolution of two-photon microfabrication by using photoinitiator with high initiating efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131106 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Maruo, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, “Three-dimensional microfabrication with two-photon-absorbed photopolymerization,” Opt. Lett. 22(2), 132–134 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khudyakov, I. V.

I. V. Khudyakov, J. C. Legg, M. B. Purvis, and B. J. Overton, “Kinetics of photopolymerization of acrylates with functionality of 1-6,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 38(9), 3353–3359 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.

Kim, J.

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Tyc, T.

M. Plöschner, T. Tyc, and T. Cizmar, “Seeing through chaos in multimode fibres,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 529–535 (2015).
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Vaezi, M.

M. Vaezi, H. Seitz, and S. F. Yang, “A review on 3D micro-additive manufacturing technologies,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 67(5-8), 1721–1754 (2013).
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I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Focusing coherent light through opaque strongly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2309–2311 (2007).
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von Freymann, G.

F. Klein, B. Richter, T. Striebel, C. M. Franz, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, and M. Bastmeyer, “Two-component polymer scaffolds for controlled three-dimensional cell culture,” Adv. Mater. 23(11), 1341–1345 (2011).
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M. Thiel, J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional submicron structures using a continuous-wave laser at 532 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 221102 (2010).
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M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 444–447 (2004).
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Wang, W. J.

R. Yang, W. J. Wang, and S. A. Soper, “Out-of-plane microlens array fabricated using ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161110 (2005).
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Wang, X.

K. Maximova, X. Wang, A. Balčytis, L. Fan, J. Li, and S. Juodkazis, “Silk patterns made by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Biomicrofluidics 10(5), 054101 (2016).
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Wegener, M.

J. B. Mueller, J. Fischer, F. Mayer, M. Kadic, and M. Wegener, “Polymerization kinetics in three-dimensional direct laser writing,” Adv. Mater. 26(38), 6566–6571 (2014).
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J. Fischer and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional optical laser lithography beyond the diffraction limit,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 22–44 (2013).
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F. Klein, B. Richter, T. Striebel, C. M. Franz, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, and M. Bastmeyer, “Two-component polymer scaffolds for controlled three-dimensional cell culture,” Adv. Mater. 23(11), 1341–1345 (2011).
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M. Thiel, J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional submicron structures using a continuous-wave laser at 532 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 221102 (2010).
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M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 444–447 (2004).
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Williams, H. E.

Wu, X.-L.

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Xing, J. F.

J. F. Xing, M. L. Zheng, and X. M. Duan, “Two-photon polymerization microfabrication of hydrogels: an advanced 3D printing technology for tissue engineering and drug delivery,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(15), 5031–5039 (2015).
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J. F. Xing, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, X. M. Duan, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Improving spatial resolution of two-photon microfabrication by using photoinitiator with high initiating efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131106 (2007).
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Yang, D. Y.

S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, D. Y. Yang, N. C. Cho, and K. S. Lee, “Fabrication of a bunch of sub-30-nm nanofibers inside microchannels using photopolymerization via a long exposure technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173133 (2006).
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R. Yang, W. J. Wang, and S. A. Soper, “Out-of-plane microlens array fabricated using ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161110 (2005).
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Y. L. Sun, W. F. Dong, R. Z. Yang, X. Meng, L. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, “Dynamically tunable protein microlenses,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(7), 1558–1562 (2012).
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M. Vaezi, H. Seitz, and S. F. Yang, “A review on 3D micro-additive manufacturing technologies,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 67(5-8), 1721–1754 (2013).
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Yoon, C.

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Y. L. Sun, W. F. Dong, R. Z. Yang, X. Meng, L. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, “Dynamically tunable protein microlenses,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(7), 1558–1562 (2012).
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J. F. Xing, M. L. Zheng, and X. M. Duan, “Two-photon polymerization microfabrication of hydrogels: an advanced 3D printing technology for tissue engineering and drug delivery,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(15), 5031–5039 (2015).
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F. Klein, B. Richter, T. Striebel, C. M. Franz, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, and M. Bastmeyer, “Two-component polymer scaffolds for controlled three-dimensional cell culture,” Adv. Mater. 23(11), 1341–1345 (2011).
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Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

Y. L. Sun, W. F. Dong, R. Z. Yang, X. Meng, L. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, “Dynamically tunable protein microlenses,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(7), 1558–1562 (2012).
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Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Biomicrofluidics (1)

K. Maximova, X. Wang, A. Balčytis, L. Fan, J. Li, and S. Juodkazis, “Silk patterns made by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Biomicrofluidics 10(5), 054101 (2016).
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Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

J. F. Xing, M. L. Zheng, and X. M. Duan, “Two-photon polymerization microfabrication of hydrogels: an advanced 3D printing technology for tissue engineering and drug delivery,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(15), 5031–5039 (2015).
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J. Fischer and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional optical laser lithography beyond the diffraction limit,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 22–44 (2013).
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Materials (Basel) (1)

L. Jonušauskas, D. Gailevičius, L. Mikoliūnaitė, D. Sakalauskas, S. Šakirzanovas, S. Juodkazis, and M. Malinauskas, “Optically clear and resilient free-form µ-optics 3D-printed via ultrafast laser lithography,” Materials (Basel) 10(1), 12 (2017).
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M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 444–447 (2004).
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Nat. Photonics (4)

M. Plöschner, T. Tyc, and T. Cizmar, “Seeing through chaos in multimode fibres,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 529–535 (2015).
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M. Kim, Y. Choi, C. Yoon, W. Choi, J. Kim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, “Maximal energy transport through disordered media with the implementation of transmission eigenchannels,” Nat. Photonics 6(9), 583–587 (2012).
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T. Gissibl, S. Thiele, A. Herkommer, and H. Giessen, “Two-photon direct laser writing of ultracompact multi-lens objectives,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 554–560 (2016).
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J. W. Perry, B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, and S. R. Marder, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
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Opt. Express (10)

H. E. Williams, D. J. Freppon, S. M. Kuebler, R. C. Rumpf, and M. A. Melino, “Fabrication of three-dimensional micro-photonic structures on the tip of optical fibers using SU-8,” Opt. Express 19(23), 22910–22922 (2011).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Working principle of direct laser writing (DLW). (a) DLW based on a microscope objective. (b) DLW based on a multimode fiber. The fiber can enter and micro-fabricate inside areas difficult to access.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Pulsed light transmission through the multimode fiber. (a) Speckle-like pattern produced on one end of the fiber when light is focused with a microscope objective on the other end. (b) Intensity autocorrelation of the speckle like pulse shown in (a). Pulse length is 210 fs. (c) Intensity pattern when light is focused through the fiber using spatial light modulation. (d) Second order interferometric autocorrelation of the spot shown in (c). Pulse length is 115 fs.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Characterization of the 3D printing system by printing voxels at different radius from the optical axis over the field of print. (a) Grid of voxels printed through the multimode fiber using the same exposure time on all printed voxels. (b) Grid of voxels printed through the multimode fiber in the case of exposure time correction. A radial correction of exposure is applied to polymerize voxels of uniform size. (c) Voxel diameter versus voxel radial position for (a) and (b).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Voxel dependence on exposure time. (a-b) Example of voxels printed with 1.5, 1.1, 0.7, 0.3, 0.15, 0.1, 0.05, 0.03, 0.025, 0.0125 seconds of exposure. Scale bars are 7.5 μm. (c) Voxel diameter dependence on exposure time. The logarithmic behavior arises due to an exponential decay of monomer concentration when the photoresists is exposed to light.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Model of the Pyramid of Chichén Itzá 3D printed through a multimode optical fiber. The base diameter is as small as the thickness of a human hair. (a) Image of the pyramid acquired with a differential interference contrast microscope. (b) Image of the pyramid acquired with a scanning electron microscope. (c) 3D CAD model of the pyramid.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Two-photon polymerization with a 40x microscope objective (NA 0.65). (a) Calculated PSFs (one and two-photon).. (b) Lateral view of the printed lines. (c) Top view of the printed lines. (d) Linewidth dependence on writing speed. (e) Threshold power dependence on writing speed with and without the presence of oxygen.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Experimental setup. (a) Calibration. (b) Reconstruction for 3D printing.

Equations (1)

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