Abstract

Wavelength tuning experiments in the green spectral range applying Tb3+-doped LiLuF4 and Tb3+/Na+-codoped CaF2 single crystals are presented. While in the former case almost 100 mW could be obtained throughout a total range of 7 nm, the inhomogeneously broadened emission features of Tb3+ in the CaF2-matrix allowed for a continuous tuning range exceeding 10 nm. For initial characterization, free running continuous wave laser experiments using Tb3+-doped LiLuF4, Na+:CaF2, and stoichiometric TbF3 crystals were carried out resulting in efficient continuous wave laser operation in the green spectral region. The density of active centers in TbF3 is among the highest that can be obtained in solid state gain materials. Nevertheless, a slope efficiency as high as 32% was obtained from this crystal. High Tb3+-densities are essential to compensate for the adherent low absorption cross sections at useful pump-wavelengths.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (2)

C. Kränkel, D.-T. Marzahl, F. Moglia, G. Huber, and P. W. Metz, “Out of the blue: Semiconductor laser pumped visible rare-earth doped lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(4), 548–568 (2016).

P. W. Metz, D.-T. Marzahl, A. Majid, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Efficient continuous wave laser operation of Tb3+-doped fluoride crystals in the green and yellow spectral regions,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(2), 335–344 (2016).

2013 (1)

J. Kojou, Y. Watanabe, P. Agrawal, T. Kamimura, and F. Kannari, “Wavelength tunable Q-switch laser in visible region with Pr3+-doped fluoride-glass fiber pumped by GaN diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 290, 136–140 (2013).

2011 (1)

T. Gün, P. Metz, and G. Huber, “Efficient continuous wave deep ultraviolet Pr3+:LiYF4 laser at 261.3 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181103 (2011).

2009 (2)

H. Okamoto, K. Kasuga, I. Hara, and Y. Kubota, “Visible-NIR tunable Pr3+-doped fiber laser pumped by a GaN laser diode,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20227-20232 (2009).

M. Siebold, S. Bock, U. Schramm, B. Xu, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, and R. Moncorgé, “Yb:CaF2 - a new old laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 327–338 (2009).

2008 (2)

S. V. Kuznetsov and P. P. Fedorov, “Morphological stability of solid-liquid interface during melt crystallization of M1-xRxF2+x solid solutions,” Inorg. Mater. 44(13), 1434–1458 (2008).

T. Südmeyer, Y. Imai, H. Masuda, N. Eguchi, M. Saito, and S. Kubota, “Efficient 2nd and 4th harmonic generation of a single-frequency, continuous-wave fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1546 (2008).

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

L. Su, J. Xu, H. Li, L. Wen, Y. Zhu, Z. X. Zhao, Y. Dong, G. Zhou, and J. Si, “Site structure and spectroscopic properties of Yb-doped and Yb,Na-codoped CaF2 laser crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 406(1-3), 254–258 (2005).

2000 (1)

P. Dorenbos, “5d-level energies of Ce3+ and the crystalline environment. I. Fluoride compounds,” Phys. Rev. B 62(23), 15640–15648 (2000).

1973 (1)

H. P. Jenssen, D. Castleberry, D. Gabbe, and A. Linz, “Stimulated emission at 5445 Å in Tb3+:YLF,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9(6), 665 (1973).

1967 (2)

S. I. Andreev, M. R. Bedilov, G. O. Karapetyan, and V. M. Likhachev, “Stimulated radiation of glass activated by terbium,” Sov. J. Opt. Tech. 34, 819 (1967).

S. Bjorklund, G. Kellermeyer, C. R. Hurt, N. McAvoy, and N. Filipescu, “Laser action from terbium trifluoroacetylacetonate in p-dioxane and acetonitrile at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 10(5), 160–162 (1967).

1964 (1)

M. J. Weber and R. W. Bierig, “Paramagnetic resonance and relaxation of trivalent rare-earth ions in calcium fluoride. I. Resonance spectra and crystal fields,” Phys. Rev. 134(6A), A1492 (1964).

1963 (1)

H. Guggenheim, “Growth of highly perfect fluoride single crystals for optical masers,” J. Appl. Phys. 34(8), 2482–2485 (1963).

1961 (1)

P. Franken, A. Hill, C. Peters, and G. Weinreich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7(4), 118–119 (1961).

Agrawal, P.

J. Kojou, Y. Watanabe, P. Agrawal, T. Kamimura, and F. Kannari, “Wavelength tunable Q-switch laser in visible region with Pr3+-doped fluoride-glass fiber pumped by GaN diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 290, 136–140 (2013).

Andreev, S. I.

S. I. Andreev, M. R. Bedilov, G. O. Karapetyan, and V. M. Likhachev, “Stimulated radiation of glass activated by terbium,” Sov. J. Opt. Tech. 34, 819 (1967).

Bedilov, M. R.

S. I. Andreev, M. R. Bedilov, G. O. Karapetyan, and V. M. Likhachev, “Stimulated radiation of glass activated by terbium,” Sov. J. Opt. Tech. 34, 819 (1967).

Bierig, R. W.

M. J. Weber and R. W. Bierig, “Paramagnetic resonance and relaxation of trivalent rare-earth ions in calcium fluoride. I. Resonance spectra and crystal fields,” Phys. Rev. 134(6A), A1492 (1964).

Bjorklund, S.

S. Bjorklund, G. Kellermeyer, C. R. Hurt, N. McAvoy, and N. Filipescu, “Laser action from terbium trifluoroacetylacetonate in p-dioxane and acetonitrile at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 10(5), 160–162 (1967).

Bock, S.

M. Siebold, S. Bock, U. Schramm, B. Xu, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, and R. Moncorgé, “Yb:CaF2 - a new old laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 327–338 (2009).

Camy, P.

M. Siebold, S. Bock, U. Schramm, B. Xu, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, and R. Moncorgé, “Yb:CaF2 - a new old laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 327–338 (2009).

Castleberry, D.

H. P. Jenssen, D. Castleberry, D. Gabbe, and A. Linz, “Stimulated emission at 5445 Å in Tb3+:YLF,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9(6), 665 (1973).

Dong, Y.

L. Su, J. Xu, H. Li, L. Wen, Y. Zhu, Z. X. Zhao, Y. Dong, G. Zhou, and J. Si, “Site structure and spectroscopic properties of Yb-doped and Yb,Na-codoped CaF2 laser crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 406(1-3), 254–258 (2005).

Dorenbos, P.

P. Dorenbos, “5d-level energies of Ce3+ and the crystalline environment. I. Fluoride compounds,” Phys. Rev. B 62(23), 15640–15648 (2000).

Doualan, J. L.

M. Siebold, S. Bock, U. Schramm, B. Xu, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, and R. Moncorgé, “Yb:CaF2 - a new old laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 327–338 (2009).

Eguchi, N.

Fedorov, P. P.

S. V. Kuznetsov and P. P. Fedorov, “Morphological stability of solid-liquid interface during melt crystallization of M1-xRxF2+x solid solutions,” Inorg. Mater. 44(13), 1434–1458 (2008).

Filipescu, N.

S. Bjorklund, G. Kellermeyer, C. R. Hurt, N. McAvoy, and N. Filipescu, “Laser action from terbium trifluoroacetylacetonate in p-dioxane and acetonitrile at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 10(5), 160–162 (1967).

Franken, P.

P. Franken, A. Hill, C. Peters, and G. Weinreich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7(4), 118–119 (1961).

Gabbe, D.

H. P. Jenssen, D. Castleberry, D. Gabbe, and A. Linz, “Stimulated emission at 5445 Å in Tb3+:YLF,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9(6), 665 (1973).

Guggenheim, H.

H. Guggenheim, “Growth of highly perfect fluoride single crystals for optical masers,” J. Appl. Phys. 34(8), 2482–2485 (1963).

Gün, T.

T. Gün, P. Metz, and G. Huber, “Efficient continuous wave deep ultraviolet Pr3+:LiYF4 laser at 261.3 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181103 (2011).

Hara, I.

Heumann, E.

Hill, A.

P. Franken, A. Hill, C. Peters, and G. Weinreich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7(4), 118–119 (1961).

Huber, G.

C. Kränkel, D.-T. Marzahl, F. Moglia, G. Huber, and P. W. Metz, “Out of the blue: Semiconductor laser pumped visible rare-earth doped lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(4), 548–568 (2016).

P. W. Metz, D.-T. Marzahl, A. Majid, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Efficient continuous wave laser operation of Tb3+-doped fluoride crystals in the green and yellow spectral regions,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(2), 335–344 (2016).

T. Gün, P. Metz, and G. Huber, “Efficient continuous wave deep ultraviolet Pr3+:LiYF4 laser at 261.3 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181103 (2011).

A. Richter, E. Heumann, G. Huber, V. Ostroumov, and W. Seelert, “Power scaling of semiconductor laser pumped praseodymium-lasers,” Opt. Express 15(8), 5172–5178 (2007).

C. Kränkel, P. Metz, and G. Huber, “Continuous wave and wavelength tunable green Tb3+:CaF2 laser,” in ASSL Conference (2016), paper AM3A.2.

P. W. Metz, D.-T. Marzahl, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Wavelength tuning of diode-pumped Pr3+-lasers,” in E-CLEO Conference (2015), paper CA-8.2.

Hurt, C. R.

S. Bjorklund, G. Kellermeyer, C. R. Hurt, N. McAvoy, and N. Filipescu, “Laser action from terbium trifluoroacetylacetonate in p-dioxane and acetonitrile at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 10(5), 160–162 (1967).

Imai, Y.

Jenssen, H. P.

H. P. Jenssen, D. Castleberry, D. Gabbe, and A. Linz, “Stimulated emission at 5445 Å in Tb3+:YLF,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9(6), 665 (1973).

Kamimura, T.

J. Kojou, Y. Watanabe, P. Agrawal, T. Kamimura, and F. Kannari, “Wavelength tunable Q-switch laser in visible region with Pr3+-doped fluoride-glass fiber pumped by GaN diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 290, 136–140 (2013).

Kannari, F.

J. Kojou, Y. Watanabe, P. Agrawal, T. Kamimura, and F. Kannari, “Wavelength tunable Q-switch laser in visible region with Pr3+-doped fluoride-glass fiber pumped by GaN diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 290, 136–140 (2013).

Karapetyan, G. O.

S. I. Andreev, M. R. Bedilov, G. O. Karapetyan, and V. M. Likhachev, “Stimulated radiation of glass activated by terbium,” Sov. J. Opt. Tech. 34, 819 (1967).

Kasuga, K.

Kellermeyer, G.

S. Bjorklund, G. Kellermeyer, C. R. Hurt, N. McAvoy, and N. Filipescu, “Laser action from terbium trifluoroacetylacetonate in p-dioxane and acetonitrile at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 10(5), 160–162 (1967).

Kojou, J.

J. Kojou, Y. Watanabe, P. Agrawal, T. Kamimura, and F. Kannari, “Wavelength tunable Q-switch laser in visible region with Pr3+-doped fluoride-glass fiber pumped by GaN diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 290, 136–140 (2013).

Kränkel, C.

C. Kränkel, D.-T. Marzahl, F. Moglia, G. Huber, and P. W. Metz, “Out of the blue: Semiconductor laser pumped visible rare-earth doped lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(4), 548–568 (2016).

P. W. Metz, D.-T. Marzahl, A. Majid, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Efficient continuous wave laser operation of Tb3+-doped fluoride crystals in the green and yellow spectral regions,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(2), 335–344 (2016).

P. W. Metz, D.-T. Marzahl, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Wavelength tuning of diode-pumped Pr3+-lasers,” in E-CLEO Conference (2015), paper CA-8.2.

C. Kränkel, P. Metz, and G. Huber, “Continuous wave and wavelength tunable green Tb3+:CaF2 laser,” in ASSL Conference (2016), paper AM3A.2.

Kubota, S.

Kubota, Y.

Kuznetsov, S. V.

S. V. Kuznetsov and P. P. Fedorov, “Morphological stability of solid-liquid interface during melt crystallization of M1-xRxF2+x solid solutions,” Inorg. Mater. 44(13), 1434–1458 (2008).

Li, H.

L. Su, J. Xu, H. Li, L. Wen, Y. Zhu, Z. X. Zhao, Y. Dong, G. Zhou, and J. Si, “Site structure and spectroscopic properties of Yb-doped and Yb,Na-codoped CaF2 laser crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 406(1-3), 254–258 (2005).

Likhachev, V. M.

S. I. Andreev, M. R. Bedilov, G. O. Karapetyan, and V. M. Likhachev, “Stimulated radiation of glass activated by terbium,” Sov. J. Opt. Tech. 34, 819 (1967).

Linz, A.

H. P. Jenssen, D. Castleberry, D. Gabbe, and A. Linz, “Stimulated emission at 5445 Å in Tb3+:YLF,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9(6), 665 (1973).

Majid, A.

P. W. Metz, D.-T. Marzahl, A. Majid, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Efficient continuous wave laser operation of Tb3+-doped fluoride crystals in the green and yellow spectral regions,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(2), 335–344 (2016).

Marzahl, D.-T.

P. W. Metz, D.-T. Marzahl, A. Majid, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Efficient continuous wave laser operation of Tb3+-doped fluoride crystals in the green and yellow spectral regions,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(2), 335–344 (2016).

C. Kränkel, D.-T. Marzahl, F. Moglia, G. Huber, and P. W. Metz, “Out of the blue: Semiconductor laser pumped visible rare-earth doped lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(4), 548–568 (2016).

P. W. Metz, D.-T. Marzahl, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Wavelength tuning of diode-pumped Pr3+-lasers,” in E-CLEO Conference (2015), paper CA-8.2.

Masuda, H.

McAvoy, N.

S. Bjorklund, G. Kellermeyer, C. R. Hurt, N. McAvoy, and N. Filipescu, “Laser action from terbium trifluoroacetylacetonate in p-dioxane and acetonitrile at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 10(5), 160–162 (1967).

Metz, P.

T. Gün, P. Metz, and G. Huber, “Efficient continuous wave deep ultraviolet Pr3+:LiYF4 laser at 261.3 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181103 (2011).

C. Kränkel, P. Metz, and G. Huber, “Continuous wave and wavelength tunable green Tb3+:CaF2 laser,” in ASSL Conference (2016), paper AM3A.2.

Metz, P. W.

C. Kränkel, D.-T. Marzahl, F. Moglia, G. Huber, and P. W. Metz, “Out of the blue: Semiconductor laser pumped visible rare-earth doped lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(4), 548–568 (2016).

P. W. Metz, D.-T. Marzahl, A. Majid, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Efficient continuous wave laser operation of Tb3+-doped fluoride crystals in the green and yellow spectral regions,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(2), 335–344 (2016).

P. W. Metz, D.-T. Marzahl, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Wavelength tuning of diode-pumped Pr3+-lasers,” in E-CLEO Conference (2015), paper CA-8.2.

Moglia, F.

C. Kränkel, D.-T. Marzahl, F. Moglia, G. Huber, and P. W. Metz, “Out of the blue: Semiconductor laser pumped visible rare-earth doped lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(4), 548–568 (2016).

Moncorgé, R.

M. Siebold, S. Bock, U. Schramm, B. Xu, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, and R. Moncorgé, “Yb:CaF2 - a new old laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 327–338 (2009).

Okamoto, H.

Ostroumov, V.

Peters, C.

P. Franken, A. Hill, C. Peters, and G. Weinreich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7(4), 118–119 (1961).

Richter, A.

Saito, M.

Schramm, U.

M. Siebold, S. Bock, U. Schramm, B. Xu, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, and R. Moncorgé, “Yb:CaF2 - a new old laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 327–338 (2009).

Seelert, W.

Si, J.

L. Su, J. Xu, H. Li, L. Wen, Y. Zhu, Z. X. Zhao, Y. Dong, G. Zhou, and J. Si, “Site structure and spectroscopic properties of Yb-doped and Yb,Na-codoped CaF2 laser crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 406(1-3), 254–258 (2005).

Siebold, M.

M. Siebold, S. Bock, U. Schramm, B. Xu, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, and R. Moncorgé, “Yb:CaF2 - a new old laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 327–338 (2009).

Su, L.

L. Su, J. Xu, H. Li, L. Wen, Y. Zhu, Z. X. Zhao, Y. Dong, G. Zhou, and J. Si, “Site structure and spectroscopic properties of Yb-doped and Yb,Na-codoped CaF2 laser crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 406(1-3), 254–258 (2005).

Südmeyer, T.

Watanabe, Y.

J. Kojou, Y. Watanabe, P. Agrawal, T. Kamimura, and F. Kannari, “Wavelength tunable Q-switch laser in visible region with Pr3+-doped fluoride-glass fiber pumped by GaN diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 290, 136–140 (2013).

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber and R. W. Bierig, “Paramagnetic resonance and relaxation of trivalent rare-earth ions in calcium fluoride. I. Resonance spectra and crystal fields,” Phys. Rev. 134(6A), A1492 (1964).

Weinreich, G.

P. Franken, A. Hill, C. Peters, and G. Weinreich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7(4), 118–119 (1961).

Wen, L.

L. Su, J. Xu, H. Li, L. Wen, Y. Zhu, Z. X. Zhao, Y. Dong, G. Zhou, and J. Si, “Site structure and spectroscopic properties of Yb-doped and Yb,Na-codoped CaF2 laser crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 406(1-3), 254–258 (2005).

Xu, B.

M. Siebold, S. Bock, U. Schramm, B. Xu, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, and R. Moncorgé, “Yb:CaF2 - a new old laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 327–338 (2009).

Xu, J.

L. Su, J. Xu, H. Li, L. Wen, Y. Zhu, Z. X. Zhao, Y. Dong, G. Zhou, and J. Si, “Site structure and spectroscopic properties of Yb-doped and Yb,Na-codoped CaF2 laser crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 406(1-3), 254–258 (2005).

Zhao, Z. X.

L. Su, J. Xu, H. Li, L. Wen, Y. Zhu, Z. X. Zhao, Y. Dong, G. Zhou, and J. Si, “Site structure and spectroscopic properties of Yb-doped and Yb,Na-codoped CaF2 laser crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 406(1-3), 254–258 (2005).

Zhou, G.

L. Su, J. Xu, H. Li, L. Wen, Y. Zhu, Z. X. Zhao, Y. Dong, G. Zhou, and J. Si, “Site structure and spectroscopic properties of Yb-doped and Yb,Na-codoped CaF2 laser crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 406(1-3), 254–258 (2005).

Zhu, Y.

L. Su, J. Xu, H. Li, L. Wen, Y. Zhu, Z. X. Zhao, Y. Dong, G. Zhou, and J. Si, “Site structure and spectroscopic properties of Yb-doped and Yb,Na-codoped CaF2 laser crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 406(1-3), 254–258 (2005).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Siebold, S. Bock, U. Schramm, B. Xu, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, and R. Moncorgé, “Yb:CaF2 - a new old laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 327–338 (2009).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. Gün, P. Metz, and G. Huber, “Efficient continuous wave deep ultraviolet Pr3+:LiYF4 laser at 261.3 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181103 (2011).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Absorption spectra of Tb3+-doped LLF, CaF, and TbF in the UV (a) and blue (b) spectral range. For TbF the deep-UV absorption is only shown for one polarization, as the low transmission of the sample and the polarizer lead to a weak signal-to-noise ratio. It should be noted, that Tb3+ possesses no further absorption lines in the visible.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 5D4-emission cross section spectra of Tb3+-doped LLF, CaF, and TbF in the green spectral range. The spectra were obtained by the Füchtbauer-Ladenburg-method [10]. The two arrows in the spectrum of TbF point towards characteristic Sm3+ fluorescence lines, indicating Sm3+ impurities in this sample.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Output power (a) and optical-to-optical efficiencies (b) vs. pump power of Tb3+:LLF lasers with different length and doping concentration.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Setup for the laser experiments with Tb3+:CaF and TbF at fixed emission wavelength.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Input-output curves of (a) Tb3+:CaF and (b) TbF lasers operated on the 5D4 →□7F5-transition at 543 nm in the green spectral range.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Laser setup for the wavelength tuning experiments.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Wavelength tuning curves of Tb3+:LiLuF4 and Tb3+:CaF lasers emitting in the green spectral region.

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