Abstract

A 64 Gb/s four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL)-based free-space optical (FSO) link with an external light injection scheme is proposed and successfully demonstrated. Experimental results show that the 11.2 GHz VCSEL with an external light injection scheme is sufficiently powerful for 64 Gb/s PAM4 FSO links. This study is the first one that adopts a 1550-nm VCSEL transmitter with an external light injection scheme in a 64 Gb/s PAM4 FSO link. The link performances of the proposed PAM4 VCSEL-based FSO links have been analyzed in real-time in terms of eye diagrams and offline processed by Matlab in terms of bit error rate (BER) performances. Good BER performance and clear eye diagrams are acquired over a 100-m free-space link. Such a proposed 64 Gb/s PAM4 VCSEL-based FSO link with an external light injection scheme is a promising one for providing high transmission rate and long transmission distance.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Yang, R. Hu, M. Luo, Q. Yang, C. Li, H. Li, and S. Yu, “IM/DD-Based 112-Gb/s/lambda PAM-4 Transmission Using 18-Gbps DML,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 7903907 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. Zhou, X. Li, L. Yi, Q. Yang, and S. Fu, “Transmission of 2 × 56 Gb/s PAM-4 signal over 100 km SSMF using 18 GHz DMLs,” Opt. Lett. 41(8), 1805–1808 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. R. Motaghiannezam, T. Pham, A. Chen, T. Du, C. Kocot, J. Xu, and B. Huebner, “52 Gbps PAM4 receiver sensitivity study for 400GBase-LR8 system using directly modulated laser,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7374–7380 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. R. Motaghiannezam, I. Lyubomirsky, H. Daghighian, C. Kocot, T. Gray, J. Tatum, A. Amezcua-Correa, M. Bigot-Astruc, D. Molin, F. Achten, and P. Sillard, “Four 45 Gbps PAM4 VCSEL based transmission through 300 m wideband OM4 fiber over SWDM4 wavelength grid,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17193–17199 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2017 (2)

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, C. K. Lu, C. M. Ho, H. W. Chen, M. T. Cheng, Z. Y. Yang, and S. J. Huang, “A 103.12 Gb/s WDM PAM4 VCSEL-based transmission with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 7900808 (2017).

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, H. W. Chen, C. M. Ho, M. T. Cheng, Z. Y. Yang, and C. K. Lu, “A 56 Gb/s PAM4 VCSEL-based LiFi transmission with two-stage injection-locked technique,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 7900208 (2017).

2016 (7)

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, H. W. Chen, Z. Y. Yang, X. Y. Lin, M. T. Cheng, C. K. Lu, and T. T. Shih, “45 Gb/s PAM4 transmission based on VCSEL with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques,” Opt. Lett. 41(21), 5023–5026 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, T. C. Lu, C. J. Wu, C. A. Chu, H. H. Lin, and M.-T. Cheng, “A 100 m/320 Gbps SDM FSO link with a doublet lens scheme,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(7), 075201 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, T. C. Lu, C. A. Chu, H. H. Lin, B. R. Chen, C. J. Wu, and W. S. Tsai, “150 m/280 Gbps WDM/SDM FSO link based on OEO-based BLS and afocal telescopes,” Opt. Lett. 41(12), 2835–2838 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Yang, R. Hu, M. Luo, Q. Yang, C. Li, H. Li, and S. Yu, “IM/DD-Based 112-Gb/s/lambda PAM-4 Transmission Using 18-Gbps DML,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 7903907 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Zhou, X. Li, L. Yi, Q. Yang, and S. Fu, “Transmission of 2 × 56 Gb/s PAM-4 signal over 100 km SSMF using 18 GHz DMLs,” Opt. Lett. 41(8), 1805–1808 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Motaghiannezam, T. Pham, A. Chen, T. Du, C. Kocot, J. Xu, and B. Huebner, “52 Gbps PAM4 receiver sensitivity study for 400GBase-LR8 system using directly modulated laser,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7374–7380 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Motaghiannezam, I. Lyubomirsky, H. Daghighian, C. Kocot, T. Gray, J. Tatum, A. Amezcua-Correa, M. Bigot-Astruc, D. Molin, F. Achten, and P. Sillard, “Four 45 Gbps PAM4 VCSEL based transmission through 300 m wideband OM4 fiber over SWDM4 wavelength grid,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17193–17199 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

2014 (1)

M. A. Khalighi and M. Uysal, “Survey on free space optical communication: a communication theory perspective,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts. 16(4), 2231–2258 (2014).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

1994 (1)

S. Mohrdiek, H. Burkhard, and H. Walter, “Chirp reduction of directly modulated semiconductor lasers at 10 Gb/s by strong CW light injection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(12), 418–424 (1994).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

S. U. H. Qureshi, “Adaptive equalization,” Proc. IEEE 73(9), 1349–1387 (1985).
[Crossref]

Achten, F.

Amann, M. C.

Amezcua-Correa, A.

Bigot-Astruc, M.

Burkhard, H.

S. Mohrdiek, H. Burkhard, and H. Walter, “Chirp reduction of directly modulated semiconductor lasers at 10 Gb/s by strong CW light injection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(12), 418–424 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

Chen, A.

Chen, B. R.

Chen, H. W.

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, C. K. Lu, C. M. Ho, H. W. Chen, M. T. Cheng, Z. Y. Yang, and S. J. Huang, “A 103.12 Gb/s WDM PAM4 VCSEL-based transmission with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 7900808 (2017).

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, H. W. Chen, C. M. Ho, M. T. Cheng, Z. Y. Yang, and C. K. Lu, “A 56 Gb/s PAM4 VCSEL-based LiFi transmission with two-stage injection-locked technique,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 7900208 (2017).

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, H. W. Chen, Z. Y. Yang, X. Y. Lin, M. T. Cheng, C. K. Lu, and T. T. Shih, “45 Gb/s PAM4 transmission based on VCSEL with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques,” Opt. Lett. 41(21), 5023–5026 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, M. T.

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, H. W. Chen, C. M. Ho, M. T. Cheng, Z. Y. Yang, and C. K. Lu, “A 56 Gb/s PAM4 VCSEL-based LiFi transmission with two-stage injection-locked technique,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 7900208 (2017).

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, C. K. Lu, C. M. Ho, H. W. Chen, M. T. Cheng, Z. Y. Yang, and S. J. Huang, “A 103.12 Gb/s WDM PAM4 VCSEL-based transmission with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 7900808 (2017).

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, H. W. Chen, Z. Y. Yang, X. Y. Lin, M. T. Cheng, C. K. Lu, and T. T. Shih, “45 Gb/s PAM4 transmission based on VCSEL with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques,” Opt. Lett. 41(21), 5023–5026 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, M.-T.

C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, T. C. Lu, C. J. Wu, C. A. Chu, H. H. Lin, and M.-T. Cheng, “A 100 m/320 Gbps SDM FSO link with a doublet lens scheme,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(7), 075201 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chu, C. A.

Daghighian, H.

Daly, A.

F. Karinou, C. Prodaniuc, N. Stojanovic, M. Ortsiefer, A. Daly, R. Hohenleitner, B. Kögel, and C. Neumeyr, “Directly PAM-4 modulated 1530-nm VCSEL enabling 56 Gb/s/λ data-center interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1872–1875 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dorman, G.

Du, T.

Fu, S.

Gorshtein, A.

Gray, T.

Ho, C. M.

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, C. K. Lu, C. M. Ho, H. W. Chen, M. T. Cheng, Z. Y. Yang, and S. J. Huang, “A 103.12 Gb/s WDM PAM4 VCSEL-based transmission with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 7900808 (2017).

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, H. W. Chen, C. M. Ho, M. T. Cheng, Z. Y. Yang, and C. K. Lu, “A 56 Gb/s PAM4 VCSEL-based LiFi transmission with two-stage injection-locked technique,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 7900208 (2017).

Hofmann, W.

Hohenleitner, R.

F. Karinou, C. Prodaniuc, N. Stojanovic, M. Ortsiefer, A. Daly, R. Hohenleitner, B. Kögel, and C. Neumeyr, “Directly PAM-4 modulated 1530-nm VCSEL enabling 56 Gb/s/λ data-center interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1872–1875 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hu, R.

C. Yang, R. Hu, M. Luo, Q. Yang, C. Li, H. Li, and S. Yu, “IM/DD-Based 112-Gb/s/lambda PAM-4 Transmission Using 18-Gbps DML,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 7903907 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huang, S. J.

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, C. K. Lu, C. M. Ho, H. W. Chen, M. T. Cheng, Z. Y. Yang, and S. J. Huang, “A 103.12 Gb/s WDM PAM4 VCSEL-based transmission with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 7900808 (2017).

Huebner, B.

Karinou, F.

F. Karinou, C. Prodaniuc, N. Stojanovic, M. Ortsiefer, A. Daly, R. Hohenleitner, B. Kögel, and C. Neumeyr, “Directly PAM-4 modulated 1530-nm VCSEL enabling 56 Gb/s/λ data-center interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1872–1875 (2015).
[Crossref]

Khalighi, M. A.

M. A. Khalighi and M. Uysal, “Survey on free space optical communication: a communication theory perspective,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts. 16(4), 2231–2258 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kocot, C.

Kögel, B.

F. Karinou, C. Prodaniuc, N. Stojanovic, M. Ortsiefer, A. Daly, R. Hohenleitner, B. Kögel, and C. Neumeyr, “Directly PAM-4 modulated 1530-nm VCSEL enabling 56 Gb/s/λ data-center interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1872–1875 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lau, E. K.

Li, C.

C. Yang, R. Hu, M. Luo, Q. Yang, C. Li, H. Li, and S. Yu, “IM/DD-Based 112-Gb/s/lambda PAM-4 Transmission Using 18-Gbps DML,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 7903907 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, C. Y.

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, C. K. Lu, C. M. Ho, H. W. Chen, M. T. Cheng, Z. Y. Yang, and S. J. Huang, “A 103.12 Gb/s WDM PAM4 VCSEL-based transmission with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 7900808 (2017).

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, H. W. Chen, C. M. Ho, M. T. Cheng, Z. Y. Yang, and C. K. Lu, “A 56 Gb/s PAM4 VCSEL-based LiFi transmission with two-stage injection-locked technique,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 7900208 (2017).

C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, T. C. Lu, C. J. Wu, C. A. Chu, H. H. Lin, and M.-T. Cheng, “A 100 m/320 Gbps SDM FSO link with a doublet lens scheme,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(7), 075201 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, H. W. Chen, Z. Y. Yang, X. Y. Lin, M. T. Cheng, C. K. Lu, and T. T. Shih, “45 Gb/s PAM4 transmission based on VCSEL with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques,” Opt. Lett. 41(21), 5023–5026 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, C. A. Chu, T. C. Lu, B. R. Chen, C. J. Wu, and D. H. Lin, “10 m/25 Gbps LiFi transmission system based on a two-stage injection-locked 680 nm VCSEL transmitter,” Opt. Lett. 40(19), 4563–4566 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, H.

C. Yang, R. Hu, M. Luo, Q. Yang, C. Li, H. Li, and S. Yu, “IM/DD-Based 112-Gb/s/lambda PAM-4 Transmission Using 18-Gbps DML,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 7903907 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

Lin, C. Y.

Lin, D. H.

Lin, H. H.

C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, T. C. Lu, C. J. Wu, C. A. Chu, H. H. Lin, and M.-T. Cheng, “A 100 m/320 Gbps SDM FSO link with a doublet lens scheme,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(7), 075201 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, T. C. Lu, C. A. Chu, H. H. Lin, B. R. Chen, C. J. Wu, and W. S. Tsai, “150 m/280 Gbps WDM/SDM FSO link based on OEO-based BLS and afocal telescopes,” Opt. Lett. 41(12), 2835–2838 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, X. Y.

Lu, C. K.

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, C. K. Lu, C. M. Ho, H. W. Chen, M. T. Cheng, Z. Y. Yang, and S. J. Huang, “A 103.12 Gb/s WDM PAM4 VCSEL-based transmission with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 7900808 (2017).

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, H. W. Chen, C. M. Ho, M. T. Cheng, Z. Y. Yang, and C. K. Lu, “A 56 Gb/s PAM4 VCSEL-based LiFi transmission with two-stage injection-locked technique,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 7900208 (2017).

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, H. W. Chen, Z. Y. Yang, X. Y. Lin, M. T. Cheng, C. K. Lu, and T. T. Shih, “45 Gb/s PAM4 transmission based on VCSEL with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques,” Opt. Lett. 41(21), 5023–5026 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, H. H.

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, C. K. Lu, C. M. Ho, H. W. Chen, M. T. Cheng, Z. Y. Yang, and S. J. Huang, “A 103.12 Gb/s WDM PAM4 VCSEL-based transmission with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 7900808 (2017).

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, H. W. Chen, C. M. Ho, M. T. Cheng, Z. Y. Yang, and C. K. Lu, “A 56 Gb/s PAM4 VCSEL-based LiFi transmission with two-stage injection-locked technique,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 7900208 (2017).

C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, T. C. Lu, C. J. Wu, C. A. Chu, H. H. Lin, and M.-T. Cheng, “A 100 m/320 Gbps SDM FSO link with a doublet lens scheme,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(7), 075201 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, H. W. Chen, Z. Y. Yang, X. Y. Lin, M. T. Cheng, C. K. Lu, and T. T. Shih, “45 Gb/s PAM4 transmission based on VCSEL with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques,” Opt. Lett. 41(21), 5023–5026 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, T. C. Lu, C. A. Chu, H. H. Lin, B. R. Chen, C. J. Wu, and W. S. Tsai, “150 m/280 Gbps WDM/SDM FSO link based on OEO-based BLS and afocal telescopes,” Opt. Lett. 41(12), 2835–2838 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, C. A. Chu, T. C. Lu, B. R. Chen, C. J. Wu, and D. H. Lin, “10 m/25 Gbps LiFi transmission system based on a two-stage injection-locked 680 nm VCSEL transmitter,” Opt. Lett. 40(19), 4563–4566 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, T. C.

Luo, M.

C. Yang, R. Hu, M. Luo, Q. Yang, C. Li, H. Li, and S. Yu, “IM/DD-Based 112-Gb/s/lambda PAM-4 Transmission Using 18-Gbps DML,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 7903907 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lyubomirsky, I.

Mohrdiek, S.

S. Mohrdiek, H. Burkhard, and H. Walter, “Chirp reduction of directly modulated semiconductor lasers at 10 Gb/s by strong CW light injection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(12), 418–424 (1994).
[Crossref]

Molin, D.

Motaghiannezam, R.

Neumeyr, C.

F. Karinou, C. Prodaniuc, N. Stojanovic, M. Ortsiefer, A. Daly, R. Hohenleitner, B. Kögel, and C. Neumeyr, “Directly PAM-4 modulated 1530-nm VCSEL enabling 56 Gb/s/λ data-center interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1872–1875 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ortsiefer, M.

F. Karinou, C. Prodaniuc, N. Stojanovic, M. Ortsiefer, A. Daly, R. Hohenleitner, B. Kögel, and C. Neumeyr, “Directly PAM-4 modulated 1530-nm VCSEL enabling 56 Gb/s/λ data-center interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1872–1875 (2015).
[Crossref]

Parekh, D.

Pham, T.

Prodaniuc, C.

F. Karinou, C. Prodaniuc, N. Stojanovic, M. Ortsiefer, A. Daly, R. Hohenleitner, B. Kögel, and C. Neumeyr, “Directly PAM-4 modulated 1530-nm VCSEL enabling 56 Gb/s/λ data-center interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1872–1875 (2015).
[Crossref]

Qureshi, S. U. H.

S. U. H. Qureshi, “Adaptive equalization,” Proc. IEEE 73(9), 1349–1387 (1985).
[Crossref]

Sadot, D.

Shih, T. T.

Sillard, P.

Sonkin, E.

Stojanovic, N.

F. Karinou, C. Prodaniuc, N. Stojanovic, M. Ortsiefer, A. Daly, R. Hohenleitner, B. Kögel, and C. Neumeyr, “Directly PAM-4 modulated 1530-nm VCSEL enabling 56 Gb/s/λ data-center interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1872–1875 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sung, H. K.

Tatum, J.

Tsai, W. S.

Uysal, M.

M. A. Khalighi and M. Uysal, “Survey on free space optical communication: a communication theory perspective,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts. 16(4), 2231–2258 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vidal, O.

Walter, H.

S. Mohrdiek, H. Burkhard, and H. Walter, “Chirp reduction of directly modulated semiconductor lasers at 10 Gb/s by strong CW light injection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(12), 418–424 (1994).
[Crossref]

Wu, C. J.

Wu, M. C.

Xu, J.

Yang, C.

C. Yang, R. Hu, M. Luo, Q. Yang, C. Li, H. Li, and S. Yu, “IM/DD-Based 112-Gb/s/lambda PAM-4 Transmission Using 18-Gbps DML,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 7903907 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, Q.

C. Yang, R. Hu, M. Luo, Q. Yang, C. Li, H. Li, and S. Yu, “IM/DD-Based 112-Gb/s/lambda PAM-4 Transmission Using 18-Gbps DML,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 7903907 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Zhou, X. Li, L. Yi, Q. Yang, and S. Fu, “Transmission of 2 × 56 Gb/s PAM-4 signal over 100 km SSMF using 18 GHz DMLs,” Opt. Lett. 41(8), 1805–1808 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Z. Y.

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, C. K. Lu, C. M. Ho, H. W. Chen, M. T. Cheng, Z. Y. Yang, and S. J. Huang, “A 103.12 Gb/s WDM PAM4 VCSEL-based transmission with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 7900808 (2017).

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, H. W. Chen, C. M. Ho, M. T. Cheng, Z. Y. Yang, and C. K. Lu, “A 56 Gb/s PAM4 VCSEL-based LiFi transmission with two-stage injection-locked technique,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 7900208 (2017).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The experimental configuration of the proposed 64 Gb/s PAM4 VCSEL-based FSO links with an external light injection scheme.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 A pair of doublet lenses (doublet lens 1 and 2).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The optical spectrum of DFB LD and (b) the optical spectrum of VCSEL for the scenarios of free-running and injection-locked.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The frequency responses of the PAM4 VCSEL-based FSO links for the scenarios of free-running and injection-locked.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The block diagram of the DFE.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The measured BER curves of the 64 Gb/s PAM4 VCSEL-based FSO links over different free-space links in the range of 0–150 m.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The eye diagrams of the 64 Gb/s PAM4 signal (a) for BTB, (b) over a 100-m free-space link, (c) over a 125-m free-space link, and (d) over a 150-m free-space link scenarios.

Equations (6)

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(1+ α 2 ) ( S i S )<Δ ω L <k( S i S )
ω R 2 ω R0 2 + k 2 ( S i S ) 2 sin 2 φ 0
y= Σ n=0 N1 c n x( t 0 +kT nT)
e=y d
c n (k+1)= c n (k) uex( t 0 +kT nT)
b n (k+1)= b n (k)+ued( t 0 +kT nT)

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