Abstract

We integrated a rigid optical trap into a tunable pulsed cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OT-CRDS) system to characterize the extinction of single airborne particles in the UV spectral region (306-315 nm). Single solid particles from a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT), Bermuda grass smut spore, carbon microsphere, and blackened polyethylene microsphere were trapped in air based on the photophoretic force. The improved OT-CRDS system was highly sensitive and able to resolve extinctions of single particles from different materials and sizes at a given wavelength. Further, we successfully manipulated the number of particles, e.g., 1, 2 or more particles, in the trap and measured their distinguishable extinctions using the OT-CRDS. We also show that the particle size and extinction have a good linear correlation from the measurements of 24 single MWCNT particles. Material- and wavelength-dependent extinctions of the four types of airborne particles were also characterized. Results reveal that single airborne particles regardless of their differences in material and size, due to their heterogeneous morphology, have individual-particle dependent extinctions and that dependence can be resolved and characterized using the OT-CRDS technique.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

Z. Gong, Y.-L. Pan, and C. Wang, “Optical configurations for photophoretic trap of single particles in air,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(10), 103104 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. I. Cotterell, T. C. Preston, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid, “Assessing the accuracy of complex refractive index retrievals from single aerosol particle cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Aerosol Sci. Technol.  6826, 1077–1095 (2016)

C. Wang, Z. Gong, Y.-L. Pan, and G. Videen, “Laser pushing or pulling of absorbing airborne particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(1), 011905 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

C. Wang, Z. Gong, Y.-L. Pan, and G. Videen, “Optical trap-cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OT-CRDS) as a single-aerosol-particle-scope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(24), 241903 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. I. Cotterell, B. J. Mason, T. C. Preston, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid, “Optical extinction efficiency measurements on fine and accumulation mode aerosol using single particle cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(24), 15843–15856 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Mason, M. I. Cotterell, T. C. Preston, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid, “Direct measurements of the optical cross sections and refractive indices of individual volatile and hygroscopic aerosol particles,” J. Phys. Chem. A 119(22), 5701–5713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wang, Y. Pan, S. C. Hill, and B. Redding, “Photophoretic trapping-Raman spectroscopy for single pollens and fungal spores trapped in air,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 153, 4–12 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Redding and Y.-L. Pan, “Optical trap for both transparent and absorbing particles in air using a single shaped laser beam,” Opt. Lett. 40(12), 2798–2801 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Redding, M. Schwab, and Y.-L. Pan, “Raman spectroscopy of optically trapped single biological micro-particles,” Sensors (Basel) 15(8), 19021–19046 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

H. Horvath, “Photophoresis – a forgotten force?” KONA Powder Part. J. 31(0), 181–199 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Rkiouak, M. J. Tang, J. C. J. Camp, J. McGregor, I. M. Watson, R. A. Cox, M. Kalberer, A. D. Ward, and F. D. Pope, “Optical trapping and Raman spectroscopy of solid particles,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16(23), 11426–11434 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Mason, J. S. Walker, J. P. Reid, and A. J. Orr-Ewing, “Deviations from plane-wave Mie scattering and precise retrieval of refractive index for a single spherical particle in an optical cavity,” J. Phys. Chem. A 118(11), 2083–2088 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

R. W. Bowman and M. J. Padgett, “Optical trapping and binding,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 76(2), 026401 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ling and Y. Q. Li, “Measurement of Raman spectra of single airborne absorbing particles trapped by a single laser beam,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 416–418 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Walker, A. E. Carruthers, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid, “Measurements of light extinction by single aerosol particles,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(10), 1748–1752 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

J. M. Flores, R. Z. Bar-Or, N. Bluvshtein, A. Abo-Riziq, A. Kostinski, S. Borrmann, I. Koren, I. Koren, and Y. Rudich, “Absorbing aerosols at high relative humidity: linking hygroscopic growth to optical properties,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(12), 5511–5521 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y.-L. Pan, S. C. Hill, and M. Coleman, “Photophoretic trapping of absorbing particles in air and measurement of their single-particle Raman spectra,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5325–5334 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Carruthers, J. S. Walker, A. Casey, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid, “Selection and characterization of aerosol particle size using a bessel beam optical trap for single particle analysis,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14(19), 6741–6748 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. K. Krieger, C. Marcolli, and J. P. Reid, “Exploring the complexity of aerosol particle properties and processes using single particle techniques,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 41(19), 6631–6662 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

P. Zhang, Z. Zhang, J. Prakash, S. Huang, D. Hernandez, M. Salazar, D. N. Christodoulides, and Z. Chen, “Trapping and transporting aerosols with a single optical bottle beam generated by moiré techniques,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1491–1493 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. E. H. Miles, A. E. Carruthers, and J. P. Reid, “Novel optical techniques for measurements of light extinction, scattering and absorption by single aerosol particles,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(4), 534–552 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

K. D. Dial, S. Hiemstra, and J. E. Thompson, “Simultaneous measurement of optical scattering and extinction on dispersed aerosol samples,” Anal. Chem. 82(19), 7885–7896 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. E. H. Miles, S. Rudić, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid, “Measurements of the wavelength dependent extinction of aerosols by cavity ring down spectroscopy,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(15), 3914–3920 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

V. G. Shvedov, A. S. Desyatnikov, A. V. Rode, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Optical guiding of absorbing nanoclusters in air,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5743–5757 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Jovanovic, “Photophoresis-light induced motion of particles suspended in gas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(11), 889–901 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

A. A. Riziq, C. Erlick, E. Dinar, and Y. Rudich, “Optical properties of absorbing and non-absorbing aerosols retrieved by cavity ring down (CRD) spectroscopy,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(6), 1523–1536 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. J. A. Butler, J. L. Miller, and A. J. Orr-Ewing, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy measurements of single aerosol particle extinction. I. The effect of position of a particle within the laser beam on extinction,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(17), 174302 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

L. Mitchem, J. Buajarern, R. J. Hopkins, A. D. Ward, R. J. J. Gilham, R. L. Johnston, and J. P. Reid, “Spectroscopy of growing and evaporating water droplets: exploring the variation in equilibrium droplet size with relative humidity,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(26), 8116–8125 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

H. Moosmüller, R. Varma, and W. P. Arnott, “Cavity ring-down and cavity-rnhanced detection techniques for the measurement of aerosol extinction,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 39(1), 30–39 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

A. Pettersson, E. R. Lovejoy, C. A. Brock, S. S. Brown, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Measurement of aerosol optical extinction at 532 nm with pulsed cavity ring down spectroscopy,” J. Aerosol Sci. 35(8), 995–1011 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. J. Hopkins, L. Mitchem, A. D. Ward, and J. P. Reid, “Control and characterisation of a single aerosol droplet in a single-beam gradient-force optical trap,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6(21), 4924–4927 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

A. W. Strawa, R. Castaneda, T. Owano, D. S. Baer, and B. A. Paldus, “The measurement of aerosol optical properties using continuous wave cavity ring-down techniques,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20(4), 454–465 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

V. Bulatov, M. Fisher, and I. Schechter, “Aerosol analysis by cavity-ring-down laser spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 466(1), 1–9 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

J. D. Smith and D. B. Atkinson, “A portable pulsed cavity ring-down transmissometer for measurement of the optical extinction of the atmospheric aerosol,” Analyst (Lond.) 126(8), 1216–1220 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

P. H. McMurry, “A review of atmospheric aerosol measurements,” Atmos. Environ. 34(12-14), 1959–1999 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Ashkin, “History of optical trapping and manipulation of small-neutral particle, atoms, and molecules,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 841–856 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1986 (1)

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

Abo-Riziq, A.

J. M. Flores, R. Z. Bar-Or, N. Bluvshtein, A. Abo-Riziq, A. Kostinski, S. Borrmann, I. Koren, I. Koren, and Y. Rudich, “Absorbing aerosols at high relative humidity: linking hygroscopic growth to optical properties,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(12), 5511–5521 (2012).
[Crossref]

Arnott, W. P.

H. Moosmüller, R. Varma, and W. P. Arnott, “Cavity ring-down and cavity-rnhanced detection techniques for the measurement of aerosol extinction,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 39(1), 30–39 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, “History of optical trapping and manipulation of small-neutral particle, atoms, and molecules,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 841–856 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, “Observation of a single-beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles,” Opt. Lett. 11(5), 288–290 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atkinson, D. B.

J. D. Smith and D. B. Atkinson, “A portable pulsed cavity ring-down transmissometer for measurement of the optical extinction of the atmospheric aerosol,” Analyst (Lond.) 126(8), 1216–1220 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baer, D. S.

A. W. Strawa, R. Castaneda, T. Owano, D. S. Baer, and B. A. Paldus, “The measurement of aerosol optical properties using continuous wave cavity ring-down techniques,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20(4), 454–465 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bar-Or, R. Z.

J. M. Flores, R. Z. Bar-Or, N. Bluvshtein, A. Abo-Riziq, A. Kostinski, S. Borrmann, I. Koren, I. Koren, and Y. Rudich, “Absorbing aerosols at high relative humidity: linking hygroscopic growth to optical properties,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(12), 5511–5521 (2012).
[Crossref]

Barta, N.

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Bluvshtein, N.

J. M. Flores, R. Z. Bar-Or, N. Bluvshtein, A. Abo-Riziq, A. Kostinski, S. Borrmann, I. Koren, I. Koren, and Y. Rudich, “Absorbing aerosols at high relative humidity: linking hygroscopic growth to optical properties,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(12), 5511–5521 (2012).
[Crossref]

Borrmann, S.

J. M. Flores, R. Z. Bar-Or, N. Bluvshtein, A. Abo-Riziq, A. Kostinski, S. Borrmann, I. Koren, I. Koren, and Y. Rudich, “Absorbing aerosols at high relative humidity: linking hygroscopic growth to optical properties,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(12), 5511–5521 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bowman, R. W.

R. W. Bowman and M. J. Padgett, “Optical trapping and binding,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 76(2), 026401 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brock, C. A.

A. Pettersson, E. R. Lovejoy, C. A. Brock, S. S. Brown, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Measurement of aerosol optical extinction at 532 nm with pulsed cavity ring down spectroscopy,” J. Aerosol Sci. 35(8), 995–1011 (2004).
[Crossref]

Brown, S. S.

A. Pettersson, E. R. Lovejoy, C. A. Brock, S. S. Brown, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Measurement of aerosol optical extinction at 532 nm with pulsed cavity ring down spectroscopy,” J. Aerosol Sci. 35(8), 995–1011 (2004).
[Crossref]

Buajarern, J.

L. Mitchem, J. Buajarern, R. J. Hopkins, A. D. Ward, R. J. J. Gilham, R. L. Johnston, and J. P. Reid, “Spectroscopy of growing and evaporating water droplets: exploring the variation in equilibrium droplet size with relative humidity,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(26), 8116–8125 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bulatov, V.

V. Bulatov, M. Fisher, and I. Schechter, “Aerosol analysis by cavity-ring-down laser spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 466(1), 1–9 (2002).
[Crossref]

Butler, T. J. A.

T. J. A. Butler, J. L. Miller, and A. J. Orr-Ewing, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy measurements of single aerosol particle extinction. I. The effect of position of a particle within the laser beam on extinction,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(17), 174302 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Camp, J. C. J.

L. Rkiouak, M. J. Tang, J. C. J. Camp, J. McGregor, I. M. Watson, R. A. Cox, M. Kalberer, A. D. Ward, and F. D. Pope, “Optical trapping and Raman spectroscopy of solid particles,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16(23), 11426–11434 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carruthers, A. E.

J. S. Walker, A. E. Carruthers, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid, “Measurements of light extinction by single aerosol particles,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(10), 1748–1752 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Carruthers, J. S. Walker, A. Casey, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid, “Selection and characterization of aerosol particle size using a bessel beam optical trap for single particle analysis,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14(19), 6741–6748 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. E. H. Miles, A. E. Carruthers, and J. P. Reid, “Novel optical techniques for measurements of light extinction, scattering and absorption by single aerosol particles,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(4), 534–552 (2011).
[Crossref]

Casey, A.

A. E. Carruthers, J. S. Walker, A. Casey, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid, “Selection and characterization of aerosol particle size using a bessel beam optical trap for single particle analysis,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14(19), 6741–6748 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castaneda, R.

A. W. Strawa, R. Castaneda, T. Owano, D. S. Baer, and B. A. Paldus, “The measurement of aerosol optical properties using continuous wave cavity ring-down techniques,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20(4), 454–465 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

Christodoulides, D. N.

Chu, S.

Coleman, M.

Cotterell, M. I.

M. I. Cotterell, T. C. Preston, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid, “Assessing the accuracy of complex refractive index retrievals from single aerosol particle cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Aerosol Sci. Technol.  6826, 1077–1095 (2016)

B. J. Mason, M. I. Cotterell, T. C. Preston, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid, “Direct measurements of the optical cross sections and refractive indices of individual volatile and hygroscopic aerosol particles,” J. Phys. Chem. A 119(22), 5701–5713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. I. Cotterell, B. J. Mason, T. C. Preston, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid, “Optical extinction efficiency measurements on fine and accumulation mode aerosol using single particle cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(24), 15843–15856 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cox, R. A.

L. Rkiouak, M. J. Tang, J. C. J. Camp, J. McGregor, I. M. Watson, R. A. Cox, M. Kalberer, A. D. Ward, and F. D. Pope, “Optical trapping and Raman spectroscopy of solid particles,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16(23), 11426–11434 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Desyatnikov, A. S.

Dial, K. D.

K. D. Dial, S. Hiemstra, and J. E. Thompson, “Simultaneous measurement of optical scattering and extinction on dispersed aerosol samples,” Anal. Chem. 82(19), 7885–7896 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dinar, E.

A. A. Riziq, C. Erlick, E. Dinar, and Y. Rudich, “Optical properties of absorbing and non-absorbing aerosols retrieved by cavity ring down (CRD) spectroscopy,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(6), 1523–1536 (2007).
[Crossref]

Duvall, R.

Dziedzic, J. M.

Erlick, C.

A. A. Riziq, C. Erlick, E. Dinar, and Y. Rudich, “Optical properties of absorbing and non-absorbing aerosols retrieved by cavity ring down (CRD) spectroscopy,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(6), 1523–1536 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fisher, M.

V. Bulatov, M. Fisher, and I. Schechter, “Aerosol analysis by cavity-ring-down laser spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 466(1), 1–9 (2002).
[Crossref]

Flores, J. M.

J. M. Flores, R. Z. Bar-Or, N. Bluvshtein, A. Abo-Riziq, A. Kostinski, S. Borrmann, I. Koren, I. Koren, and Y. Rudich, “Absorbing aerosols at high relative humidity: linking hygroscopic growth to optical properties,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(12), 5511–5521 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gilham, R. J. J.

L. Mitchem, J. Buajarern, R. J. Hopkins, A. D. Ward, R. J. J. Gilham, R. L. Johnston, and J. P. Reid, “Spectroscopy of growing and evaporating water droplets: exploring the variation in equilibrium droplet size with relative humidity,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(26), 8116–8125 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, Z.

Z. Gong, Y.-L. Pan, and C. Wang, “Optical configurations for photophoretic trap of single particles in air,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(10), 103104 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wang, Z. Gong, Y.-L. Pan, and G. Videen, “Laser pushing or pulling of absorbing airborne particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(1), 011905 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, Z. Gong, Y.-L. Pan, and G. Videen, “Optical trap-cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OT-CRDS) as a single-aerosol-particle-scope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(24), 241903 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hernandez, D.

Hiemstra, S.

K. D. Dial, S. Hiemstra, and J. E. Thompson, “Simultaneous measurement of optical scattering and extinction on dispersed aerosol samples,” Anal. Chem. 82(19), 7885–7896 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hill, E. S.

Hill, S. C.

C. Wang, Y. Pan, S. C. Hill, and B. Redding, “Photophoretic trapping-Raman spectroscopy for single pollens and fungal spores trapped in air,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 153, 4–12 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-L. Pan, S. C. Hill, and M. Coleman, “Photophoretic trapping of absorbing particles in air and measurement of their single-particle Raman spectra,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5325–5334 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hopkins, R. J.

L. Mitchem, J. Buajarern, R. J. Hopkins, A. D. Ward, R. J. J. Gilham, R. L. Johnston, and J. P. Reid, “Spectroscopy of growing and evaporating water droplets: exploring the variation in equilibrium droplet size with relative humidity,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(26), 8116–8125 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Hopkins, L. Mitchem, A. D. Ward, and J. P. Reid, “Control and characterisation of a single aerosol droplet in a single-beam gradient-force optical trap,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6(21), 4924–4927 (2004).
[Crossref]

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H. Horvath, “Photophoresis – a forgotten force?” KONA Powder Part. J. 31(0), 181–199 (2014).
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Huang, S.

Johnston, R. L.

L. Mitchem, J. Buajarern, R. J. Hopkins, A. D. Ward, R. J. J. Gilham, R. L. Johnston, and J. P. Reid, “Spectroscopy of growing and evaporating water droplets: exploring the variation in equilibrium droplet size with relative humidity,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(26), 8116–8125 (2006).
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Jovanovic, O.

O. Jovanovic, “Photophoresis-light induced motion of particles suspended in gas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(11), 889–901 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kalberer, M.

L. Rkiouak, M. J. Tang, J. C. J. Camp, J. McGregor, I. M. Watson, R. A. Cox, M. Kalberer, A. D. Ward, and F. D. Pope, “Optical trapping and Raman spectroscopy of solid particles,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16(23), 11426–11434 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kiefer, W.

Kivshar, Y. S.

Koren, I.

J. M. Flores, R. Z. Bar-Or, N. Bluvshtein, A. Abo-Riziq, A. Kostinski, S. Borrmann, I. Koren, I. Koren, and Y. Rudich, “Absorbing aerosols at high relative humidity: linking hygroscopic growth to optical properties,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(12), 5511–5521 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. M. Flores, R. Z. Bar-Or, N. Bluvshtein, A. Abo-Riziq, A. Kostinski, S. Borrmann, I. Koren, I. Koren, and Y. Rudich, “Absorbing aerosols at high relative humidity: linking hygroscopic growth to optical properties,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(12), 5511–5521 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kostinski, A.

J. M. Flores, R. Z. Bar-Or, N. Bluvshtein, A. Abo-Riziq, A. Kostinski, S. Borrmann, I. Koren, I. Koren, and Y. Rudich, “Absorbing aerosols at high relative humidity: linking hygroscopic growth to optical properties,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(12), 5511–5521 (2012).
[Crossref]

Krieger, U. K.

U. K. Krieger, C. Marcolli, and J. P. Reid, “Exploring the complexity of aerosol particle properties and processes using single particle techniques,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 41(19), 6631–6662 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krolikowski, W.

Li, Y. Q.

Ling, L.

Linne, M. A.

Lovejoy, E. R.

A. Pettersson, E. R. Lovejoy, C. A. Brock, S. S. Brown, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Measurement of aerosol optical extinction at 532 nm with pulsed cavity ring down spectroscopy,” J. Aerosol Sci. 35(8), 995–1011 (2004).
[Crossref]

Marcolli, C.

U. K. Krieger, C. Marcolli, and J. P. Reid, “Exploring the complexity of aerosol particle properties and processes using single particle techniques,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 41(19), 6631–6662 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mason, B. J.

B. J. Mason, M. I. Cotterell, T. C. Preston, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid, “Direct measurements of the optical cross sections and refractive indices of individual volatile and hygroscopic aerosol particles,” J. Phys. Chem. A 119(22), 5701–5713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. I. Cotterell, B. J. Mason, T. C. Preston, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid, “Optical extinction efficiency measurements on fine and accumulation mode aerosol using single particle cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(24), 15843–15856 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Mason, J. S. Walker, J. P. Reid, and A. J. Orr-Ewing, “Deviations from plane-wave Mie scattering and precise retrieval of refractive index for a single spherical particle in an optical cavity,” J. Phys. Chem. A 118(11), 2083–2088 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McGregor, J.

L. Rkiouak, M. J. Tang, J. C. J. Camp, J. McGregor, I. M. Watson, R. A. Cox, M. Kalberer, A. D. Ward, and F. D. Pope, “Optical trapping and Raman spectroscopy of solid particles,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16(23), 11426–11434 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McMurry, P. H.

P. H. McMurry, “A review of atmospheric aerosol measurements,” Atmos. Environ. 34(12-14), 1959–1999 (2000).
[Crossref]

Miles, R. E. H.

R. E. H. Miles, A. E. Carruthers, and J. P. Reid, “Novel optical techniques for measurements of light extinction, scattering and absorption by single aerosol particles,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(4), 534–552 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. E. H. Miles, S. Rudić, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid, “Measurements of the wavelength dependent extinction of aerosols by cavity ring down spectroscopy,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(15), 3914–3920 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miller, J. L.

T. J. A. Butler, J. L. Miller, and A. J. Orr-Ewing, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy measurements of single aerosol particle extinction. I. The effect of position of a particle within the laser beam on extinction,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(17), 174302 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mitchem, L.

L. Mitchem, J. Buajarern, R. J. Hopkins, A. D. Ward, R. J. J. Gilham, R. L. Johnston, and J. P. Reid, “Spectroscopy of growing and evaporating water droplets: exploring the variation in equilibrium droplet size with relative humidity,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(26), 8116–8125 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Hopkins, L. Mitchem, A. D. Ward, and J. P. Reid, “Control and characterisation of a single aerosol droplet in a single-beam gradient-force optical trap,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6(21), 4924–4927 (2004).
[Crossref]

Moosmüller, H.

H. Moosmüller, R. Varma, and W. P. Arnott, “Cavity ring-down and cavity-rnhanced detection techniques for the measurement of aerosol extinction,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 39(1), 30–39 (2005).
[Crossref]

Orr-Ewing, A. J.

M. I. Cotterell, T. C. Preston, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid, “Assessing the accuracy of complex refractive index retrievals from single aerosol particle cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Aerosol Sci. Technol.  6826, 1077–1095 (2016)

B. J. Mason, M. I. Cotterell, T. C. Preston, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid, “Direct measurements of the optical cross sections and refractive indices of individual volatile and hygroscopic aerosol particles,” J. Phys. Chem. A 119(22), 5701–5713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. I. Cotterell, B. J. Mason, T. C. Preston, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid, “Optical extinction efficiency measurements on fine and accumulation mode aerosol using single particle cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(24), 15843–15856 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Mason, J. S. Walker, J. P. Reid, and A. J. Orr-Ewing, “Deviations from plane-wave Mie scattering and precise retrieval of refractive index for a single spherical particle in an optical cavity,” J. Phys. Chem. A 118(11), 2083–2088 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Walker, A. E. Carruthers, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid, “Measurements of light extinction by single aerosol particles,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(10), 1748–1752 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Carruthers, J. S. Walker, A. Casey, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid, “Selection and characterization of aerosol particle size using a bessel beam optical trap for single particle analysis,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14(19), 6741–6748 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. E. H. Miles, S. Rudić, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid, “Measurements of the wavelength dependent extinction of aerosols by cavity ring down spectroscopy,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(15), 3914–3920 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. A. Butler, J. L. Miller, and A. J. Orr-Ewing, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy measurements of single aerosol particle extinction. I. The effect of position of a particle within the laser beam on extinction,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(17), 174302 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Owano, T.

A. W. Strawa, R. Castaneda, T. Owano, D. S. Baer, and B. A. Paldus, “The measurement of aerosol optical properties using continuous wave cavity ring-down techniques,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20(4), 454–465 (2003).
[Crossref]

Padgett, M. J.

R. W. Bowman and M. J. Padgett, “Optical trapping and binding,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 76(2), 026401 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paldus, B. A.

A. W. Strawa, R. Castaneda, T. Owano, D. S. Baer, and B. A. Paldus, “The measurement of aerosol optical properties using continuous wave cavity ring-down techniques,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20(4), 454–465 (2003).
[Crossref]

Pan, Y.

C. Wang, Y. Pan, S. C. Hill, and B. Redding, “Photophoretic trapping-Raman spectroscopy for single pollens and fungal spores trapped in air,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 153, 4–12 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pan, Y.-L.

Z. Gong, Y.-L. Pan, and C. Wang, “Optical configurations for photophoretic trap of single particles in air,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(10), 103104 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wang, Z. Gong, Y.-L. Pan, and G. Videen, “Laser pushing or pulling of absorbing airborne particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(1), 011905 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, Z. Gong, Y.-L. Pan, and G. Videen, “Optical trap-cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OT-CRDS) as a single-aerosol-particle-scope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(24), 241903 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Redding, M. Schwab, and Y.-L. Pan, “Raman spectroscopy of optically trapped single biological micro-particles,” Sensors (Basel) 15(8), 19021–19046 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Redding and Y.-L. Pan, “Optical trap for both transparent and absorbing particles in air using a single shaped laser beam,” Opt. Lett. 40(12), 2798–2801 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-L. Pan, S. C. Hill, and M. Coleman, “Photophoretic trapping of absorbing particles in air and measurement of their single-particle Raman spectra,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5325–5334 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pettersson, A.

A. Pettersson, E. R. Lovejoy, C. A. Brock, S. S. Brown, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Measurement of aerosol optical extinction at 532 nm with pulsed cavity ring down spectroscopy,” J. Aerosol Sci. 35(8), 995–1011 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pluchino, A. B.

Policarpio, D.

Pope, F. D.

L. Rkiouak, M. J. Tang, J. C. J. Camp, J. McGregor, I. M. Watson, R. A. Cox, M. Kalberer, A. D. Ward, and F. D. Pope, “Optical trapping and Raman spectroscopy of solid particles,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16(23), 11426–11434 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prakash, J.

Preston, T. C.

M. I. Cotterell, T. C. Preston, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid, “Assessing the accuracy of complex refractive index retrievals from single aerosol particle cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Aerosol Sci. Technol.  6826, 1077–1095 (2016)

B. J. Mason, M. I. Cotterell, T. C. Preston, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid, “Direct measurements of the optical cross sections and refractive indices of individual volatile and hygroscopic aerosol particles,” J. Phys. Chem. A 119(22), 5701–5713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. I. Cotterell, B. J. Mason, T. C. Preston, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid, “Optical extinction efficiency measurements on fine and accumulation mode aerosol using single particle cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(24), 15843–15856 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ravishankara, A. R.

A. Pettersson, E. R. Lovejoy, C. A. Brock, S. S. Brown, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Measurement of aerosol optical extinction at 532 nm with pulsed cavity ring down spectroscopy,” J. Aerosol Sci. 35(8), 995–1011 (2004).
[Crossref]

Redding, B.

B. Redding, M. Schwab, and Y.-L. Pan, “Raman spectroscopy of optically trapped single biological micro-particles,” Sensors (Basel) 15(8), 19021–19046 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Redding and Y.-L. Pan, “Optical trap for both transparent and absorbing particles in air using a single shaped laser beam,” Opt. Lett. 40(12), 2798–2801 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wang, Y. Pan, S. C. Hill, and B. Redding, “Photophoretic trapping-Raman spectroscopy for single pollens and fungal spores trapped in air,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 153, 4–12 (2015).
[Crossref]

Reid, J. P.

M. I. Cotterell, T. C. Preston, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid, “Assessing the accuracy of complex refractive index retrievals from single aerosol particle cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Aerosol Sci. Technol.  6826, 1077–1095 (2016)

B. J. Mason, M. I. Cotterell, T. C. Preston, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid, “Direct measurements of the optical cross sections and refractive indices of individual volatile and hygroscopic aerosol particles,” J. Phys. Chem. A 119(22), 5701–5713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. I. Cotterell, B. J. Mason, T. C. Preston, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid, “Optical extinction efficiency measurements on fine and accumulation mode aerosol using single particle cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(24), 15843–15856 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Mason, J. S. Walker, J. P. Reid, and A. J. Orr-Ewing, “Deviations from plane-wave Mie scattering and precise retrieval of refractive index for a single spherical particle in an optical cavity,” J. Phys. Chem. A 118(11), 2083–2088 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Walker, A. E. Carruthers, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid, “Measurements of light extinction by single aerosol particles,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(10), 1748–1752 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Carruthers, J. S. Walker, A. Casey, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid, “Selection and characterization of aerosol particle size using a bessel beam optical trap for single particle analysis,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14(19), 6741–6748 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. K. Krieger, C. Marcolli, and J. P. Reid, “Exploring the complexity of aerosol particle properties and processes using single particle techniques,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 41(19), 6631–6662 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. E. H. Miles, A. E. Carruthers, and J. P. Reid, “Novel optical techniques for measurements of light extinction, scattering and absorption by single aerosol particles,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(4), 534–552 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. E. H. Miles, S. Rudić, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid, “Measurements of the wavelength dependent extinction of aerosols by cavity ring down spectroscopy,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(15), 3914–3920 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Mitchem, J. Buajarern, R. J. Hopkins, A. D. Ward, R. J. J. Gilham, R. L. Johnston, and J. P. Reid, “Spectroscopy of growing and evaporating water droplets: exploring the variation in equilibrium droplet size with relative humidity,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110(26), 8116–8125 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Hopkins, L. Mitchem, A. D. Ward, and J. P. Reid, “Control and characterisation of a single aerosol droplet in a single-beam gradient-force optical trap,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6(21), 4924–4927 (2004).
[Crossref]

Riziq, A. A.

A. A. Riziq, C. Erlick, E. Dinar, and Y. Rudich, “Optical properties of absorbing and non-absorbing aerosols retrieved by cavity ring down (CRD) spectroscopy,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(6), 1523–1536 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rkiouak, L.

L. Rkiouak, M. J. Tang, J. C. J. Camp, J. McGregor, I. M. Watson, R. A. Cox, M. Kalberer, A. D. Ward, and F. D. Pope, “Optical trapping and Raman spectroscopy of solid particles,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16(23), 11426–11434 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rode, A. V.

Rudic, S.

R. E. H. Miles, S. Rudić, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid, “Measurements of the wavelength dependent extinction of aerosols by cavity ring down spectroscopy,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(15), 3914–3920 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rudich, Y.

J. M. Flores, R. Z. Bar-Or, N. Bluvshtein, A. Abo-Riziq, A. Kostinski, S. Borrmann, I. Koren, I. Koren, and Y. Rudich, “Absorbing aerosols at high relative humidity: linking hygroscopic growth to optical properties,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(12), 5511–5521 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. A. Riziq, C. Erlick, E. Dinar, and Y. Rudich, “Optical properties of absorbing and non-absorbing aerosols retrieved by cavity ring down (CRD) spectroscopy,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(6), 1523–1536 (2007).
[Crossref]

Salazar, M.

Sappey, A. D.

Schechter, I.

V. Bulatov, M. Fisher, and I. Schechter, “Aerosol analysis by cavity-ring-down laser spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 466(1), 1–9 (2002).
[Crossref]

Schwab, M.

B. Redding, M. Schwab, and Y.-L. Pan, “Raman spectroscopy of optically trapped single biological micro-particles,” Sensors (Basel) 15(8), 19021–19046 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Settersten, T.

Shvedov, V. G.

Smith, J. D.

J. D. Smith and D. B. Atkinson, “A portable pulsed cavity ring-down transmissometer for measurement of the optical extinction of the atmospheric aerosol,” Analyst (Lond.) 126(8), 1216–1220 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strawa, A. W.

A. W. Strawa, R. Castaneda, T. Owano, D. S. Baer, and B. A. Paldus, “The measurement of aerosol optical properties using continuous wave cavity ring-down techniques,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20(4), 454–465 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tang, M. J.

L. Rkiouak, M. J. Tang, J. C. J. Camp, J. McGregor, I. M. Watson, R. A. Cox, M. Kalberer, A. D. Ward, and F. D. Pope, “Optical trapping and Raman spectroscopy of solid particles,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16(23), 11426–11434 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thompson, J. E.

K. D. Dial, S. Hiemstra, and J. E. Thompson, “Simultaneous measurement of optical scattering and extinction on dispersed aerosol samples,” Anal. Chem. 82(19), 7885–7896 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Thompson, N. Barta, D. Policarpio, and R. Duvall, “A fixed frequency aerosol albedometer,” Opt. Express 16(3), 2191–2205 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thurn, R.

Varma, R.

H. Moosmüller, R. Varma, and W. P. Arnott, “Cavity ring-down and cavity-rnhanced detection techniques for the measurement of aerosol extinction,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 39(1), 30–39 (2005).
[Crossref]

Videen, G.

C. Wang, Z. Gong, Y.-L. Pan, and G. Videen, “Laser pushing or pulling of absorbing airborne particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(1), 011905 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, Z. Gong, Y.-L. Pan, and G. Videen, “Optical trap-cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OT-CRDS) as a single-aerosol-particle-scope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(24), 241903 (2015).
[Crossref]

Walker, J. S.

B. J. Mason, J. S. Walker, J. P. Reid, and A. J. Orr-Ewing, “Deviations from plane-wave Mie scattering and precise retrieval of refractive index for a single spherical particle in an optical cavity,” J. Phys. Chem. A 118(11), 2083–2088 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Walker, A. E. Carruthers, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid, “Measurements of light extinction by single aerosol particles,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(10), 1748–1752 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Carruthers, J. S. Walker, A. Casey, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid, “Selection and characterization of aerosol particle size using a bessel beam optical trap for single particle analysis,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14(19), 6741–6748 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

Z. Gong, Y.-L. Pan, and C. Wang, “Optical configurations for photophoretic trap of single particles in air,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(10), 103104 (2016).
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C. Wang, Z. Gong, Y.-L. Pan, and G. Videen, “Optical trap-cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OT-CRDS) as a single-aerosol-particle-scope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(24), 241903 (2015).
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C. Wang, Y. Pan, S. C. Hill, and B. Redding, “Photophoretic trapping-Raman spectroscopy for single pollens and fungal spores trapped in air,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 153, 4–12 (2015).
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R. J. Hopkins, L. Mitchem, A. D. Ward, and J. P. Reid, “Control and characterisation of a single aerosol droplet in a single-beam gradient-force optical trap,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6(21), 4924–4927 (2004).
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Watson, I. M.

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Aerosol Sci. Technol (1)

M. I. Cotterell, T. C. Preston, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and J. P. Reid, “Assessing the accuracy of complex refractive index retrievals from single aerosol particle cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Aerosol Sci. Technol.  6826, 1077–1095 (2016)

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Appl. Opt. (1)

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[Crossref]

C. Wang, Z. Gong, Y.-L. Pan, and G. Videen, “Laser pushing or pulling of absorbing airborne particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(1), 011905 (2016).
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Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

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[Crossref]

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Z. Gong, Y.-L. Pan, and C. Wang, “Optical configurations for photophoretic trap of single particles in air,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(10), 103104 (2016).
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B. Redding, M. Schwab, and Y.-L. Pan, “Raman spectroscopy of optically trapped single biological micro-particles,” Sensors (Basel) 15(8), 19021–19046 (2015).
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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MP4 (8819 KB)      manipulation of particles number in the optical trap

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental scheme of the improved optical trap-cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OT-CRDS) system. CM: concave mirror, AL: aspheric lens, RD mirror: ringdown mirror, RD beam: ringdown beam, OT beam: optical trapping beam, TC: trapping cell, PMT: photomultiplier tube. The inset figure illustrates the detailed optical field near the trapping zone.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Manipulation of the particles number in the optical trap. (a) Four, (b) two, (c) one, and (d) zero Bermuda grass smut spores were trapped inside the optical trap (Visualization 1).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The oscillation behavior of single airborne particles: (a) MWCNT, (b) Bermuda grass smut spores, (c) carbon microsphere, and (d) PE microsphere. Square (black) dots and round (red) dots denote x-axis (axial) and y-axis (radial) position of the trapped particles, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The stability of the ringdown time of OT-CRDS system. (b) The reproducible extinction measurement of a single Bermuda particle when it was inside or outside the ringdown laser beam. (c) The position dependent extinction of a single MWCNT particle. The particle position is scanned along x-axis with a step of 127.0 µm. The red curve is the fitted Gaussian profile. (d) Extinction measurements of multiple Bermuda grass smut when 4, 2, 1 and 0 particles were trapped within the ringdown laser beam.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The linear relation between the extinction at 308 nm and geometric cross section of 24 single MWCNT particles.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Extinction of four different types of particles at 308 nm. Top row shows the images of single trapped (a) MWCNT, (b) Bermuda, (c) carbon microsphere, and (d) PE microsphere. And their corresponding extinction measurement results are shown in (e). The measurements were repeated at least twice for each type of particles.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Wavelength-dependent extinction data sets of a single (a) MWCNT particle, (b) Bermuda grass smut spore, (c) carbon microsphere, and (d) PE microsphere.

Equations (3)

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ε ext = α ext l= d c ( 1 τ 1 τ 0 )
ε ext (x,z)= σ ext i(x,z) I
ε ext (x,0)= 2 σ ext π w 2 e 2 (x/w ) 2

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