Abstract

Small-scale spatial variation in temperature can lead to localized changes in the index of refraction and can distort electro-optical (EO) signal transmission in ocean and atmosphere. This phenomenon is well-studied in the atmosphere, where it is generally called “optical turbulence”. Less is known about how turbulent fluctuations in the ocean distort EO signal transmissions, an effect that can impact various underwater applications, from diver visibility to active and passive remote sensing. To provide a test bed for the study of the impacts from turbulent flows on EO signal transmission, and to examine and mitigate turbulence effects, we set up a laboratory turbulence environment allowing the controlled and repeatable variation of turbulence intensity. The laboratory measurements are complemented by high resolution computational fluid dynamics simulations emulating the tank environment. This controlled Simulated Turbulence and Turbidity Environment (SiTTE) can be used to assess optical image degradation in the tank in relation to turbulence intensity, as well as to examine various adaptive optics mitigation techniques.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. D. Gilbert and R. C. Honey, “Optical turbulence in the sea,” Proc. SPIE 0024, 49–56 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. J. Bogucki, J. A. Domaradzki, R. E. Ecke, and C. R. Truman, “Light scattering on oceanic turbulence,” Appl. Opt. 43(30), 5662–5668 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. S. Matt, W. Hou, S. Woods, W. Goode, E. Jarosz, and A. Weidemann, “A novel platform to study the effect of small-scale turbulent density fluctuations on underwater imaging in the ocean,” Methods Oceanography 11, 39–58 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  4. G. Nootz, E. Jarosz, F. R. Dalgleish, and W. Hou, “Quantification of optical turbulence in the ocean and its effects on beam propagation,” Appl. Opt. 55(31), 8813–8820 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. W. Hou, S. Woods, E. Jarosz, W. Goode, and A. Weidemann, “Optical turbulence on underwater image degradation in natural environments,” Appl. Opt. 51(14), 2678–2686 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. S. Matt, W. Hou, and W. Goode, “The impact of turbulent fluctuations on light propagation in a controlled environment,” Proc. SPIE 9111, 911113 (2014).
  7. H. Tennekes and J. L. Lumley, A First Course in Turbulence (MIT Press, 1972).
  8. C. E. Bluteau, N. L. Jones, and G. N. Ivey, “Estimating turbulent kinetic energy dissipation using the inertial subrange method in environmental flows,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 9(7), 302–321 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  9. B. Ruddick, A. Anis, and K. Thompson, “Maximum likelihood spectral fitting: The Batchelor spectrum,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17(11), 1541–1555 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. Moum and J. Nash, “Mixing measurements on an equatorial ocean mooring,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(2), 317–336 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  11. W. Hou, “A simple underwater imaging model,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2688–2690 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. M. C. Roggemann and B. M. Welsh, Imaging through Turbulence (CRC Press, 1996).
  13. S. Matt, W. Hou, W. Goode, and S. Hellman, “Velocity fields and optical turbulence near the boundary in a strongly convective laboratory flow,” Proc. SPIE 9827, 98270F (2016).
  14. P. Sagaut, Large Eddy Simulation for Incompressible Flows (Springer, 1998).
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    [Crossref]
  16. A. V. Kanaev, W. Hou, S. R. Restaino, S. Matt, and S. Gładysz, “Restoration of images degraded by underwater turbulence using structure tensor oriented image quality (STOIQ) metric,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17077–17090 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. A. Kanaev, S. Gladysz, R. Almeida de Sá Barros, S. Matt, G. Nootz, D. Josset, and W. Hou, “Measurements of optical underwater turbulence under controlled conditions,” Proc. SPIE 9827, 982705 (2016).
  18. Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, “Image quality assessment: From error visibility to structural similarity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13(4), 600–612 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  21. S. Matt, W. Hou, W. Goode, G. Liu, M. Han, A. Kanaev, and S. Restaino, “A controlled laboratory environment to study EO signal degradation due to underwater turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 9459, 94590H (2015).
  22. G. Liu, Q. Sheng, W. Hou, and M. Han, “Influence of fiber bending on wavelength demodulation of fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors,” Opt. Express 24(23), 26732–26744 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. G. Nootz, NRC Research Associate at Naval Research Laboratory, 1009 Balch Blvd., Stennis Space Center, MS 39529, USA, and S. Matt, W. Hou and A. Kanaev are preparing a manuscript to be called ” Experimental and numerical study of underwater beam propagation in a Rayleigh–Bénard turbulence tank.”

2016 (4)

G. Nootz, E. Jarosz, F. R. Dalgleish, and W. Hou, “Quantification of optical turbulence in the ocean and its effects on beam propagation,” Appl. Opt. 55(31), 8813–8820 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Matt, W. Hou, W. Goode, and S. Hellman, “Velocity fields and optical turbulence near the boundary in a strongly convective laboratory flow,” Proc. SPIE 9827, 98270F (2016).

A. Kanaev, S. Gladysz, R. Almeida de Sá Barros, S. Matt, G. Nootz, D. Josset, and W. Hou, “Measurements of optical underwater turbulence under controlled conditions,” Proc. SPIE 9827, 982705 (2016).

G. Liu, Q. Sheng, W. Hou, and M. Han, “Influence of fiber bending on wavelength demodulation of fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors,” Opt. Express 24(23), 26732–26744 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

S. Matt, W. Hou, W. Goode, G. Liu, M. Han, A. Kanaev, and S. Restaino, “A controlled laboratory environment to study EO signal degradation due to underwater turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 9459, 94590H (2015).

A. V. Kanaev, W. Hou, S. R. Restaino, S. Matt, and S. Gładysz, “Restoration of images degraded by underwater turbulence using structure tensor oriented image quality (STOIQ) metric,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17077–17090 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

S. Matt, W. Hou, S. Woods, W. Goode, E. Jarosz, and A. Weidemann, “A novel platform to study the effect of small-scale turbulent density fluctuations on underwater imaging in the ocean,” Methods Oceanography 11, 39–58 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Matt, W. Hou, and W. Goode, “The impact of turbulent fluctuations on light propagation in a controlled environment,” Proc. SPIE 9111, 911113 (2014).

2013 (1)

D. Xu and J. Chen, “Accurate estimate of turbulent dissipation rate using PIV data,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 44, 662–672 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

C. E. Bluteau, N. L. Jones, and G. N. Ivey, “Estimating turbulent kinetic energy dissipation using the inertial subrange method in environmental flows,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 9(7), 302–321 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

J. Moum and J. Nash, “Mixing measurements on an equatorial ocean mooring,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(2), 317–336 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Hou, “A simple underwater imaging model,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2688–2690 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

D. J. Bogucki, J. A. Domaradzki, R. E. Ecke, and C. R. Truman, “Light scattering on oceanic turbulence,” Appl. Opt. 43(30), 5662–5668 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, “Image quality assessment: From error visibility to structural similarity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13(4), 600–612 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

B. Ruddick, A. Anis, and K. Thompson, “Maximum likelihood spectral fitting: The Batchelor spectrum,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17(11), 1541–1555 (2000).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1971 (1)

G. D. Gilbert and R. C. Honey, “Optical turbulence in the sea,” Proc. SPIE 0024, 49–56 (1971).
[Crossref]

1963 (1)

J. Smagorinsky, “General circulation experiments with the primitive equations. I. The basic experiment,” Month. Wea. Rev. 91(3), 99–164 (1963).
[Crossref]

Almeida de Sá Barros, R.

A. Kanaev, S. Gladysz, R. Almeida de Sá Barros, S. Matt, G. Nootz, D. Josset, and W. Hou, “Measurements of optical underwater turbulence under controlled conditions,” Proc. SPIE 9827, 982705 (2016).

Anis, A.

B. Ruddick, A. Anis, and K. Thompson, “Maximum likelihood spectral fitting: The Batchelor spectrum,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17(11), 1541–1555 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bluteau, C. E.

C. E. Bluteau, N. L. Jones, and G. N. Ivey, “Estimating turbulent kinetic energy dissipation using the inertial subrange method in environmental flows,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 9(7), 302–321 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bogucki, D. J.

Bovik, A. C.

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, “Image quality assessment: From error visibility to structural similarity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13(4), 600–612 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

D. Xu and J. Chen, “Accurate estimate of turbulent dissipation rate using PIV data,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 44, 662–672 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dalgleish, F. R.

Domaradzki, J. A.

Ecke, R. E.

Fry, E. S.

Gilbert, G. D.

G. D. Gilbert and R. C. Honey, “Optical turbulence in the sea,” Proc. SPIE 0024, 49–56 (1971).
[Crossref]

Gladysz, S.

A. Kanaev, S. Gladysz, R. Almeida de Sá Barros, S. Matt, G. Nootz, D. Josset, and W. Hou, “Measurements of optical underwater turbulence under controlled conditions,” Proc. SPIE 9827, 982705 (2016).

A. V. Kanaev, W. Hou, S. R. Restaino, S. Matt, and S. Gładysz, “Restoration of images degraded by underwater turbulence using structure tensor oriented image quality (STOIQ) metric,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17077–17090 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goode, W.

S. Matt, W. Hou, W. Goode, and S. Hellman, “Velocity fields and optical turbulence near the boundary in a strongly convective laboratory flow,” Proc. SPIE 9827, 98270F (2016).

S. Matt, W. Hou, W. Goode, G. Liu, M. Han, A. Kanaev, and S. Restaino, “A controlled laboratory environment to study EO signal degradation due to underwater turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 9459, 94590H (2015).

S. Matt, W. Hou, and W. Goode, “The impact of turbulent fluctuations on light propagation in a controlled environment,” Proc. SPIE 9111, 911113 (2014).

S. Matt, W. Hou, S. Woods, W. Goode, E. Jarosz, and A. Weidemann, “A novel platform to study the effect of small-scale turbulent density fluctuations on underwater imaging in the ocean,” Methods Oceanography 11, 39–58 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Hou, S. Woods, E. Jarosz, W. Goode, and A. Weidemann, “Optical turbulence on underwater image degradation in natural environments,” Appl. Opt. 51(14), 2678–2686 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, M.

G. Liu, Q. Sheng, W. Hou, and M. Han, “Influence of fiber bending on wavelength demodulation of fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors,” Opt. Express 24(23), 26732–26744 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Matt, W. Hou, W. Goode, G. Liu, M. Han, A. Kanaev, and S. Restaino, “A controlled laboratory environment to study EO signal degradation due to underwater turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 9459, 94590H (2015).

Hellman, S.

S. Matt, W. Hou, W. Goode, and S. Hellman, “Velocity fields and optical turbulence near the boundary in a strongly convective laboratory flow,” Proc. SPIE 9827, 98270F (2016).

Honey, R. C.

G. D. Gilbert and R. C. Honey, “Optical turbulence in the sea,” Proc. SPIE 0024, 49–56 (1971).
[Crossref]

Hou, W.

S. Matt, W. Hou, W. Goode, and S. Hellman, “Velocity fields and optical turbulence near the boundary in a strongly convective laboratory flow,” Proc. SPIE 9827, 98270F (2016).

A. Kanaev, S. Gladysz, R. Almeida de Sá Barros, S. Matt, G. Nootz, D. Josset, and W. Hou, “Measurements of optical underwater turbulence under controlled conditions,” Proc. SPIE 9827, 982705 (2016).

G. Liu, Q. Sheng, W. Hou, and M. Han, “Influence of fiber bending on wavelength demodulation of fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors,” Opt. Express 24(23), 26732–26744 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Nootz, E. Jarosz, F. R. Dalgleish, and W. Hou, “Quantification of optical turbulence in the ocean and its effects on beam propagation,” Appl. Opt. 55(31), 8813–8820 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Kanaev, W. Hou, S. R. Restaino, S. Matt, and S. Gładysz, “Restoration of images degraded by underwater turbulence using structure tensor oriented image quality (STOIQ) metric,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17077–17090 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Matt, W. Hou, W. Goode, G. Liu, M. Han, A. Kanaev, and S. Restaino, “A controlled laboratory environment to study EO signal degradation due to underwater turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 9459, 94590H (2015).

S. Matt, W. Hou, and W. Goode, “The impact of turbulent fluctuations on light propagation in a controlled environment,” Proc. SPIE 9111, 911113 (2014).

S. Matt, W. Hou, S. Woods, W. Goode, E. Jarosz, and A. Weidemann, “A novel platform to study the effect of small-scale turbulent density fluctuations on underwater imaging in the ocean,” Methods Oceanography 11, 39–58 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Hou, S. Woods, E. Jarosz, W. Goode, and A. Weidemann, “Optical turbulence on underwater image degradation in natural environments,” Appl. Opt. 51(14), 2678–2686 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Hou, “A simple underwater imaging model,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2688–2690 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ivey, G. N.

C. E. Bluteau, N. L. Jones, and G. N. Ivey, “Estimating turbulent kinetic energy dissipation using the inertial subrange method in environmental flows,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 9(7), 302–321 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jarosz, E.

Jones, N. L.

C. E. Bluteau, N. L. Jones, and G. N. Ivey, “Estimating turbulent kinetic energy dissipation using the inertial subrange method in environmental flows,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 9(7), 302–321 (2011).
[Crossref]

Josset, D.

A. Kanaev, S. Gladysz, R. Almeida de Sá Barros, S. Matt, G. Nootz, D. Josset, and W. Hou, “Measurements of optical underwater turbulence under controlled conditions,” Proc. SPIE 9827, 982705 (2016).

Kanaev, A.

A. Kanaev, S. Gladysz, R. Almeida de Sá Barros, S. Matt, G. Nootz, D. Josset, and W. Hou, “Measurements of optical underwater turbulence under controlled conditions,” Proc. SPIE 9827, 982705 (2016).

S. Matt, W. Hou, W. Goode, G. Liu, M. Han, A. Kanaev, and S. Restaino, “A controlled laboratory environment to study EO signal degradation due to underwater turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 9459, 94590H (2015).

Kanaev, A. V.

Liu, G.

G. Liu, Q. Sheng, W. Hou, and M. Han, “Influence of fiber bending on wavelength demodulation of fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors,” Opt. Express 24(23), 26732–26744 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Matt, W. Hou, W. Goode, G. Liu, M. Han, A. Kanaev, and S. Restaino, “A controlled laboratory environment to study EO signal degradation due to underwater turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 9459, 94590H (2015).

Matt, S.

A. Kanaev, S. Gladysz, R. Almeida de Sá Barros, S. Matt, G. Nootz, D. Josset, and W. Hou, “Measurements of optical underwater turbulence under controlled conditions,” Proc. SPIE 9827, 982705 (2016).

S. Matt, W. Hou, W. Goode, and S. Hellman, “Velocity fields and optical turbulence near the boundary in a strongly convective laboratory flow,” Proc. SPIE 9827, 98270F (2016).

S. Matt, W. Hou, W. Goode, G. Liu, M. Han, A. Kanaev, and S. Restaino, “A controlled laboratory environment to study EO signal degradation due to underwater turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 9459, 94590H (2015).

A. V. Kanaev, W. Hou, S. R. Restaino, S. Matt, and S. Gładysz, “Restoration of images degraded by underwater turbulence using structure tensor oriented image quality (STOIQ) metric,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17077–17090 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Matt, W. Hou, S. Woods, W. Goode, E. Jarosz, and A. Weidemann, “A novel platform to study the effect of small-scale turbulent density fluctuations on underwater imaging in the ocean,” Methods Oceanography 11, 39–58 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Matt, W. Hou, and W. Goode, “The impact of turbulent fluctuations on light propagation in a controlled environment,” Proc. SPIE 9111, 911113 (2014).

Moum, J.

J. Moum and J. Nash, “Mixing measurements on an equatorial ocean mooring,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(2), 317–336 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nash, J.

J. Moum and J. Nash, “Mixing measurements on an equatorial ocean mooring,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(2), 317–336 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nootz, G.

A. Kanaev, S. Gladysz, R. Almeida de Sá Barros, S. Matt, G. Nootz, D. Josset, and W. Hou, “Measurements of optical underwater turbulence under controlled conditions,” Proc. SPIE 9827, 982705 (2016).

G. Nootz, E. Jarosz, F. R. Dalgleish, and W. Hou, “Quantification of optical turbulence in the ocean and its effects on beam propagation,” Appl. Opt. 55(31), 8813–8820 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quan, X.

Restaino, S.

S. Matt, W. Hou, W. Goode, G. Liu, M. Han, A. Kanaev, and S. Restaino, “A controlled laboratory environment to study EO signal degradation due to underwater turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 9459, 94590H (2015).

Restaino, S. R.

Ruddick, B.

B. Ruddick, A. Anis, and K. Thompson, “Maximum likelihood spectral fitting: The Batchelor spectrum,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17(11), 1541–1555 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sheikh, H. R.

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, “Image quality assessment: From error visibility to structural similarity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13(4), 600–612 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheng, Q.

Simoncelli, E. P.

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, “Image quality assessment: From error visibility to structural similarity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13(4), 600–612 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smagorinsky, J.

J. Smagorinsky, “General circulation experiments with the primitive equations. I. The basic experiment,” Month. Wea. Rev. 91(3), 99–164 (1963).
[Crossref]

Thompson, K.

B. Ruddick, A. Anis, and K. Thompson, “Maximum likelihood spectral fitting: The Batchelor spectrum,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17(11), 1541–1555 (2000).
[Crossref]

Truman, C. R.

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, “Image quality assessment: From error visibility to structural similarity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13(4), 600–612 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weidemann, A.

S. Matt, W. Hou, S. Woods, W. Goode, E. Jarosz, and A. Weidemann, “A novel platform to study the effect of small-scale turbulent density fluctuations on underwater imaging in the ocean,” Methods Oceanography 11, 39–58 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Hou, S. Woods, E. Jarosz, W. Goode, and A. Weidemann, “Optical turbulence on underwater image degradation in natural environments,” Appl. Opt. 51(14), 2678–2686 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woods, S.

S. Matt, W. Hou, S. Woods, W. Goode, E. Jarosz, and A. Weidemann, “A novel platform to study the effect of small-scale turbulent density fluctuations on underwater imaging in the ocean,” Methods Oceanography 11, 39–58 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Hou, S. Woods, E. Jarosz, W. Goode, and A. Weidemann, “Optical turbulence on underwater image degradation in natural environments,” Appl. Opt. 51(14), 2678–2686 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, D.

D. Xu and J. Chen, “Accurate estimate of turbulent dissipation rate using PIV data,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 44, 662–672 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. (1)

D. Xu and J. Chen, “Accurate estimate of turbulent dissipation rate using PIV data,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 44, 662–672 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, and E. P. Simoncelli, “Image quality assessment: From error visibility to structural similarity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13(4), 600–612 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (2)

B. Ruddick, A. Anis, and K. Thompson, “Maximum likelihood spectral fitting: The Batchelor spectrum,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17(11), 1541–1555 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Moum and J. Nash, “Mixing measurements on an equatorial ocean mooring,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(2), 317–336 (2009).
[Crossref]

Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods (1)

C. E. Bluteau, N. L. Jones, and G. N. Ivey, “Estimating turbulent kinetic energy dissipation using the inertial subrange method in environmental flows,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 9(7), 302–321 (2011).
[Crossref]

Methods Oceanography (1)

S. Matt, W. Hou, S. Woods, W. Goode, E. Jarosz, and A. Weidemann, “A novel platform to study the effect of small-scale turbulent density fluctuations on underwater imaging in the ocean,” Methods Oceanography 11, 39–58 (2014).
[Crossref]

Month. Wea. Rev. (1)

J. Smagorinsky, “General circulation experiments with the primitive equations. I. The basic experiment,” Month. Wea. Rev. 91(3), 99–164 (1963).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (5)

A. Kanaev, S. Gladysz, R. Almeida de Sá Barros, S. Matt, G. Nootz, D. Josset, and W. Hou, “Measurements of optical underwater turbulence under controlled conditions,” Proc. SPIE 9827, 982705 (2016).

S. Matt, W. Hou, W. Goode, and S. Hellman, “Velocity fields and optical turbulence near the boundary in a strongly convective laboratory flow,” Proc. SPIE 9827, 98270F (2016).

G. D. Gilbert and R. C. Honey, “Optical turbulence in the sea,” Proc. SPIE 0024, 49–56 (1971).
[Crossref]

S. Matt, W. Hou, and W. Goode, “The impact of turbulent fluctuations on light propagation in a controlled environment,” Proc. SPIE 9111, 911113 (2014).

S. Matt, W. Hou, W. Goode, G. Liu, M. Han, A. Kanaev, and S. Restaino, “A controlled laboratory environment to study EO signal degradation due to underwater turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 9459, 94590H (2015).

Other (4)

G. Nootz, NRC Research Associate at Naval Research Laboratory, 1009 Balch Blvd., Stennis Space Center, MS 39529, USA, and S. Matt, W. Hou and A. Kanaev are preparing a manuscript to be called ” Experimental and numerical study of underwater beam propagation in a Rayleigh–Bénard turbulence tank.”

H. Tennekes and J. L. Lumley, A First Course in Turbulence (MIT Press, 1972).

P. Sagaut, Large Eddy Simulation for Incompressible Flows (Springer, 1998).

M. C. Roggemann and B. M. Welsh, Imaging through Turbulence (CRC Press, 1996).

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 View into SiTTE laboratory tank at NRLSSC (left) and corresponding view from numerical model simulating this setup (right).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Measurement setup at SiTTE. Left: Vectrino profiler ADV and CT temperature probe. The photo on the right shows the setup of the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system. Here, the mirror is set up to direct the light sheet into the tank at a 90 degree angle to illuminate a cross-section as indicated. In this picture, the camera and laser are positioned somewhat lower than they were for the results presented in this paper, which coincide with the center-depth PIV plane shown (see also Fig. 3).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The image on the left shows the PIV setup and the seeded water. The image on the right shows the focal plane and PIV Field of View with the tank side boundary to the left of the PIV Field of View.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 “Numerical Tank” used to simulate Rayleigh-Bénard convection and emulating the laboratory tank setup. The temperature field is shown as a fly-over around and into the tank visualizing the convective plumes as isovolumes colored by temperature range 293.6 K to 294.4 K (top and middle rows). The bottom row shows the same isovolumes colored by vertical velocity range −0.034 m/s to 0.0266 m/s. Frames are at model times t = 80s, 200s, 310s, top row left to right, and 70s, 330s, 880s both bottom rows, left to right. The tank dimensions as shown are 5m (x, horizontal along tank axis) by 0.5m (y, horizontal across tank axis) by 0.5m (z, vertical tank axis).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Image degradation for different “optical turbulence” strengths. The images are taken with a path of 5m (the length of the laboratory tank) of an optical resolution chart across a region of turbulent water. Left is for a lower level of optical turbulence (ΔT = 6C) and on the right is the highest level of turbulence (“extreme”, ΔT = 16C) we can achieve in the tank.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Image degradation for different (optical) turbulence strength as shown in Fig. 5 quantified by applying the SSIM method.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 “Numerical Tank” used to simulate Rayleigh-Bénard convection and emulating the laboratory tank setup. The temperature field (in K) is shown and several convective plumes are visible. Top is for a “lower” level of optical turbulence (ΔT = 6C) and bottom is the “extreme” (ΔT = 16C) level of turbulence.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Model results at time t = 1050s, showing streamlines in the domain colored by vertical velocity Uz (top). The bottom plot shows the same but looking at it from the other side of the tank (x- and y-axis reversed). The updrafts and downdrafts illustrate that there is a circulation in the tank in the cross-sectional direction. For the case of “extreme” turbulence.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Model results at time t = 1050s, showing a sideview of temperature T (top), vertical velocity (Uz) (middle) and the IOR calculated from the temperature field (bottom). The data is shown on the along-center plane of the tank (see Fig. 7). For the case of “extreme” turbulence.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Snap shots of a tank cross section of temperature (in degree C, top) and IOR (bottom) illustrate the variability associated with the convective cells and the dynamic environment in the tank (x = 2.5m; at times t = 850s, 875s and 950s, from left to right). For the case of “extreme” turbulence.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate ε from velocity section along the length of the tank at each y-z-point, in W/kg. Left row: lower turbulence at times t = 250s (top) and t = 1675s (bottom). Right row: extreme turbulence at times t = 250s (top) and t = 1675s (bottom).
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Instantaneous snap shots of vertical velocity at three different times from model and PIV for “extreme” turbulence show that the model accurately captures the velocity magnitudes. Note that the velocities (vertical velocity is shown here) are only about 2 cm/s in magnitude.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Instantaneous snap shots of vertical velocity at three different times from model and PIV for the lower turbulence case show that the model accurately captures the velocity magnitudes. Note that the velocities (vertical velocity is shown here) are only about 2 cm/s in magnitude, similar to the extreme turbulence case, although the turbulent scales are different (larger scales, more benign flow).
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 Instantaneous snapshots of velocity vector maps overlaid on contours of vorticity calculated from the PIV fields shown in Figs. 12 and 13 further visualize the flow structure and illustrate the difference in eddying and overturning between the two turbulence cases. (Left hand panels: extreme turbulence, right: lower turbulence.)
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 Instantaneous snap shots of temperature at three different times from the model for extreme (left hand panels) and lower turbulence (right) illustrate the difference in turbulent length scales. The temperature variation is also more pronounced in the extreme turbulence case, consistent with the much stronger effect on the optics, as seen in Figs. 5, 6.
Fig. 16
Fig. 16 Vectrino Profiler data from laboratory tank for “lower” (top) and “extreme” (middle) optical turbulence. Results from the numerical simulation of the tank are shown at the bottom, for the case of “extreme” turbulence.
Fig. 17
Fig. 17 Energy spectra (top) and temperature gradient spectra (bottom) from laboratory (left) and model (right) data. The energy spectra, calculated from horizontal velocity components, show only minor changes for different convective turbulence strengths (lower “strong” optical turbulence ΔT = 6C and extreme optical turbulence with ΔT = 16C). In the top panels, the arrows point to the wavenumber range used to calculate ε from the PIV (left panel) and model data (right panel). The temperature gradient spectra clearly resolve the difference in turbulence strengths in both laboratory and model. The red lines show the theoretical Kolmogorov and Batchelor spectra for energy and temperature gradient spectra, respectively. For improved comparison, the extreme turbulence case from the CFD model data (as shown on the right) is shown overlaid on the laboratory data as well (as light blue in left hand panels). Spectra from PIV data and numerical model are ensemble averages over 600 and 55 frames (corresponding to a time frame of 60s and 270s), respectively. Spectra from Vectrino ADV and thermistor data are from 20 min long time series.

Equations (1)

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Ra= gαΔT d 3 ν D T

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