Abstract

We demonstrate the hybrid integration of an O-band vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) onto a silicon photonic chip using a grating coupler that is optimized to simultaneously provide feedback to maintain the single emission polarization and efficient in-plane coupling. The grating coupler was fabricated on silicon-on-insulator using a standard silicon photonics foundry process, and integrated with a commercially available VCSEL. A transparent VCSEL submount was fabricated with femtosecond laser templating and chemical etching to simplify the passive and active alignment steps. A record-high VCSEL-to-chip coupling efficiency of −5 dB was obtained at a bias current of 2.5 mA. The slope efficiency and output power are competitive with microcavity hybrid silicon lasers. The results show the feasibility of VCSELs as low threshold current on-chip sources for silicon photonics.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (5)

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, “A novel approach to photonic packaging leveraging existing high-throughput microelectronic facilities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 8200712 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, I. Shubin, J. Lee, S. Lin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, S. Djordjevic, J. Bovington, D. Lee, H. Thacker, C. Zhang, K. Raj, J. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “III-V/Si hybrid laser arrays using back end of the line (BEOL) integration,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 3700214 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. Fedeli, J. Hartmann, J. Schmid, D. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, W. Li, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. Tang, S. Shutts, S. Elliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. Seeds, I. Ross, P. Smowton, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Lu, J. S. Lee, Y. Zhao, C. Scarcella, P. Cardile, A. Daly, M. Ortsiefer, L. Carroll, and P. O’Brien, “Flip-chip integration of tilted VCSELs onto a silicon photonic integrated circuit,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16258–16266 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

2014 (1)

2012 (2)

S. Ho, P. Herman, and J. Aitchison, “Single- and multi-scan femtosecond laser writing for selective chemical etching of cross section patternable glass micro-channels,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 106(1), 5–13 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

D. Liang, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and J. Bowers, “Hybrid integrated platforms for silicon photonics,” Materials (Basel) 3(3), 1782–1802 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Regreny, and P. Rojo-Romeo, “A thermally tunable III-V compound semiconductor microdisk laser integrated on silicon-on-insulator circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(17), 1270–1272 (2010).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

M. Park, O. Kwon, W. Han, K. Lee, S. Park, and B. Yoo, “All-epitaxial InAlGaAs-InP VCSELs in the 1.3-1.6-μm wavelength range for CWDM band applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(16), 1717–1719 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Arteaga, H. Unold, J. Ostermann, R. Michalzik, H. Thienpont, and K. Panajotov, “Investigation of polarization properties of VCSELs subject to optical feedback from an extremely short external cavity—Part I: theoretical analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 89–99 (2006).
[Crossref]

Aitchison, J.

S. Ho, P. Herman, and J. Aitchison, “Single- and multi-scan femtosecond laser writing for selective chemical etching of cross section patternable glass micro-channels,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 106(1), 5–13 (2012).
[Crossref]

Amann, M.

Y. Wang, S. Djordjecvic, J. Yao, J. Cunningham, X. Zheng, A. Krishnamoorthy, M. Muller, M. Amann, R. Bojko, N. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser flip-chip bonding to silicon photonics chip,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2015), pp. 122–123.

Arteaga, M.

M. Arteaga, H. Unold, J. Ostermann, R. Michalzik, H. Thienpont, and K. Panajotov, “Investigation of polarization properties of VCSELs subject to optical feedback from an extremely short external cavity—Part I: theoretical analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 89–99 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

Barwicz, T.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, “A novel approach to photonic packaging leveraging existing high-throughput microelectronic facilities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 8200712 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bauwelinck, J.

Bessette, J. T.

Boeuf, F.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. Fedeli, J. Hartmann, J. Schmid, D. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bojko, R.

Y. Wang, S. Djordjecvic, J. Yao, J. Cunningham, X. Zheng, A. Krishnamoorthy, M. Muller, M. Amann, R. Bojko, N. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser flip-chip bonding to silicon photonics chip,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2015), pp. 122–123.

Bovington, J.

X. Zheng, I. Shubin, J. Lee, S. Lin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, S. Djordjevic, J. Bovington, D. Lee, H. Thacker, C. Zhang, K. Raj, J. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “III-V/Si hybrid laser arrays using back end of the line (BEOL) integration,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 3700214 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. Fedeli, J. Hartmann, J. Schmid, D. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Liang, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and J. Bowers, “Hybrid integrated platforms for silicon photonics,” Materials (Basel) 3(3), 1782–1802 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boyer, N.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, “A novel approach to photonic packaging leveraging existing high-throughput microelectronic facilities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 8200712 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cai, Y.

Camacho-Aguilera, R. E.

Cardile, P.

Carroll, L.

Cassan, E.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. Fedeli, J. Hartmann, J. Schmid, D. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

Chen, S.

S. Chen, W. Li, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. Tang, S. Shutts, S. Elliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. Seeds, I. Ross, P. Smowton, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chrostowski, L.

Y. Wang, S. Djordjecvic, J. Yao, J. Cunningham, X. Zheng, A. Krishnamoorthy, M. Muller, M. Amann, R. Bojko, N. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser flip-chip bonding to silicon photonics chip,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2015), pp. 122–123.

Cunningham, J.

X. Zheng, I. Shubin, J. Lee, S. Lin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, S. Djordjevic, J. Bovington, D. Lee, H. Thacker, C. Zhang, K. Raj, J. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “III-V/Si hybrid laser arrays using back end of the line (BEOL) integration,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 3700214 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, S. Djordjecvic, J. Yao, J. Cunningham, X. Zheng, A. Krishnamoorthy, M. Muller, M. Amann, R. Bojko, N. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser flip-chip bonding to silicon photonics chip,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2015), pp. 122–123.

Daly, A.

Djordjecvic, S.

Y. Wang, S. Djordjecvic, J. Yao, J. Cunningham, X. Zheng, A. Krishnamoorthy, M. Muller, M. Amann, R. Bojko, N. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser flip-chip bonding to silicon photonics chip,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2015), pp. 122–123.

Djordjevic, S.

X. Zheng, I. Shubin, J. Lee, S. Lin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, S. Djordjevic, J. Bovington, D. Lee, H. Thacker, C. Zhang, K. Raj, J. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “III-V/Si hybrid laser arrays using back end of the line (BEOL) integration,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 3700214 (2016).
[Crossref]

Elliott, S.

S. Chen, W. Li, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. Tang, S. Shutts, S. Elliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. Seeds, I. Ross, P. Smowton, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Engelmann, S.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, “A novel approach to photonic packaging leveraging existing high-throughput microelectronic facilities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 8200712 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fedeli, J.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. Fedeli, J. Hartmann, J. Schmid, D. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ferrara, J.

Fortier, P.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, “A novel approach to photonic packaging leveraging existing high-throughput microelectronic facilities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 8200712 (2016).
[Crossref]

Han, W.

M. Park, O. Kwon, W. Han, K. Lee, S. Park, and B. Yoo, “All-epitaxial InAlGaAs-InP VCSELs in the 1.3-1.6-μm wavelength range for CWDM band applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(16), 1717–1719 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, J.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. Fedeli, J. Hartmann, J. Schmid, D. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Herman, P.

S. Ho, P. Herman, and J. Aitchison, “Single- and multi-scan femtosecond laser writing for selective chemical etching of cross section patternable glass micro-channels,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 106(1), 5–13 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ho, S.

S. Ho, P. Herman, and J. Aitchison, “Single- and multi-scan femtosecond laser writing for selective chemical etching of cross section patternable glass micro-channels,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 106(1), 5–13 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jaeger, N.

Y. Wang, S. Djordjecvic, J. Yao, J. Cunningham, X. Zheng, A. Krishnamoorthy, M. Muller, M. Amann, R. Bojko, N. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser flip-chip bonding to silicon photonics chip,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2015), pp. 122–123.

Janta-Polczynski, A.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, “A novel approach to photonic packaging leveraging existing high-throughput microelectronic facilities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 8200712 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Q.

S. Chen, W. Li, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. Tang, S. Shutts, S. Elliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. Seeds, I. Ross, P. Smowton, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kamlapurkar, S.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, “A novel approach to photonic packaging leveraging existing high-throughput microelectronic facilities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 8200712 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kaur, K. S.

Khater, M. H.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, “A novel approach to photonic packaging leveraging existing high-throughput microelectronic facilities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 8200712 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kimbrell, E.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, “A novel approach to photonic packaging leveraging existing high-throughput microelectronic facilities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 8200712 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kimerling, L. C.

Komljenovic, T.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. Fedeli, J. Hartmann, J. Schmid, D. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Krishnamoorthy, A.

X. Zheng, I. Shubin, J. Lee, S. Lin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, S. Djordjevic, J. Bovington, D. Lee, H. Thacker, C. Zhang, K. Raj, J. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “III-V/Si hybrid laser arrays using back end of the line (BEOL) integration,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 3700214 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, S. Djordjecvic, J. Yao, J. Cunningham, X. Zheng, A. Krishnamoorthy, M. Muller, M. Amann, R. Bojko, N. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser flip-chip bonding to silicon photonics chip,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2015), pp. 122–123.

Kwon, O.

M. Park, O. Kwon, W. Han, K. Lee, S. Park, and B. Yoo, “All-epitaxial InAlGaAs-InP VCSELs in the 1.3-1.6-μm wavelength range for CWDM band applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(16), 1717–1719 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, D.

X. Zheng, I. Shubin, J. Lee, S. Lin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, S. Djordjevic, J. Bovington, D. Lee, H. Thacker, C. Zhang, K. Raj, J. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “III-V/Si hybrid laser arrays using back end of the line (BEOL) integration,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 3700214 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

X. Zheng, I. Shubin, J. Lee, S. Lin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, S. Djordjevic, J. Bovington, D. Lee, H. Thacker, C. Zhang, K. Raj, J. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “III-V/Si hybrid laser arrays using back end of the line (BEOL) integration,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 3700214 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. S.

Lee, K.

M. Park, O. Kwon, W. Han, K. Lee, S. Park, and B. Yoo, “All-epitaxial InAlGaAs-InP VCSELs in the 1.3-1.6-μm wavelength range for CWDM band applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(16), 1717–1719 (2006).
[Crossref]

Leidy, R.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, “A novel approach to photonic packaging leveraging existing high-throughput microelectronic facilities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 8200712 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

S. Chen, W. Li, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. Tang, S. Shutts, S. Elliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. Seeds, I. Ross, P. Smowton, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liang, D.

D. Liang, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and J. Bowers, “Hybrid integrated platforms for silicon photonics,” Materials (Basel) 3(3), 1782–1802 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lichoulas, W.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, “A novel approach to photonic packaging leveraging existing high-throughput microelectronic facilities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 8200712 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lin, S.

X. Zheng, I. Shubin, J. Lee, S. Lin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, S. Djordjevic, J. Bovington, D. Lee, H. Thacker, C. Zhang, K. Raj, J. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “III-V/Si hybrid laser arrays using back end of the line (BEOL) integration,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 3700214 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

S. Chen, W. Li, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. Tang, S. Shutts, S. Elliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. Seeds, I. Ross, P. Smowton, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

L. Yu, L. Liu, Z. Zhou, and X. Wang, “High efficiency binary blazed grating coupler for perfectly-vertical and near-vertical coupling in chip level optical interconnections,” Opt. Commun. 355, 161–166 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Regreny, and P. Rojo-Romeo, “A thermally tunable III-V compound semiconductor microdisk laser integrated on silicon-on-insulator circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(17), 1270–1272 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lu, H.

Luo, Y.

X. Zheng, I. Shubin, J. Lee, S. Lin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, S. Djordjevic, J. Bovington, D. Lee, H. Thacker, C. Zhang, K. Raj, J. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “III-V/Si hybrid laser arrays using back end of the line (BEOL) integration,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 3700214 (2016).
[Crossref]

Marris-Morini, D.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. Fedeli, J. Hartmann, J. Schmid, D. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Martin, Y.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, “A novel approach to photonic packaging leveraging existing high-throughput microelectronic facilities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 8200712 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mashanovich, G.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. Fedeli, J. Hartmann, J. Schmid, D. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Meyer, R.

Michalzik, R.

M. Arteaga, H. Unold, J. Ostermann, R. Michalzik, H. Thienpont, and K. Panajotov, “Investigation of polarization properties of VCSELs subject to optical feedback from an extremely short external cavity—Part I: theoretical analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 89–99 (2006).
[Crossref]

Michel, J.

Muller, M.

Y. Wang, S. Djordjecvic, J. Yao, J. Cunningham, X. Zheng, A. Krishnamoorthy, M. Muller, M. Amann, R. Bojko, N. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser flip-chip bonding to silicon photonics chip,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2015), pp. 122–123.

Nah, J.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, “A novel approach to photonic packaging leveraging existing high-throughput microelectronic facilities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 8200712 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nedeljkovic, M.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. Fedeli, J. Hartmann, J. Schmid, D. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Noriega, I.

Numata, H.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, “A novel approach to photonic packaging leveraging existing high-throughput microelectronic facilities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 8200712 (2016).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, P.

H. Lu, J. S. Lee, Y. Zhao, C. Scarcella, P. Cardile, A. Daly, M. Ortsiefer, L. Carroll, and P. O’Brien, “Flip-chip integration of tilted VCSELs onto a silicon photonic integrated circuit,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16258–16266 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. Fedeli, J. Hartmann, J. Schmid, D. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ortsiefer, M.

Ostermann, J.

M. Arteaga, H. Unold, J. Ostermann, R. Michalzik, H. Thienpont, and K. Panajotov, “Investigation of polarization properties of VCSELs subject to optical feedback from an extremely short external cavity—Part I: theoretical analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 89–99 (2006).
[Crossref]

Panajotov, K.

M. Arteaga, H. Unold, J. Ostermann, R. Michalzik, H. Thienpont, and K. Panajotov, “Investigation of polarization properties of VCSELs subject to optical feedback from an extremely short external cavity—Part I: theoretical analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 89–99 (2006).
[Crossref]

Park, M.

M. Park, O. Kwon, W. Han, K. Lee, S. Park, and B. Yoo, “All-epitaxial InAlGaAs-InP VCSELs in the 1.3-1.6-μm wavelength range for CWDM band applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(16), 1717–1719 (2006).
[Crossref]

Park, S.

M. Park, O. Kwon, W. Han, K. Lee, S. Park, and B. Yoo, “All-epitaxial InAlGaAs-InP VCSELs in the 1.3-1.6-μm wavelength range for CWDM band applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(16), 1717–1719 (2006).
[Crossref]

Patel, N.

Pérez, P.

Pesquera, L.

Qiao, P.

Raj, K.

X. Zheng, I. Shubin, J. Lee, S. Lin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, S. Djordjevic, J. Bovington, D. Lee, H. Thacker, C. Zhang, K. Raj, J. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “III-V/Si hybrid laser arrays using back end of the line (BEOL) integration,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 3700214 (2016).
[Crossref]

Reed, G.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. Fedeli, J. Hartmann, J. Schmid, D. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Regreny, P.

L. Liu, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Regreny, and P. Rojo-Romeo, “A thermally tunable III-V compound semiconductor microdisk laser integrated on silicon-on-insulator circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(17), 1270–1272 (2010).
[Crossref]

Roelkens, G.

L. Liu, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Regreny, and P. Rojo-Romeo, “A thermally tunable III-V compound semiconductor microdisk laser integrated on silicon-on-insulator circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(17), 1270–1272 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Liang, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and J. Bowers, “Hybrid integrated platforms for silicon photonics,” Materials (Basel) 3(3), 1782–1802 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rojo-Romeo, P.

L. Liu, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Regreny, and P. Rojo-Romeo, “A thermally tunable III-V compound semiconductor microdisk laser integrated on silicon-on-insulator circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(17), 1270–1272 (2010).
[Crossref]

Romagnoli, M.

Ross, I.

S. Chen, W. Li, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. Tang, S. Shutts, S. Elliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. Seeds, I. Ross, P. Smowton, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Scarcella, C.

Schmid, J.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. Fedeli, J. Hartmann, J. Schmid, D. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Seeds, A.

S. Chen, W. Li, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. Tang, S. Shutts, S. Elliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. Seeds, I. Ross, P. Smowton, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shubin, I.

X. Zheng, I. Shubin, J. Lee, S. Lin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, S. Djordjevic, J. Bovington, D. Lee, H. Thacker, C. Zhang, K. Raj, J. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “III-V/Si hybrid laser arrays using back end of the line (BEOL) integration,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 3700214 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shutts, S.

S. Chen, W. Li, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. Tang, S. Shutts, S. Elliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. Seeds, I. Ross, P. Smowton, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Smowton, P.

S. Chen, W. Li, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. Tang, S. Shutts, S. Elliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. Seeds, I. Ross, P. Smowton, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sobiesierski, A.

S. Chen, W. Li, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. Tang, S. Shutts, S. Elliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. Seeds, I. Ross, P. Smowton, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Spiga, S.

Spuesens, T.

L. Liu, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Regreny, and P. Rojo-Romeo, “A thermally tunable III-V compound semiconductor microdisk laser integrated on silicon-on-insulator circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(17), 1270–1272 (2010).
[Crossref]

Subramanian, A. Z.

Taira, Y.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, “A novel approach to photonic packaging leveraging existing high-throughput microelectronic facilities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 8200712 (2016).
[Crossref]

Takenobu, S.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, “A novel approach to photonic packaging leveraging existing high-throughput microelectronic facilities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 8200712 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tang, M.

S. Chen, W. Li, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. Tang, S. Shutts, S. Elliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. Seeds, I. Ross, P. Smowton, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Thacker, H.

X. Zheng, I. Shubin, J. Lee, S. Lin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, S. Djordjevic, J. Bovington, D. Lee, H. Thacker, C. Zhang, K. Raj, J. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “III-V/Si hybrid laser arrays using back end of the line (BEOL) integration,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 3700214 (2016).
[Crossref]

Thienpont, H.

M. Arteaga, H. Unold, J. Ostermann, R. Michalzik, H. Thienpont, and K. Panajotov, “Investigation of polarization properties of VCSELs subject to optical feedback from an extremely short external cavity—Part I: theoretical analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 89–99 (2006).
[Crossref]

Thomson, D.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. Fedeli, J. Hartmann, J. Schmid, D. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Unold, H.

M. Arteaga, H. Unold, J. Ostermann, R. Michalzik, H. Thienpont, and K. Panajotov, “Investigation of polarization properties of VCSELs subject to optical feedback from an extremely short external cavity—Part I: theoretical analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 89–99 (2006).
[Crossref]

Valle, A.

Van Kerrebrouck, J.

Van Steenberge, G.

Van Thourhout, D.

L. Liu, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Regreny, and P. Rojo-Romeo, “A thermally tunable III-V compound semiconductor microdisk laser integrated on silicon-on-insulator circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(17), 1270–1272 (2010).
[Crossref]

Verplancke, R.

Virot, L.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. Fedeli, J. Hartmann, J. Schmid, D. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vivien, L.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. Fedeli, J. Hartmann, J. Schmid, D. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vlasov, Y. A.

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, “A novel approach to photonic packaging leveraging existing high-throughput microelectronic facilities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 8200712 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

L. Yu, L. Liu, Z. Zhou, and X. Wang, “High efficiency binary blazed grating coupler for perfectly-vertical and near-vertical coupling in chip level optical interconnections,” Opt. Commun. 355, 161–166 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, S. Djordjecvic, J. Yao, J. Cunningham, X. Zheng, A. Krishnamoorthy, M. Muller, M. Amann, R. Bojko, N. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser flip-chip bonding to silicon photonics chip,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2015), pp. 122–123.

Wu, J.

S. Chen, W. Li, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. Tang, S. Shutts, S. Elliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. Seeds, I. Ross, P. Smowton, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, D.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. Fedeli, J. Hartmann, J. Schmid, D. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, W.

Yao, J.

X. Zheng, I. Shubin, J. Lee, S. Lin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, S. Djordjevic, J. Bovington, D. Lee, H. Thacker, C. Zhang, K. Raj, J. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “III-V/Si hybrid laser arrays using back end of the line (BEOL) integration,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 3700214 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, S. Djordjecvic, J. Yao, J. Cunningham, X. Zheng, A. Krishnamoorthy, M. Muller, M. Amann, R. Bojko, N. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser flip-chip bonding to silicon photonics chip,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2015), pp. 122–123.

Yoo, B.

M. Park, O. Kwon, W. Han, K. Lee, S. Park, and B. Yoo, “All-epitaxial InAlGaAs-InP VCSELs in the 1.3-1.6-μm wavelength range for CWDM band applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(16), 1717–1719 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yu, L.

L. Yu, L. Liu, Z. Zhou, and X. Wang, “High efficiency binary blazed grating coupler for perfectly-vertical and near-vertical coupling in chip level optical interconnections,” Opt. Commun. 355, 161–166 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

X. Zheng, I. Shubin, J. Lee, S. Lin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, S. Djordjevic, J. Bovington, D. Lee, H. Thacker, C. Zhang, K. Raj, J. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “III-V/Si hybrid laser arrays using back end of the line (BEOL) integration,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 3700214 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Zheng, X.

X. Zheng, I. Shubin, J. Lee, S. Lin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, S. Djordjevic, J. Bovington, D. Lee, H. Thacker, C. Zhang, K. Raj, J. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “III-V/Si hybrid laser arrays using back end of the line (BEOL) integration,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 3700214 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, S. Djordjecvic, J. Yao, J. Cunningham, X. Zheng, A. Krishnamoorthy, M. Muller, M. Amann, R. Bojko, N. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser flip-chip bonding to silicon photonics chip,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2015), pp. 122–123.

Zhou, Z.

L. Yu, L. Liu, Z. Zhou, and X. Wang, “High efficiency binary blazed grating coupler for perfectly-vertical and near-vertical coupling in chip level optical interconnections,” Opt. Commun. 355, 161–166 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhu, L.

Zilkie, A.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. Fedeli, J. Hartmann, J. Schmid, D. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

S. Ho, P. Herman, and J. Aitchison, “Single- and multi-scan femtosecond laser writing for selective chemical etching of cross section patternable glass micro-channels,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 106(1), 5–13 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Arteaga, H. Unold, J. Ostermann, R. Michalzik, H. Thienpont, and K. Panajotov, “Investigation of polarization properties of VCSELs subject to optical feedback from an extremely short external cavity—Part I: theoretical analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 89–99 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

T. Barwicz, Y. Taira, W. Lichoulas, N. Boyer, Y. Martin, H. Numata, J. Nah, S. Takenobu, A. Janta-Polczynski, E. Kimbrell, R. Leidy, M. H. Khater, S. Kamlapurkar, S. Engelmann, Y. A. Vlasov, and P. Fortier, “A novel approach to photonic packaging leveraging existing high-throughput microelectronic facilities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 8200712 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Zheng, I. Shubin, J. Lee, S. Lin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, S. Djordjevic, J. Bovington, D. Lee, H. Thacker, C. Zhang, K. Raj, J. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “III-V/Si hybrid laser arrays using back end of the line (BEOL) integration,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 3700214 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

L. Liu, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Regreny, and P. Rojo-Romeo, “A thermally tunable III-V compound semiconductor microdisk laser integrated on silicon-on-insulator circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(17), 1270–1272 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Park, O. Kwon, W. Han, K. Lee, S. Park, and B. Yoo, “All-epitaxial InAlGaAs-InP VCSELs in the 1.3-1.6-μm wavelength range for CWDM band applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(16), 1717–1719 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. (1)

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. Fedeli, J. Hartmann, J. Schmid, D. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Materials (Basel) (1)

D. Liang, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and J. Bowers, “Hybrid integrated platforms for silicon photonics,” Materials (Basel) 3(3), 1782–1802 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

S. Chen, W. Li, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. Tang, S. Shutts, S. Elliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. Seeds, I. Ross, P. Smowton, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Yu, L. Liu, Z. Zhou, and X. Wang, “High efficiency binary blazed grating coupler for perfectly-vertical and near-vertical coupling in chip level optical interconnections,” Opt. Commun. 355, 161–166 (2015).
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Opt. Express (4)

Other (4)

R. Avila, “Active alignment in photonics,” http://www.finetechusa.com/bonders/blog/16-active-alignment-in-photonics.html , (2016).

W. D. Sacher, Z. Yong, J. C. Mikkelsen, A. Bois, Y. Yang, J. C. C. Mak, P. Dumais, D. Goodwill, C. Ma, J. Jeong, E. Bernier, and J. K. S. Poon, “Multilayer silicon nitride-on-silicon integrated photonic platform for 3D photonic circuits,” in CLEO 2016, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper JTh4C.

Y. Wang, S. Djordjecvic, J. Yao, J. Cunningham, X. Zheng, A. Krishnamoorthy, M. Muller, M. Amann, R. Bojko, N. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser flip-chip bonding to silicon photonics chip,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2015), pp. 122–123.

C. Zhang, D. Liang, G. Kurczveil, J. Bowers, and R. Beausoleil, “High temperature hybrid silicon micro-ring lasers with thermal shunts,” in CLEO:2015, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper SW3F.5.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the proposed VCSEL-on-SiP integration. The vertical grating coupler (VGC) includes two parts: periodic gratings and apodized gratings. The electric field directions of the TE mode and TM (transverse magnetic) mode are shown. Bottom inset: the equivalent model of a VCSEL with the effective bottom mirror.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Computed characteristics of the VGC by 2D-FDTD. (a) The simulated vertical back reflection in the direction of + y in Fig. 1 at the top surface of VGC and (b) the in-plane coupling efficiency for TE and TM modes. The simulated TE in-plane coupling efficiency at 1331.3 nm as a function of (c) the GC period variation from the designed value of Λp and (d) the source position offset.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results of the ESEC model. (a/b) Without/with OF from designed ESEC (VGC), polarization resolved output power from the VCSEL bottom mirror as a function of the bias current at 1331.3 nm. The plots categorize the solutions from the rate Eqs. (A.1-)A.3). The dots show the TE power if PTM = 0; the solid line shows the TM power if PTE = 0; the triangles and dashed line respectively show the TM and TE power if PTM, PTE ≠ 0. (c/d) without/with OF from designed ESEC (VGC), map of the polarization states of the VCSEL in current versus external cavity length offset plots, showing selectivity of TE only (Zone I, green), TM only (Zone III, white), or PS (Zone II, red) emission depending on the bias current and Lext. Blue line: threshold current; green line: max working current of the VCSEL.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical micrographs of the SiP, VCSEL, assembed dies and schematic of the measurement setup. (a) A VGC and alignment marks on the SiP die; (b) a VCSEL die on the SiP die; (c) the silica transparent submount and alignment marks; (d) silver conductive epoxy applied onto a VCSEL bond pad; (e) a VCSEL bonded under a submount placed atop of the SiP die for active alignment; and (f) schematic of the optical characterization.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured performance of the VCSEL-on-SiP assembly. (a) L-I-V characteristics before and after integration. Only I-V relation after device integraton is shown; (b) the coupling efficiency of VGC; (c) image of the VCSEL light emission from the top of the assembly as captured by infrared CCD camera through a polarization analyzer; and (d) the optical spectra recorded at several bias currents of the VCSEL-SiP assembly.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Parameters of the Gaussian beam. (a) Gaussian beam divergence angle: θx; (b) Gaussian beam spot position offset: δx,z; (c) Gaussian beam waist radius: Wx,z.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The measured transfer function of a standard GC from the foundry design kit. Inset: the microscope photo of the pair of standard GCs used to determine the transfer function.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 VCSEL Parameters used in the ESEC Model.

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Table 2 Comparison with other VCSEL-on-SiP assemblies and microcavity hybrid lasers.

Equations (10)

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r eff TE,TM ( L ext )= r 2 TE,TM + t 2 TE,TM t 2 TE,TM r 2 TE,TM p=1 κ LL TE,TM (2p L ext ) [ r 2 TE,TM r f TE,TM exp(j β TE,TM 2 L ext ) ] p ,
κ LL TE (y)= aperture area E z1 (x,y,z) E z2 * (x,y,z)ds .
d P TE dt =( Γ G TE 1 τ p,TE ) P TE ,
d P TM dt =( Γ G TM 1 τ p,TM ) P TM ,
dN dt = ηJ edπ S 2 N τ e G TE P TE G TM P TM ,
G m = v gm g m (N N tr )(1 ε s P m ε c P n ),
τ p,TE,TM = n g,TE,TM c [ α int + 1 L c ln( 1 | r 1 TE,TM r eff TE,TM | ) ] 1 ,
E z (x,y,z)= ( 2 π ) 1 2 W x (y) W z (y) exp[ (x δ x ) 2 W x 2 (y) (z δ z ) 2 W z 2 (y) ] exp{ jk[ (x δ x ) 2 2 R x (y) (z δ z ) 2 2 R z (y) + θ x (x δ x )+ θ z (z δ z )y ] },
W x,z (y)= W 0 x,z [ 1+ ( 2y k W 0 x,z 2 ) 2 ] 1/2 ,
R x,z (y)=y[ 1+ ( k W 0 x,z 2 2y ) 2 ],

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