Abstract

Here we investigated the effect of substrate and film thickness on photoluminescence (PL) enhancement of wide bandgap semiconductor (i.e. ZnO) by dielectric microsphere array/luminescence film/substrate (MLS) sandwich structures. The PL enhancement channels in the sandwich structure were revealed, for the first time, including the focusing property of microsphere array (MSA) distinctly enhancing free-exciton recombination, anti-reflection effect of MSA increasing excitation cross-section area, MLS-supported TW-/SW-WGMs inducing ASE and Purcell’s effect, and optical directional antenna effect for high equivalent NA of objective lens as well as out-coupling efficiency. The enhancement ratio of intensity (ERI) for ZnO UV-PL from free-exciton recombination in the sandwich structure was found to be strongly dependent upon the refractive index of substrate and luminescence film thickness. In order to achieve high ERI for PL emission, the refractive index of substrate should differ from luminescence film and the film thickness needs to be chosen to support WGMs in the sandwich structure. The maximum ERI beyond one order of magnitude for ZnO UV-PL was therefore predicted theoretically and validated experimentally, where 11.25-fold UV PL enhancement ratio was achieved in ~650-nm-thick ZnO film grown on SiC substrate and capped with 5.06-μm-diameter MSA. The ERI could further be increased by improving above-mentioned enhancement channels. The present work provides a novel platform to manipulate light by low-loss dielectric microstructures for enhancing photon-matter interaction, which would be employed for other semiconductors achieving energy-saving luminescence and high-sensitivity photoelectric detection in future.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (5)

X. H. Huang, R. Chen, C. Zhang, J. W. Chai, S. J. Wang, D. Z. Chi, and S. J. Chua, “Ultrafast and robust UV luminescence from Cu-doped ZnO nanowires mediated by plasmonic hot electrons,” Adv. Opt. Mat. 4(6), 960–966 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Almonacid, R. Martín-Rodríguez, C. Renero-Lecuna, J. Pellicer-Porres, S. Agouram, R. Valiente, J. González, F. Rodríguez, L. Nataf, D. R. Gamelin, and A. Segura, “Structural metastability and quantum confinement in Zn1–xCoxO nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 16(8), 5204–5212 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, C. H. Teng, P. C. Ku, and H. Deng, “Site-controlled InGaN/GaN single-photon-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 153102 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Khan, P. Uthirakumar, K. B. Bae, S. J. Leem, and I. H. Lee, “Localized surface plasmon enhanced photoluminescence of ZnO nanosheets by Au nanoparticles,” Mater. Lett. 163, 8–11 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. D. Basske and F. Vollmer, “Optical observation of single atomic ions interacting with plasmonic nanorods in aqueous solution,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 733–739 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

I. Staude, V. V. Khardikov, N. T. Fofang, S. Liu, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Shaping photoluminescence spectra with magnetoelectric resonances in all-dielectric nanoparticles,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 172–177 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. J. Guidelli, O. Baffa, and D. R. Clarke, “Enhanced UV emission from silver/ZnO and gold/ZnO core-shell nanoparticles: photoluminescence, radioluminescence, and optically stimulated luminescence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14004 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zeng, Y. Zhao, and Y. Jiang, “Investigation of the photoluminescence properties of Au/ZnO/sapphire and ZnO/Au/sapphire films by experimental study and electromagnetic simulation,” J. Alloys Compd. 625, 175–181 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yan, C. Xing, Y. Jia, Y. Zeng, Y. Zhao, and Y. Jiang, “Self-assembled dielectric microsphere array enhanced Raman scattering for large-area and ultra-long working distance confocal detection,” Opt. Express 23(20), 25854–25865 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (8)

F. Han, S. Yang, W. Jing, K. Jiang, Z. Jiang, H. Liu, and L. Li, “Surface plasmon enhanced photoluminescence of ZnO nanorods by capping reduced graphene oxide sheets,” Opt. Express 22(10), 11436–11445 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yan, Y. Zeng, Y. Wu, Y. Zhao, L. Ji, Y. Jiang, and L. Li, “Ten-fold enhancement of ZnO thin film ultraviolet-luminescence by dielectric microsphere arrays,” Opt. Express 22(19), 23552–23564 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Endo and C. Adachi, “Enhanced out-coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using a nanostructure imprinted by an alumina nanohole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(12), 121102 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. B. Li, W. R. Clements, X. C. Yu, K. Shi, Q. Gong, and Y. F. Xiao, “Single nanoparticle detection using split-mode microcavity Raman lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(41), 14657–14662 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Baaske, M. R. Foreman, and F. Vollmer, “Single-molecule nucleic acid interactions monitored on a label-free microcavity biosensor platform,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(11), 933–939 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yan, L. Li, C. Feng, W. Guo, S. Lee, and M. Hong, “Microsphere-coupled scanning laser confocal nanoscope for sub-diffraction-limited imaging at 25 nm lateral resolution in the visible spectrum,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1809–1816 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lu, J. Li, C. Xu, Y. Li, J. Dai, Y. Wang, Y. Lin, and S. Wang, “Direct resonant coupling of Al surface plasmon for ultraviolet photoluminescence enhancement of ZnO microrods,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 18301–18305 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Castelletto, B. C. Johnson, V. Ivády, N. Stavrias, T. Umeda, A. Gali, and T. Ohshima, “A silicon carbide room-temperature single-photon source,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 151–156 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

K. Kim, S. M. Lee, Y. S. Do, S. H. Ahn, and K. C. Choi, “Enhanced photoluminescence from zinc oxide by plasmonic resonance of reduced graphene oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 074903 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Liu, X. W. Fu, J. Meng, Y. Q. Bie, D. P. Yu, and Z. M. Liao, “Graphene plasmon enhanced photoluminescence in ZnO microwires,” Nanoscale 5(12), 5294–5298 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, W. Guo, Y. Yan, S. Lee, and T. Wang, “Label-free super-resolution imaging of adenoviruses by submerged microsphere optical nanoscopy,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(9), e104 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (6)

Y. C. Liu, Y. F. Xiao, X. F. Jiang, B. B. Li, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Cavity-QED treatment of scattering-induced free-space excitation and collection in high-Q whispering-gallery microcavities,” Phys. Rev. A 85(1), 013843 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Huang, S. Xu, X. Wang, W. Guo, C. Song, J. Song, K. Ming Ho, S. Du, and N. Wang, “Effective control of photoluminescence from ZnO nanowires by a-SiNx:H decoration,” Opt. Lett. 37(2), 211–213 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. F. Yang, Y. N. Xie, R. Y. Liao, J. Sun, Z. Y. Wu, L. M. Wong, S. J. Wang, C. F. Wang, A. Y. S. Lee, and H. Gong, “Enhancement of bandgap emission of Pt-capped MgZnO films: Important role of light extraction versus exciton-plasmon coupling,” Opt. Express 20(13), 14556–14563 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. Koleva, A. O. Dikovska, N. N. Nedyalkov, P. A. Atanasov, and I. A. Bliznakova, “Enhancement of ZnO photoluminescence by laser nanostructuring of Ag underlayer,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258(23), 9181–9185 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. I. Son, B. W. Kwon, D. H. Park, W. S. Seo, Y. Yi, B. Angadi, C. L. Lee, and W. K. Choi, “Emissive ZnO-graphene quantum dots for white-light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 465–471 (2012).
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J. Wang, Z. Wang, B. Huang, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, X. Qin, X. Zhang, and Y. Dai, “Oxygen vacancy induced band-gap narrowing and enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of ZnO,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(8), 4024–4030 (2012).
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2011 (1)

Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, “Optical virtual imaging at 50 nm lateral resolution with a white-light nanoscope,” Nat. Commun. 2, 218 (2011).
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2010 (7)

A. Devilez, B. Stout, and N. Bonod, “Compact metallo-dielectric optical antenna for ultra directional and enhanced radiative emission,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3390–3396 (2010).
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A. B. Djurišić, A. M. C. Ng, and X. Y. Chen, “ZnO nanostructures for optoelectronics: material properties and device applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 34(4), 191–259 (2010).
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J. M. Luther, J. Gao, M. T. Lloyd, O. E. Semonin, M. C. Beard, and A. J. Nozik, “Stability assessment on a 3% bilayer PbS/ZnO quantum dot heterojunction solar cell,” Adv. Mater. 22(33), 3704–3707 (2010).
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A. I. Hochbaum and P. Yang, “Semiconductor nanowires for energy conversion,” Chem. Rev. 110(1), 527–546 (2010).
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O. Akhavan, “Graphene nanomesh by ZnO nanorod photocatalysts,” ACS Nano 4(7), 4174–4180 (2010).
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M. Liu, S. W. Qu, W. W. Yu, S. Y. Bao, C. Y. Ma, Q. Y. Zhang, J. He, J. C. Jiang, E. I. Meletis, and C. L. Chen, “Photoluminescence and extinction enhancement from ZnO films embedded with Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231906 (2010).
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S. W. Hwang, D. H. Shin, C. O. Kim, S. H. Hong, M. C. Kim, J. Kim, K. Y. Lim, S. Kim, S. H. Choi, K. J. Ahn, G. Kim, S. H. Sim, and B. H. Hong, “Plasmon-enhanced ultraviolet photoluminescence from hybrid structures of graphene/ZnO films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(12), 127403 (2010).
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2009 (5)

S. Kim, D. H. Shin, C. O. Kim, S. Won Hwang, S. H. Choi, S. Ji, and J. Y. Koo, “Enhanced ultraviolet emission from hybrid structures of single-walled carbon nanotubes/ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213113 (2009).
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A. Janotti and C. G. Van de Walle, “Fundamentals of zinc oxide as a semiconductor,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 72(12), 126501 (2009).
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P. Cheng, D. Li, X. Li, T. Liu, and D. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon enhanced photoluminescence from ZnO films: extraction direction and emitting layer thickness,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(6), 063120 (2009).
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Z. L. Wang, “ZnO nanowire and nanobelt platform for nanotechnology,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 64(3–4), 33–71 (2009).
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B. J. Lawrie, R. F. Haglund, and R. Mu, “Enhancement of ZnO photoluminescence by localized and propagating surface plasmons,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2565–2572 (2009).
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2008 (6)

P. Cheng, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Influence of substrates in ZnO devices on the surface plasmon enhanced light emission,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8896–8901 (2008).
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D. Gérard, J. Wenger, A. Devilez, D. Gachet, B. Stout, N. Bonod, E. Popov, and H. Rigneault, “Strong electromagnetic confinement near dielectric microspheres to enhance single-molecule fluorescence,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15297–15303 (2008).
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E. McLeod and C. B. Arnold, “Subwavelength direct-write nanopatterning using optically trapped microspheres,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(7), 413–417 (2008).
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S. Jeon, J. W. Kang, H. D. Park, J. J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J. Jeong, D. G. Choi, K. D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
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H. Zeng, W. Cai, P. Liu, X. Xu, H. Zhou, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “ZnO-based hollow nanoparticles by selective etching: elimination and reconstruction of metal-semiconductor interface, improvement of blue emission and photocatalysis,” ACS Nano 2(8), 1661–1670 (2008).
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P. Cheng, D. Li, Z. Yuan, P. Chen, and D. Yang, “Enhancement of ZnO light emission via coupling with localized surface plasmon of Ag island film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041119 (2008).
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2007 (2)

D. Y. Lei, J. Li, and H. C. Ong, “Tunable surface plasmon mediated emission from semiconductors by using metal alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021112 (2007).
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K. J. Yi, H. Wang, Y. F. Lu, and Z. Y. Yang, “Enhanced Raman scattering by self-assembled silica spherical microparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(6), 063528 (2007).
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2006 (2)

W. H. Ni, J. An, C. W. Lai, H. C. Ong, and J. B. Xu, “Emission enhancement from metallodielectric-capped ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 026103 (2006).
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Z. Fu, W. Dong, B. Yang, Z. Wang, Y. Yang, H. Yan, S. Zhang, J. Zuo, M. Ma, and X. Liu, “Effect of MgO on the enhancement of ultraviolet photoluminescence in ZnO,” Solid State Commun. 138(4), 179–183 (2006).
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2005 (4)

C. W. Lai, J. An, and H. C. Ong, “Surface-plasmon-mediated emission from metal-capped ZnO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(25), 251105 (2005).
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U. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
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H. M. Cheng, H. C. Hsu, Y. K. Tseng, L. J. Lin, and W. F. Hsieh, “Raman scattering and efficient UV photoluminescence from well-aligned ZnO nanowires epitaxially grown on GaN buffer layer,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(18), 8749–8754 (2005).
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X. Li, Z. Chen, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Optical analysis of nanoparticles via enhanced backscattering facilitated by 3-D photonic nanojets,” Opt. Express 13(2), 526–533 (2005).
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2004 (1)

2003 (1)

Y. D. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, C. O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
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2002 (4)

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
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H. Zhou, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, B. K. Meyer, G. Kaczmarczyk, and A. Hoffmann, “Behind the weak excitonic emission of ZnO quantum dots: ZnO/Zn(OH)2 core-shell structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 210–212 (2002).
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P. Yang, H. Yan, S. Mao, R. Russo, J. Johnson, R. Saykally, N. Morris, J. Pham, R. He, and H. J. Choi, “Controlled growth of ZnO nanowires and their optical properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 12(5), 323–331 (2002).
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H. Kind, H. Q. Yan, B. Messer, M. Law, and P. D. Yang, “Nanowire ultraviolet photodetectors and optical switches,” Adv. Mater. 14(2), 158–160 (2002).
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2001 (1)

M. H. Huang, Y. Wu, H. Feick, N. Tran, E. Weber, and P. Yang, “Catalytic growth of zinc oxide nanowires by vapor transport,” Adv. Mater. 13(2), 113–116 (2001).
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2000 (3)

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, K. H. Ploog, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
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L. Guo, S. Yang, C. Yang, P. Yu, J. Wang, W. Ge, and G. K. L. Wong, “Highly monodisperse polymer-capped ZnO nanoparticles: preparation and optical properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(20), 2901–2903 (2000).
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S. C. Hill, V. Boutou, J. Yu, S. Ramstein, J. P. Wolf, Y. Pan, S. Holler, and R. K. Chang, “Enhanced backward-directed multiphoton-excited fluorescence from dielectric microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(1), 54–57 (2000).
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1996 (2)

K. Vanheusden, W. L. Warren, C. H. Seager, D. R. Tallant, J. A. Voigt, and B. E. Gnade, “Mechanisms behind green photoluminescence in ZnO phosphor powders,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(10), 7983–7990 (1996).
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K. Vanheusden, C. H. Seager, W. L. Warren, D. R. Tallant, and J. A. Voigt, “Correlation between photoluminescence and oxygen vacancies in ZnO phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(3), 403–405 (1996).
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1961 (1)

C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, and W. L. Bond, “Stimulated emission into optical whispering modes of spheres,” Phys. Rev. 124(6), 1807–1809 (1961).
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Adachi, C.

K. Endo and C. Adachi, “Enhanced out-coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using a nanostructure imprinted by an alumina nanohole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(12), 121102 (2014).
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Agouram, S.

G. Almonacid, R. Martín-Rodríguez, C. Renero-Lecuna, J. Pellicer-Porres, S. Agouram, R. Valiente, J. González, F. Rodríguez, L. Nataf, D. R. Gamelin, and A. Segura, “Structural metastability and quantum confinement in Zn1–xCoxO nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 16(8), 5204–5212 (2016).
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Ahn, K. J.

S. W. Hwang, D. H. Shin, C. O. Kim, S. H. Hong, M. C. Kim, J. Kim, K. Y. Lim, S. Kim, S. H. Choi, K. J. Ahn, G. Kim, S. H. Sim, and B. H. Hong, “Plasmon-enhanced ultraviolet photoluminescence from hybrid structures of graphene/ZnO films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(12), 127403 (2010).
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Ahn, S. H.

K. Kim, S. M. Lee, Y. S. Do, S. H. Ahn, and K. C. Choi, “Enhanced photoluminescence from zinc oxide by plasmonic resonance of reduced graphene oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 074903 (2013).
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Akhavan, O.

O. Akhavan, “Graphene nanomesh by ZnO nanorod photocatalysts,” ACS Nano 4(7), 4174–4180 (2010).
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Alivov, Y. I.

U. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
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Almonacid, G.

G. Almonacid, R. Martín-Rodríguez, C. Renero-Lecuna, J. Pellicer-Porres, S. Agouram, R. Valiente, J. González, F. Rodríguez, L. Nataf, D. R. Gamelin, and A. Segura, “Structural metastability and quantum confinement in Zn1–xCoxO nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 16(8), 5204–5212 (2016).
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Altun, A. O.

S. Jeon, J. W. Kang, H. D. Park, J. J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J. Jeong, D. G. Choi, K. D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
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Alves, H.

H. Zhou, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, B. K. Meyer, G. Kaczmarczyk, and A. Hoffmann, “Behind the weak excitonic emission of ZnO quantum dots: ZnO/Zn(OH)2 core-shell structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 210–212 (2002).
[Crossref]

An, J.

W. H. Ni, J. An, C. W. Lai, H. C. Ong, and J. B. Xu, “Emission enhancement from metallodielectric-capped ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 026103 (2006).
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C. W. Lai, J. An, and H. C. Ong, “Surface-plasmon-mediated emission from metal-capped ZnO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(25), 251105 (2005).
[Crossref]

Angadi, B.

D. I. Son, B. W. Kwon, D. H. Park, W. S. Seo, Y. Yi, B. Angadi, C. L. Lee, and W. K. Choi, “Emissive ZnO-graphene quantum dots for white-light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 465–471 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnold, C. B.

E. McLeod and C. B. Arnold, “Subwavelength direct-write nanopatterning using optically trapped microspheres,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(7), 413–417 (2008).
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Atanasov, P. A.

M. E. Koleva, A. O. Dikovska, N. N. Nedyalkov, P. A. Atanasov, and I. A. Bliznakova, “Enhancement of ZnO photoluminescence by laser nanostructuring of Ag underlayer,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258(23), 9181–9185 (2012).
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Avrutin, V.

U. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
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Baaske, M. D.

M. D. Baaske, M. R. Foreman, and F. Vollmer, “Single-molecule nucleic acid interactions monitored on a label-free microcavity biosensor platform,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(11), 933–939 (2014).
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Backman, V.

Bae, K. B.

R. Khan, P. Uthirakumar, K. B. Bae, S. J. Leem, and I. H. Lee, “Localized surface plasmon enhanced photoluminescence of ZnO nanosheets by Au nanoparticles,” Mater. Lett. 163, 8–11 (2016).
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Baffa, O.

E. J. Guidelli, O. Baffa, and D. R. Clarke, “Enhanced UV emission from silver/ZnO and gold/ZnO core-shell nanoparticles: photoluminescence, radioluminescence, and optically stimulated luminescence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14004 (2015).
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Bao, S. Y.

M. Liu, S. W. Qu, W. W. Yu, S. Y. Bao, C. Y. Ma, Q. Y. Zhang, J. He, J. C. Jiang, E. I. Meletis, and C. L. Chen, “Photoluminescence and extinction enhancement from ZnO films embedded with Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231906 (2010).
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Basske, M. D.

M. D. Basske and F. Vollmer, “Optical observation of single atomic ions interacting with plasmonic nanorods in aqueous solution,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 733–739 (2016).
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Beard, M. C.

J. M. Luther, J. Gao, M. T. Lloyd, O. E. Semonin, M. C. Beard, and A. J. Nozik, “Stability assessment on a 3% bilayer PbS/ZnO quantum dot heterojunction solar cell,” Adv. Mater. 22(33), 3704–3707 (2010).
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Bie, Y. Q.

R. Liu, X. W. Fu, J. Meng, Y. Q. Bie, D. P. Yu, and Z. M. Liao, “Graphene plasmon enhanced photoluminescence in ZnO microwires,” Nanoscale 5(12), 5294–5298 (2013).
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Bliznakova, I. A.

M. E. Koleva, A. O. Dikovska, N. N. Nedyalkov, P. A. Atanasov, and I. A. Bliznakova, “Enhancement of ZnO photoluminescence by laser nanostructuring of Ag underlayer,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258(23), 9181–9185 (2012).
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Bond, W. L.

C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, and W. L. Bond, “Stimulated emission into optical whispering modes of spheres,” Phys. Rev. 124(6), 1807–1809 (1961).
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Bonod, N.

Boutou, V.

S. C. Hill, V. Boutou, J. Yu, S. Ramstein, J. P. Wolf, Y. Pan, S. Holler, and R. K. Chang, “Enhanced backward-directed multiphoton-excited fluorescence from dielectric microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(1), 54–57 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brandt, O.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, K. H. Ploog, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
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Brener, I.

I. Staude, V. V. Khardikov, N. T. Fofang, S. Liu, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Shaping photoluminescence spectra with magnetoelectric resonances in all-dielectric nanoparticles,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 172–177 (2015).
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Cai, W.

H. Zeng, W. Cai, P. Liu, X. Xu, H. Zhou, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “ZnO-based hollow nanoparticles by selective etching: elimination and reconstruction of metal-semiconductor interface, improvement of blue emission and photocatalysis,” ACS Nano 2(8), 1661–1670 (2008).
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Castelletto, S.

S. Castelletto, B. C. Johnson, V. Ivády, N. Stavrias, T. Umeda, A. Gali, and T. Ohshima, “A silicon carbide room-temperature single-photon source,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 151–156 (2014).
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Chai, J. W.

X. H. Huang, R. Chen, C. Zhang, J. W. Chai, S. J. Wang, D. Z. Chi, and S. J. Chua, “Ultrafast and robust UV luminescence from Cu-doped ZnO nanowires mediated by plasmonic hot electrons,” Adv. Opt. Mat. 4(6), 960–966 (2016).
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Chang, R. K.

S. C. Hill, V. Boutou, J. Yu, S. Ramstein, J. P. Wolf, Y. Pan, S. Holler, and R. K. Chang, “Enhanced backward-directed multiphoton-excited fluorescence from dielectric microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(1), 54–57 (2000).
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Chen, C. L.

M. Liu, S. W. Qu, W. W. Yu, S. Y. Bao, C. Y. Ma, Q. Y. Zhang, J. He, J. C. Jiang, E. I. Meletis, and C. L. Chen, “Photoluminescence and extinction enhancement from ZnO films embedded with Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231906 (2010).
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Chen, P.

P. Cheng, D. Li, Z. Yuan, P. Chen, and D. Yang, “Enhancement of ZnO light emission via coupling with localized surface plasmon of Ag island film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041119 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, R.

X. H. Huang, R. Chen, C. Zhang, J. W. Chai, S. J. Wang, D. Z. Chi, and S. J. Chua, “Ultrafast and robust UV luminescence from Cu-doped ZnO nanowires mediated by plasmonic hot electrons,” Adv. Opt. Mat. 4(6), 960–966 (2016).
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Chen, X. Y.

A. B. Djurišić, A. M. C. Ng, and X. Y. Chen, “ZnO nanostructures for optoelectronics: material properties and device applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 34(4), 191–259 (2010).
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Chen, Z.

Cheng, H. M.

H. M. Cheng, H. C. Hsu, Y. K. Tseng, L. J. Lin, and W. F. Hsieh, “Raman scattering and efficient UV photoluminescence from well-aligned ZnO nanowires epitaxially grown on GaN buffer layer,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(18), 8749–8754 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, P.

P. Cheng, D. Li, X. Li, T. Liu, and D. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon enhanced photoluminescence from ZnO films: extraction direction and emitting layer thickness,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(6), 063120 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Cheng, D. Li, Z. Yuan, P. Chen, and D. Yang, “Enhancement of ZnO light emission via coupling with localized surface plasmon of Ag island film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041119 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Cheng, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Influence of substrates in ZnO devices on the surface plasmon enhanced light emission,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8896–8901 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chi, D. Z.

X. H. Huang, R. Chen, C. Zhang, J. W. Chai, S. J. Wang, D. Z. Chi, and S. J. Chua, “Ultrafast and robust UV luminescence from Cu-doped ZnO nanowires mediated by plasmonic hot electrons,” Adv. Opt. Mat. 4(6), 960–966 (2016).
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Cho, C. O.

Y. D. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, C. O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
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Cho, S. J.

U. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
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Choi, D. G.

S. Jeon, J. W. Kang, H. D. Park, J. J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J. Jeong, D. G. Choi, K. D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
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Choi, H. J.

P. Yang, H. Yan, S. Mao, R. Russo, J. Johnson, R. Saykally, N. Morris, J. Pham, R. He, and H. J. Choi, “Controlled growth of ZnO nanowires and their optical properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 12(5), 323–331 (2002).
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Choi, K. C.

K. Kim, S. M. Lee, Y. S. Do, S. H. Ahn, and K. C. Choi, “Enhanced photoluminescence from zinc oxide by plasmonic resonance of reduced graphene oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 074903 (2013).
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Choi, S. H.

S. W. Hwang, D. H. Shin, C. O. Kim, S. H. Hong, M. C. Kim, J. Kim, K. Y. Lim, S. Kim, S. H. Choi, K. J. Ahn, G. Kim, S. H. Sim, and B. H. Hong, “Plasmon-enhanced ultraviolet photoluminescence from hybrid structures of graphene/ZnO films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(12), 127403 (2010).
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S. Kim, D. H. Shin, C. O. Kim, S. Won Hwang, S. H. Choi, S. Ji, and J. Y. Koo, “Enhanced ultraviolet emission from hybrid structures of single-walled carbon nanotubes/ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Choi, W. K.

D. I. Son, B. W. Kwon, D. H. Park, W. S. Seo, Y. Yi, B. Angadi, C. L. Lee, and W. K. Choi, “Emissive ZnO-graphene quantum dots for white-light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 465–471 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chua, S. J.

X. H. Huang, R. Chen, C. Zhang, J. W. Chai, S. J. Wang, D. Z. Chi, and S. J. Chua, “Ultrafast and robust UV luminescence from Cu-doped ZnO nanowires mediated by plasmonic hot electrons,” Adv. Opt. Mat. 4(6), 960–966 (2016).
[Crossref]

Clarke, D. R.

E. J. Guidelli, O. Baffa, and D. R. Clarke, “Enhanced UV emission from silver/ZnO and gold/ZnO core-shell nanoparticles: photoluminescence, radioluminescence, and optically stimulated luminescence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14004 (2015).
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Clements, W. R.

B. B. Li, W. R. Clements, X. C. Yu, K. Shi, Q. Gong, and Y. F. Xiao, “Single nanoparticle detection using split-mode microcavity Raman lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(41), 14657–14662 (2014).
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J. Wang, Z. Wang, B. Huang, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, X. Qin, X. Zhang, and Y. Dai, “Oxygen vacancy induced band-gap narrowing and enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of ZnO,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(8), 4024–4030 (2012).
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R. Liu, X. W. Fu, J. Meng, Y. Q. Bie, D. P. Yu, and Z. M. Liao, “Graphene plasmon enhanced photoluminescence in ZnO microwires,” Nanoscale 5(12), 5294–5298 (2013).
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Yu, J.

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L. Zhang, C. H. Teng, P. C. Ku, and H. Deng, “Site-controlled InGaN/GaN single-photon-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 153102 (2016).
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Z. Fu, W. Dong, B. Yang, Z. Wang, Y. Yang, H. Yan, S. Zhang, J. Zuo, M. Ma, and X. Liu, “Effect of MgO on the enhancement of ultraviolet photoluminescence in ZnO,” Solid State Commun. 138(4), 179–183 (2006).
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J. Wang, Z. Wang, B. Huang, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, X. Qin, X. Zhang, and Y. Dai, “Oxygen vacancy induced band-gap narrowing and enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of ZnO,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(8), 4024–4030 (2012).
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H. Zeng, W. Cai, P. Liu, X. Xu, H. Zhou, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “ZnO-based hollow nanoparticles by selective etching: elimination and reconstruction of metal-semiconductor interface, improvement of blue emission and photocatalysis,” ACS Nano 2(8), 1661–1670 (2008).
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L. Zhang, C. H. Teng, P. C. Ku, and H. Deng, “Site-controlled InGaN/GaN single-photon-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 153102 (2016).
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L. Guo, S. Yang, C. Yang, P. Yu, J. Wang, W. Ge, and G. K. L. Wong, “Highly monodisperse polymer-capped ZnO nanoparticles: preparation and optical properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(20), 2901–2903 (2000).
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M. Liu, S. W. Qu, W. W. Yu, S. Y. Bao, C. Y. Ma, Q. Y. Zhang, J. He, J. C. Jiang, E. I. Meletis, and C. L. Chen, “Photoluminescence and extinction enhancement from ZnO films embedded with Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231906 (2010).
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Nanoscale (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental configuration of PL enhancement by MLS sandwich structure. (a) Schematic of PL spectrometer and experimental setup. (b) Surface morphology of microsphere monolayer capped on ZnO thin film. (c) Top and (d) cross-section view of the microstructure of as-grown ZnO thin film. (e) XRD pattern of a ZnO thin film grown on a SiC substrate.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 PL enhancement in MSA-capped ZnO thin films grown on (a) SiC, (b) Si, (c) SiO2, (d) Al2O3, (e) ZnO and (f) GaN substrates. The inserts are reflectance spectra of as-grown and MSA-capped ZnO thin films with respect to 325-nm-wavelength excitation laser.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 PL enhancement in MSA-capped ZnO thin films with different film thicknesses. (a) PL spectra for ZnO films with film thickness from 250 nm to 1350 nm. (b) Effect of film thickness on ERIs of PL at UV and visible bands.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Effect of distribution of excitation laser intensity on PL enhancement in MLS sandwich structure. (a) Excitation laser focused by a dielectric microsphere in MSA and the corresponding distribution of light intensity. (b) PL spectra of ZnO film with excitation power increasing from 0.1 to 8 mW. The inset shows the integrated PL peak intensities at 380 nm and ~550 nm as a function of the excition power in a double logarithmic plot.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Scattered light manipulation by MLS sandwich structure. (a) Scattered 325 nm excitation light trapping in the microsphere, (b) travelling wave WGM (TW-WGM) of NBE emission at 380 nm in MLS sandwich structure, (c) TW-WGM of DL emission at 550 nm in MLS sandwich structure, and (d) standing wave WGM (SW-WGM) of NBE emission near 380 nm in MLS sandwich structure. Top panel is the corresponding polar plot of light scattering intensity with/without MSA in the far field.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Dependence of ERI for NBE emission on substrate refractive index and ZnO film thickness. (a) Effect of refractive index of substrate on ERIASE and Q factor by numerical simulation. (b) Theoretical and experimental ERI variation for refractive index of substrate. (c) Effect of ZnO film thickness on ERIASE and Q factor in numerical simulation. (d) Theoretical and experimental ERI variation with respect to ZnO film thickness.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Evolution of ERI of UV-PL from ZnO film with substrate refractive index and film thickness. Dependence of refractive index of substrate and thickness of ZnO film on (a) ERIASE caused by TW-WGMs, (b) ERIPurecell resulted from SW-WGMs and (c) total ERI for UV PL from ZnO-based MLS sandwich structure.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I PL P γ
ER I f = 0 2π 0 r ms I PL ( r )rdrdθ π r ms 2 0 2π 0 r ms P ( r ) γ rdrdθ π r ms 2 2 0 r ms | E( r ) | 2γ rdrdθ r ms 2
ΔR= Ω=2π | E bare ( θ ) | 2 | E MSA ( θ ) | 2 dΩ Ω=2π | E bare ( θ ) | 2 dΩ
I( λ )= M5.06±0.03 N=60,61,62 I M,N Γ 2 Γ 2 +4( λ λ M,N )
ER I Purcell = 3 4 π 2 ( λ n ) 3 ( Q V )
ER I antenna = Ω=2π( 1cos( sin 1 ( NA ) ) ) | E MSA ( θ ) | 2 dΩ Ω=2π( 1cos( sin 1 ( NA ) ) ) | E bare ( θ ) | 2 dΩ
ERI=ER I f ×ER I ΔR ×( β×ER I ASE +( 1β )×ER I Purcell )×ER I antenna

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