Abstract

The demands for a power-saving mode for displaying static images are ubiquitous not only in portable devices but also in price tags and advertising panels. At a low-frequency driving in liquid crystal displays (LCDs) for low-power consumption, the flexoelectric effect arises even in calamitic liquid crystals and the optical appearance of this physical phenomenon is found to be unusually large, being noticed as an image-flickering. Although the inherent integrated optical transmittance of in-plane switching (IPS) mode is relatively lower than that of fringe-field switching (FFS) mode, the IPS mode shows no static image-flickering but an optical spike (the so-called optical bounce), at the transient moment between signal positive and negative frames. Here, we demonstrate an IPS mode using negative dielectric anisotropy of liquid crystals (Δε < 0) and fine-patterned electrodes (the width w of and the space l between electrodes ≤ 3 μm) with reduced operation voltage (up to 40.7% to a conventional FFS mode with Δε < 0), reduced optical bounce (up to 4.4%. to a conventional FFS mode with Δε < 0) and enhanced transmittance (up to 32.1% to a conventional IPS mode with Δε > 0). We believe the result will contribute not only to the scientific understanding of the optical appearance of flexoelectric effect but also pave the way for engineering of a superior low-power consumption LCD.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (2)

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, D.-K. Yang, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35254 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, C.-M. Keum, D.-K. Yang, H. G. Ham, K.-U. Jeong, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Field-symmetrization to solve luminance deviation between frames in a low-frequency-driven fringe-field switching liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Express 24(26), 29568–29576 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

K. S. Ha, C. W. Woo, S. S. Bhattacharyya, H. J. Yun, H. S. Jin, Y.-K. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Analysis of optical bounce associated with two- step molecular reorientation in the fringe-field switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 39(1), 39–45 (2012).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

M. Bremer, M. Klasen-Memmer, D. Pauluth, and K. Tarumi, “Novel liquid-crystal materials with negative dielectric anisotropy for TV application,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14(6), 517 (2006).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3895–3897 (1995).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

J. Prost and P. S. Pershan, “Flexoelectricity in nematic and smectic-A liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 47(6), 2298–2312 (1976).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

W. Helfreich, “The Strength of Piezoelectricity in Liquid Crystals,” Z. Naturforsch. A 26(5), 833–835 (1971).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

R. B. Meyer, “Piezoelectric Effects in Liquid Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22(18), 918–921 (1969).
[Crossref]

An, Z.

Baba, H.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baek, J.-H.

Bhattacharyya, S. S.

K. S. Ha, C. W. Woo, S. S. Bhattacharyya, H. J. Yun, H. S. Jin, Y.-K. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Analysis of optical bounce associated with two- step molecular reorientation in the fringe-field switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 39(1), 39–45 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bos, P. J.

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, D.-K. Yang, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35254 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, C.-M. Keum, D.-K. Yang, H. G. Ham, K.-U. Jeong, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Field-symmetrization to solve luminance deviation between frames in a low-frequency-driven fringe-field switching liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Express 24(26), 29568–29576 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bremer, M.

M. Bremer, M. Klasen-Memmer, D. Pauluth, and K. Tarumi, “Novel liquid-crystal materials with negative dielectric anisotropy for TV application,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14(6), 517 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, M. Hu, F. Peng, J. Li, Z. An, and S.-T. Wu, “Ultra-low viscosity liquid crystal materials,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(3), 655 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, F. Peng, M. Hu, and S.-T. Wu, “Flexoelectric effect and human eye perception on the image flickering of a liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 42(12), 1730–1737 (2015).
[Crossref]

Choi, E.-J.

Choi, H. C.

Choi, J.-C.

Choi, T.-H.

Chubachi, Y.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fujiwara, C.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fukai, S.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ha, K. S.

K. S. Ha, C. W. Woo, S. S. Bhattacharyya, H. J. Yun, H. S. Jin, Y.-K. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Analysis of optical bounce associated with two- step molecular reorientation in the fringe-field switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 39(1), 39–45 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ha, Y. M.

Ham, H. G.

Hatsumi, R.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Helfreich, W.

W. Helfreich, “The Strength of Piezoelectricity in Liquid Crystals,” Z. Naturforsch. A 26(5), 833–835 (1971).
[Crossref]

Hirakata, Y.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hu, M.

H. Chen, M. Hu, F. Peng, J. Li, Z. An, and S.-T. Wu, “Ultra-low viscosity liquid crystal materials,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(3), 655 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, F. Peng, M. Hu, and S.-T. Wu, “Flexoelectric effect and human eye perception on the image flickering of a liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 42(12), 1730–1737 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jang, Y.-K.

K. S. Ha, C. W. Woo, S. S. Bhattacharyya, H. J. Yun, H. S. Jin, Y.-K. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Analysis of optical bounce associated with two- step molecular reorientation in the fringe-field switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 39(1), 39–45 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jeong, K.-U.

Jikumaru, M.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jin, H. S.

K. S. Ha, C. W. Woo, S. S. Bhattacharyya, H. J. Yun, H. S. Jin, Y.-K. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Analysis of optical bounce associated with two- step molecular reorientation in the fringe-field switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 39(1), 39–45 (2012).
[Crossref]

Keum, C.-M.

Kim, D.-W.

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, C.-M. Keum, D.-K. Yang, H. G. Ham, K.-U. Jeong, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Field-symmetrization to solve luminance deviation between frames in a low-frequency-driven fringe-field switching liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Express 24(26), 29568–29576 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, D.-K. Yang, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35254 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H. Y.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.-R.

Kim, J.-W.

Kim, M. S.

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, C.-M. Keum, D.-K. Yang, H. G. Ham, K.-U. Jeong, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Field-symmetrization to solve luminance deviation between frames in a low-frequency-driven fringe-field switching liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Express 24(26), 29568–29576 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, D.-K. Yang, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35254 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klasen-Memmer, M.

M. Bremer, M. Klasen-Memmer, D. Pauluth, and K. Tarumi, “Novel liquid-crystal materials with negative dielectric anisotropy for TV application,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14(6), 517 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kondo, K.

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3895–3897 (1995).
[Crossref]

Koyama, J.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kubota, D.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kubota, Y.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kusunoki, K.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, D.-J.

Lee, J. H.

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, D.-K. Yang, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35254 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, C.-M. Keum, D.-K. Yang, H. G. Ham, K.-U. Jeong, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Field-symmetrization to solve luminance deviation between frames in a low-frequency-driven fringe-field switching liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Express 24(26), 29568–29576 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.-H.

Lee, S. H.

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, D.-K. Yang, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35254 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, C.-M. Keum, D.-K. Yang, H. G. Ham, K.-U. Jeong, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Field-symmetrization to solve luminance deviation between frames in a low-frequency-driven fringe-field switching liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Express 24(26), 29568–29576 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Ha, C. W. Woo, S. S. Bhattacharyya, H. J. Yun, H. S. Jin, Y.-K. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Analysis of optical bounce associated with two- step molecular reorientation in the fringe-field switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 39(1), 39–45 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. L.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Meyer, R. B.

R. B. Meyer, “Piezoelectric Effects in Liquid Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22(18), 918–921 (1969).
[Crossref]

Moriya, K.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Oh, S.-W.

Oh-e, M.

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3895–3897 (1995).
[Crossref]

Park, J.-H.

Park, J.-S.

Pauluth, D.

M. Bremer, M. Klasen-Memmer, D. Pauluth, and K. Tarumi, “Novel liquid-crystal materials with negative dielectric anisotropy for TV application,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14(6), 517 (2006).
[Crossref]

Peng, F.

H. Chen, M. Hu, F. Peng, J. Li, Z. An, and S.-T. Wu, “Ultra-low viscosity liquid crystal materials,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(3), 655 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, F. Peng, M. Hu, and S.-T. Wu, “Flexoelectric effect and human eye perception on the image flickering of a liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 42(12), 1730–1737 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pershan, P. S.

J. Prost and P. S. Pershan, “Flexoelectricity in nematic and smectic-A liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 47(6), 2298–2312 (1976).
[Crossref]

Prost, J.

J. Prost and P. S. Pershan, “Flexoelectricity in nematic and smectic-A liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 47(6), 2298–2312 (1976).
[Crossref]

Ranjkesh, A.

Shim, G.-Y.

Tarumi, K.

M. Bremer, M. Klasen-Memmer, D. Pauluth, and K. Tarumi, “Novel liquid-crystal materials with negative dielectric anisotropy for TV application,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14(6), 517 (2006).
[Crossref]

Woo, C. W.

K. S. Ha, C. W. Woo, S. S. Bhattacharyya, H. J. Yun, H. S. Jin, Y.-K. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Analysis of optical bounce associated with two- step molecular reorientation in the fringe-field switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 39(1), 39–45 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.-T.

H. Chen, F. Peng, M. Hu, and S.-T. Wu, “Flexoelectric effect and human eye perception on the image flickering of a liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 42(12), 1730–1737 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, M. Hu, F. Peng, J. Li, Z. An, and S.-T. Wu, “Ultra-low viscosity liquid crystal materials,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(3), 655 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, A.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yamazaki, S.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, D.-K.

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, D.-K. Yang, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35254 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Flexoelectric effect in an IPS liquid crystal cell. (a) Schematics of cell structure and electric fields in ( + ) and (-) signal frames. (b) POM images driven at f = 60, 30, and 10 Hz at 3.5 V (50% of maximum transmittance). The pink- and green-dotted rectangles indicate the location of signal- and common-electrodes; the blue- and red-curves indicate local transmittance. Scale bar is 20 μm. (c-e) Simulated director fields where (c) es (eb) = 0 (0), and 15 (−5) in (d) ( + ) and (e) (-) frames. (f-h) Measured time-dependent transmittance at f = (f) 60, (g) 30, and (h) 10 Hz at 3.5 V. (i) A FEM result of time-dependent transmittance at f = 10 Hz.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Investigation between POM images and 3D FEM simulation. (a-c) POM images of an IPS cell (a) without and (b, c) with flexoelectric effect according to interdigitated electrodes including the edge region driven at f = 1 Hz at 3.5 V. Scale bar is 30 μm. Insets show corresponding images calculated. (d) The electrode structure for the simulation. (e-g) Detailed director fields according to the optical appearance in 3D FEM results. The green-arrows indicate electric fields in the blue-circles.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Static and dynamic electro-optic responses of IPS (w (l) = 5 (5) μm) and FFS (w (l) = 3 (4.5) μm) modes with positive (pLC) and negative (nLC) dielectric anisotropy of a liquid crystal medium governed by combination of linear and quadratic couplings. (a) Voltage-dependent transmittance and (b) time-dependent transmittance of four-cases: (b) FFS-pLC and IPS-pLC; (c) FFS-nLC and IPS-nLC.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Electro-optic characteristics of IPS mode with nLC (Δε = - 3.2, γ1 = 94 mPas, and es (eb) = 5 (10) pC/m) upon fine-patterned electrodes. (a) Vop, (b) Tmax and (c) corresponding optical bounce with respect to l / w ( = 1, 2 and 3) and w ( = 1, 2 and 3 μm). The filled-markers indicate the points in a regime where 1 ≥ (w + l) / d.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Time-dependent transmittance of three-cases picked from Fig. 4 using nLC (Δε = - 3.2, γ1 = 94 mPas, and es (eb) = 5 (10) pC/m) at an applied voltage for Tmax with the structural condition (a) w (l) = 3 (3), (b) 2 (2), and (c) 1 (1) μm. Red-dotted-circles indicate the optical bounce [16] at the transient moment between frames at f = 1 Hz. (d) Voltage-dependent transmittance for comparison between the conventional FFS modes from Fig. 3 and the proposed IPS modes.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Investigation of frame-transient moments at (a) w (l) = 3 (3), (b) w (l) = 2 (2), and (c) w (l) = 1 (1). The thinner gray-lines and the thicker blue-lines indicate equipotential area and a representative electric field, respectively. The purple-circles indicate the constructive area.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Enhancement of electro-optic characteristics by increasing dielectric anisotropy and rotational viscosity from Δε (γ1) = - 3.2 (94 mPas) to - 8.6 (142 mPas). (a-c) Time-dependent transmittance at an applied voltage for Tmax with the structural condition w (l) = (a) 3 (3) μm, (b) 2 (2) μm, and (c) 1 (1) μm. (d) Reduced Vop, (e) enhanced Tmax, and (f) reduced optical bounce (dynamic image-flicker).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Enhanced electro-optic properties.

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