Abstract

A high sensitivity and simple ethanol sensor based on an un-cladded multimode plastic optical fiber (UCPOF) coated with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for the detection of different concentrations of ethanol in de-ionized water is developed and demonstrated. The UCPOF probe is fabricated by chemically removing the fiber cladding and integrated with CNT as a sensing layer. The effect of surface morphology on the sensor performance is investigated by characterizing another UCPOF coated with GO nanomaterial. The developed fibers are coated with CNTs and GO using drop casting technique. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), atomic-force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) are used to investigate the element and morphology of the synthesized nanomaterials. The experimental results indicated that the absorbance spectrum of the CNT-based UCPOF sensor increases linearly with a higher sensitivity of 0.68/vol% and magnitude change of 95.4% as compared to 0.19/vol% and 56.3%, respectively, for the GO-based sensor. The UCPOF coated with CNT exhibits faster response and recovery than that of GO. The sensor shows high selectivity to ethanol amongst a range of diluted organic VOCs. The superior sensing performance of the developed fiber sensor indicates its high efficiency for ethanol detection in various industrial applications.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (5)

Y. Zhao, X. Li, X. Zhou, and Y. Zhang, “Review on the graphene based optical fiber chemical and biological sensors,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 231, 324–340 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Piloto, F. Mirri, E. A. Bengio, M. Notarianni, B. Gupta, M. Shafiei, M. Pasquali, and N. Motta, “Room temperature gas sensing properties of ultrathin carbon nanotube films by surfactant-free dip coating,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 227, 128–134 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Jiang, H. Qiu, S. Gao, P. Chen, Z. Li, K. Yu, W. Yue, C. Yang, Y. Huo, and S. Wang, “Evanescent wave absorption sensor based tapered plastic optical fiber coated with monolayer graphene for ethanol molecules detection,” Chin. J. Chem. 34, 1039–1047 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Semwal, A. M. Shrivastav, R. Verma, and B. D. Gupta, “Surface plasmon resonance based fiber optic ethanol sensor using layers of silver/silicon/hydrogel entrapped with ADH/NAD,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 230, 485–492 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Jin and A. M. Granville, “Polymer Fiber Optic Sensors–A Mini Review of their Synthesis and Applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 7, 2 (2016).

2015 (10)

A. Shabaneh, S. Girei, P. Arasu, M. Mahdi, S. Rashid, S. Paiman, and M. Yaacob, “Dynamic response of tapered optical multimode fiber coated with carbon nanotubes for ethanol sensing application,” Sensors 15 (5), 10452–10464 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Cennamo, A. Donà, P. Pallavicini, G. D’Agostino, G. Dacarro, L. Zeni, and M. Pesavento, “Sensitive detection of 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene by tridimensional monitoring of molecularly imprinted polymer with optical fiber and five-branched gold nanostars,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 208, 291–298 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Qiu, S. Xu, S. Jiang, Z. Li, P. Chen, S. Gao, C. Zhang, and D. Feng, “A novel graphene-based tapered optical fiber sensor for glucose detection,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 329, 390–395 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Aziz, H. Lim, S. Girei, M. Yaacob, M. Mahdi, N. Huang, and A. Pandikumar, “Silver/graphene nanocomposite-modified optical fiber sensor platform for ethanol detection in water medium,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 206, 119–125 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. R. Baptista, S. A. Belhout, S. Giordani, and S. J. Quinn, “Recent developments in carbon nanomaterial sensors,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44, 4433–4453 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Toda, R. Furue, and S. Hayami, “Recent progress in applications of graphene oxide for gas sensing: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 878, 43–53 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Raj, S. Prasanth, T. Vineeshkumar, and C. Sudarsanakumar, “Ammonia sensing properties of tapered plastic optical fiber coated with silver nanoparticles/PVP/PVA hybrid,” Opt. Commun. 340, 86–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Harith, N. Irawati, H. A. Rafaie, M. Batumalay, S. W. Harun, R. M. Nor, and H. Ahmad, “Tapered plastic optical fiber coated with Al-doped ZnO nanostructures for detecting relative humidity,” IEEE Sens. J. 15 (2), 845–849 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Zhong, Q. Liao, X. Zhu, M. Zhao, Y. Huang, and R. Chen, “Temperature-independent polymer optical fiber evanescent wave sensor, ” Sci. Rep. 5, 11508 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Girei, A. Shabaneh, H. Lim, N. Huang, M. Mahdi, and M. Yaacob, “Absorbance response of graphene oxide coated on tapered multimode optical fiber towards liquid ethanol,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc.-Rapid Publ. 10, 15019 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

A. Shabaneh, S. Girei, P. Arasu, W. Rahman, A. A. A. Bakar, A. Sadek, H. Lim, N. Huang, and M. Yaacob, “Reflectance response of tapered optical fiber coated with graphene oxide nanostructured thin film for aqueous ethanol sensing,” Opt. Commun. 331, 320–324 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Batumalay, Z. Harith, H. A. Rafaie, F. Ahmed, M. Khasanah, S. W. Harun, R. M. Nor, and H. Ahmad, “Tapered plastic optical fiber coated with ZnO nanostructures for the measurement of uric acid concentrations and changes in relative humidity,” Sens. Actuat. A-Phys 210, 190–196 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Cennamo, G. D’Agostino, M. Pesavento, and L. Zeni, “High selectivity and sensitivity sensor based on MIP and SPR in tapered plastic optical fibers for the detection of L-nicotine,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 191, 529–536 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

C. Ching, S. Lee, P. Ooi, S. Ng, Z. Hassan, H. A. Hassan, and M. Abdullah, “Optical and structural properties of porous zinc oxide fabricated via electrochemical etching method,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B-Adv. Funct. Solid-State Mater. 178 (15), 956–959 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Zhao, X. Wang, J. Cheng, L. Zhang, J. Jia, and X. Li, “Synthesis and ethanol sensing properties of Al-doped ZnO nanofibers,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13, 403–407 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

S. Manivannan, A. M. Saranya, B. Renganathan, D. Sastikumar, G. Gobi, and K. C. Park, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes wrapped poly-methyl methacrylate fiber optic sensor for ammonia, ethanol and methanol vapors at room temperature,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 171, 634–638 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. R. Zamarreno, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “Nanofabrication techniques applied to the development of novel optical fiber sensors based on nanostructured coatings,” IEEE Sens. J. 12 (8), 2699–2710 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Bilro, N. Alberto, J. L. Pinto, and R. Nogueira, “Optical sensors based on plastic fibers, ” Sensors 12 (9),12184–12207 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Basu and P. Bhattacharyya, “Recent developments on graphene and graphene oxide based solid state gas sensors,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 173, 1–21 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. B. Khan, M. M. Rahman, K. Akhtar, A. M. Asiri, J. Seo, H. Han, and K. Alamry, “Novel and sensitive ethanol chemi-sensor based on nanohybrid materials, ” Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 7, 4030–4038 (2012).

2010 (3)

Ş. Alpat and A. Telefoncu, “Development of an alcohol dehydrogenase biosensor for ethanol determination with toluidine blue O covalently attached to a cellulose acetate modified electrode,” Sensors 10 (1), 748–764 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Hu, G. Du, W. Zhou, J. Cui, J. Lin, H. Liu, D. Liu, J. Wang, and S. Chen, “Enhancement of ethanol vapor sensing of TiO2 nanobelts by surface engineering,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2 (11), 3263–3269 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. B. Xiong and D. Sisler, “Determination of low-level water content in ethanol by fiber-optic evanescent absorption sensor,” Opt. Commun. 283 (7), 1326–1330 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

B. Tao, J. Zhang, S. Hui, and L. Wan, “An amperometric ethanol sensor based on a Pd–Ni/SiNWs electrode,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 142 (1), 298–303 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

Y. T. Shieh, G. L. Liu, H. H. Wu, and C. C. Lee, “Effects of polarity and pH on the solubility of acid-treated carbon nanotubes in different media,” Carbon 45 (9), 1880–1890 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Tai, Y. Jiang, G. Xie, J. Yu, and X. Chen, “Fabrication and gas sensitivity of polyaniline–titanium dioxide nanocomposite thin film,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 125 (2), 644–650 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. L. Y. Sin, G. C. T. Chow, G. M. K. Wong, W. J. Li, P. H. W. Leong, and K. W. Wong, “Ultralow-power alcohol vapor sensors using chemically functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 6 (5), 571–577 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

G. Neri, A. Bonavita, G. Micali, N. Donato, F. Deorsola, P. Mossino, I. Amato, and B. De Benedetti, “Ethanol sensors based on Pt-doped tin oxide nanopowders synthesised by gel-combustion,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 117 (1), 196–204 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Elosua, I. R. Matias, C. Bariain, and F. J. Arregui, “Volatile organic compound optical fiber sensors: a review,” Sensors 6 (11), 440–1465 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

B. Philip, J. K. Abraham, A. Chandrasekhar, and V. K. Varadan, “Carbon nanotube/PMMA composite thin films for gas-sensing applications,” Smart Mater. Struct. 12, 935 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

R. H. Baughman, A. A. Zakhidov, and W. A. de Heer, “Carbon nanotubes–the route toward applications,” Science 297 (5582), 787–792 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

D. Merchant, P. Scully, and N. Schmitt, “Chemical tapering of polymer optical fibre,” Sens. Actuat. A-Phys 76 (1), 365–371 (1999).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

T. Buttler, L. Gorton, H. Jarskog, G. Marko-Varga, B. Hahn-HäGerdal, N. Meinander, and L. Olsson, “Monitoring of ethanol during fermentation of a lignocellulose hydrolysate by on-line microdialysis sampling, column liquid chromatography, and an alcohol biosensor,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 44 (3), 322–328 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abdullah, M.

C. Ching, S. Lee, P. Ooi, S. Ng, Z. Hassan, H. A. Hassan, and M. Abdullah, “Optical and structural properties of porous zinc oxide fabricated via electrochemical etching method,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B-Adv. Funct. Solid-State Mater. 178 (15), 956–959 (2013).
[Crossref]

Abraham, J. K.

B. Philip, J. K. Abraham, A. Chandrasekhar, and V. K. Varadan, “Carbon nanotube/PMMA composite thin films for gas-sensing applications,” Smart Mater. Struct. 12, 935 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, H.

Z. Harith, N. Irawati, H. A. Rafaie, M. Batumalay, S. W. Harun, R. M. Nor, and H. Ahmad, “Tapered plastic optical fiber coated with Al-doped ZnO nanostructures for detecting relative humidity,” IEEE Sens. J. 15 (2), 845–849 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Batumalay, Z. Harith, H. A. Rafaie, F. Ahmed, M. Khasanah, S. W. Harun, R. M. Nor, and H. Ahmad, “Tapered plastic optical fiber coated with ZnO nanostructures for the measurement of uric acid concentrations and changes in relative humidity,” Sens. Actuat. A-Phys 210, 190–196 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, F.

M. Batumalay, Z. Harith, H. A. Rafaie, F. Ahmed, M. Khasanah, S. W. Harun, R. M. Nor, and H. Ahmad, “Tapered plastic optical fiber coated with ZnO nanostructures for the measurement of uric acid concentrations and changes in relative humidity,” Sens. Actuat. A-Phys 210, 190–196 (2014).
[Crossref]

Akhtar, K.

S. B. Khan, M. M. Rahman, K. Akhtar, A. M. Asiri, J. Seo, H. Han, and K. Alamry, “Novel and sensitive ethanol chemi-sensor based on nanohybrid materials, ” Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 7, 4030–4038 (2012).

Alamry, K.

S. B. Khan, M. M. Rahman, K. Akhtar, A. M. Asiri, J. Seo, H. Han, and K. Alamry, “Novel and sensitive ethanol chemi-sensor based on nanohybrid materials, ” Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 7, 4030–4038 (2012).

Alberto, N.

L. Bilro, N. Alberto, J. L. Pinto, and R. Nogueira, “Optical sensors based on plastic fibers, ” Sensors 12 (9),12184–12207 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alpat, S.

Ş. Alpat and A. Telefoncu, “Development of an alcohol dehydrogenase biosensor for ethanol determination with toluidine blue O covalently attached to a cellulose acetate modified electrode,” Sensors 10 (1), 748–764 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amato, I.

G. Neri, A. Bonavita, G. Micali, N. Donato, F. Deorsola, P. Mossino, I. Amato, and B. De Benedetti, “Ethanol sensors based on Pt-doped tin oxide nanopowders synthesised by gel-combustion,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 117 (1), 196–204 (2006).
[Crossref]

Arasu, P.

A. Shabaneh, S. Girei, P. Arasu, M. Mahdi, S. Rashid, S. Paiman, and M. Yaacob, “Dynamic response of tapered optical multimode fiber coated with carbon nanotubes for ethanol sensing application,” Sensors 15 (5), 10452–10464 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Shabaneh, S. Girei, P. Arasu, W. Rahman, A. A. A. Bakar, A. Sadek, H. Lim, N. Huang, and M. Yaacob, “Reflectance response of tapered optical fiber coated with graphene oxide nanostructured thin film for aqueous ethanol sensing,” Opt. Commun. 331, 320–324 (2014).
[Crossref]

Arasu, P. T.

A. L. Khalaf, F. S. Mohamad, P. T. Arasu, A. A. Shabaneh, N. A. Rahman, H. N. Lim, S. Paiman, N. A. Yusof, M. A. Mahdi, and M. H. Yaacob, “Modified plastic optical fiber coated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite for ammonia sensing,” in Proceedings of IEEE 6th International Conference on Photonics (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–3.

Arregui, F. J.

C. R. Zamarreno, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “Nanofabrication techniques applied to the development of novel optical fiber sensors based on nanostructured coatings,” IEEE Sens. J. 12 (8), 2699–2710 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Elosua, I. R. Matias, C. Bariain, and F. J. Arregui, “Volatile organic compound optical fiber sensors: a review,” Sensors 6 (11), 440–1465 (2006).
[Crossref]

Asiri, A. M.

S. B. Khan, M. M. Rahman, K. Akhtar, A. M. Asiri, J. Seo, H. Han, and K. Alamry, “Novel and sensitive ethanol chemi-sensor based on nanohybrid materials, ” Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 7, 4030–4038 (2012).

Aziz, A.

A. Aziz, H. Lim, S. Girei, M. Yaacob, M. Mahdi, N. Huang, and A. Pandikumar, “Silver/graphene nanocomposite-modified optical fiber sensor platform for ethanol detection in water medium,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 206, 119–125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bakar, A. A. A.

A. Shabaneh, S. Girei, P. Arasu, W. Rahman, A. A. A. Bakar, A. Sadek, H. Lim, N. Huang, and M. Yaacob, “Reflectance response of tapered optical fiber coated with graphene oxide nanostructured thin film for aqueous ethanol sensing,” Opt. Commun. 331, 320–324 (2014).
[Crossref]

Baptista, F. R.

F. R. Baptista, S. A. Belhout, S. Giordani, and S. J. Quinn, “Recent developments in carbon nanomaterial sensors,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44, 4433–4453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bariain, C.

C. Elosua, I. R. Matias, C. Bariain, and F. J. Arregui, “Volatile organic compound optical fiber sensors: a review,” Sensors 6 (11), 440–1465 (2006).
[Crossref]

Basu, S.

S. Basu and P. Bhattacharyya, “Recent developments on graphene and graphene oxide based solid state gas sensors,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 173, 1–21 (2012).
[Crossref]

Batumalay, M.

Z. Harith, N. Irawati, H. A. Rafaie, M. Batumalay, S. W. Harun, R. M. Nor, and H. Ahmad, “Tapered plastic optical fiber coated with Al-doped ZnO nanostructures for detecting relative humidity,” IEEE Sens. J. 15 (2), 845–849 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Batumalay, Z. Harith, H. A. Rafaie, F. Ahmed, M. Khasanah, S. W. Harun, R. M. Nor, and H. Ahmad, “Tapered plastic optical fiber coated with ZnO nanostructures for the measurement of uric acid concentrations and changes in relative humidity,” Sens. Actuat. A-Phys 210, 190–196 (2014).
[Crossref]

Baughman, R. H.

R. H. Baughman, A. A. Zakhidov, and W. A. de Heer, “Carbon nanotubes–the route toward applications,” Science 297 (5582), 787–792 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belhout, S. A.

F. R. Baptista, S. A. Belhout, S. Giordani, and S. J. Quinn, “Recent developments in carbon nanomaterial sensors,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44, 4433–4453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bengio, E. A.

C. Piloto, F. Mirri, E. A. Bengio, M. Notarianni, B. Gupta, M. Shafiei, M. Pasquali, and N. Motta, “Room temperature gas sensing properties of ultrathin carbon nanotube films by surfactant-free dip coating,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 227, 128–134 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bhattacharyya, P.

S. Basu and P. Bhattacharyya, “Recent developments on graphene and graphene oxide based solid state gas sensors,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 173, 1–21 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bilro, L.

L. Bilro, N. Alberto, J. L. Pinto, and R. Nogueira, “Optical sensors based on plastic fibers, ” Sensors 12 (9),12184–12207 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonavita, A.

G. Neri, A. Bonavita, G. Micali, N. Donato, F. Deorsola, P. Mossino, I. Amato, and B. De Benedetti, “Ethanol sensors based on Pt-doped tin oxide nanopowders synthesised by gel-combustion,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 117 (1), 196–204 (2006).
[Crossref]

Buttler, T.

T. Buttler, L. Gorton, H. Jarskog, G. Marko-Varga, B. Hahn-HäGerdal, N. Meinander, and L. Olsson, “Monitoring of ethanol during fermentation of a lignocellulose hydrolysate by on-line microdialysis sampling, column liquid chromatography, and an alcohol biosensor,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 44 (3), 322–328 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cennamo, N.

N. Cennamo, A. Donà, P. Pallavicini, G. D’Agostino, G. Dacarro, L. Zeni, and M. Pesavento, “Sensitive detection of 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene by tridimensional monitoring of molecularly imprinted polymer with optical fiber and five-branched gold nanostars,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 208, 291–298 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Cennamo, G. D’Agostino, M. Pesavento, and L. Zeni, “High selectivity and sensitivity sensor based on MIP and SPR in tapered plastic optical fibers for the detection of L-nicotine,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 191, 529–536 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chandrasekhar, A.

B. Philip, J. K. Abraham, A. Chandrasekhar, and V. K. Varadan, “Carbon nanotube/PMMA composite thin films for gas-sensing applications,” Smart Mater. Struct. 12, 935 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, P.

S. Jiang, H. Qiu, S. Gao, P. Chen, Z. Li, K. Yu, W. Yue, C. Yang, Y. Huo, and S. Wang, “Evanescent wave absorption sensor based tapered plastic optical fiber coated with monolayer graphene for ethanol molecules detection,” Chin. J. Chem. 34, 1039–1047 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Qiu, S. Xu, S. Jiang, Z. Li, P. Chen, S. Gao, C. Zhang, and D. Feng, “A novel graphene-based tapered optical fiber sensor for glucose detection,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 329, 390–395 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, R.

N. Zhong, Q. Liao, X. Zhu, M. Zhao, Y. Huang, and R. Chen, “Temperature-independent polymer optical fiber evanescent wave sensor, ” Sci. Rep. 5, 11508 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

P. Hu, G. Du, W. Zhou, J. Cui, J. Lin, H. Liu, D. Liu, J. Wang, and S. Chen, “Enhancement of ethanol vapor sensing of TiO2 nanobelts by surface engineering,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2 (11), 3263–3269 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

H. Tai, Y. Jiang, G. Xie, J. Yu, and X. Chen, “Fabrication and gas sensitivity of polyaniline–titanium dioxide nanocomposite thin film,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 125 (2), 644–650 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cheng, J.

M. Zhao, X. Wang, J. Cheng, L. Zhang, J. Jia, and X. Li, “Synthesis and ethanol sensing properties of Al-doped ZnO nanofibers,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13, 403–407 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ching, C.

C. Ching, S. Lee, P. Ooi, S. Ng, Z. Hassan, H. A. Hassan, and M. Abdullah, “Optical and structural properties of porous zinc oxide fabricated via electrochemical etching method,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B-Adv. Funct. Solid-State Mater. 178 (15), 956–959 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chow, G. C. T.

M. L. Y. Sin, G. C. T. Chow, G. M. K. Wong, W. J. Li, P. H. W. Leong, and K. W. Wong, “Ultralow-power alcohol vapor sensors using chemically functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 6 (5), 571–577 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cui, J.

P. Hu, G. Du, W. Zhou, J. Cui, J. Lin, H. Liu, D. Liu, J. Wang, and S. Chen, “Enhancement of ethanol vapor sensing of TiO2 nanobelts by surface engineering,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2 (11), 3263–3269 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D’Agostino, G.

N. Cennamo, A. Donà, P. Pallavicini, G. D’Agostino, G. Dacarro, L. Zeni, and M. Pesavento, “Sensitive detection of 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene by tridimensional monitoring of molecularly imprinted polymer with optical fiber and five-branched gold nanostars,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 208, 291–298 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Cennamo, G. D’Agostino, M. Pesavento, and L. Zeni, “High selectivity and sensitivity sensor based on MIP and SPR in tapered plastic optical fibers for the detection of L-nicotine,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 191, 529–536 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dacarro, G.

N. Cennamo, A. Donà, P. Pallavicini, G. D’Agostino, G. Dacarro, L. Zeni, and M. Pesavento, “Sensitive detection of 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene by tridimensional monitoring of molecularly imprinted polymer with optical fiber and five-branched gold nanostars,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 208, 291–298 (2015).
[Crossref]

De Benedetti, B.

G. Neri, A. Bonavita, G. Micali, N. Donato, F. Deorsola, P. Mossino, I. Amato, and B. De Benedetti, “Ethanol sensors based on Pt-doped tin oxide nanopowders synthesised by gel-combustion,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 117 (1), 196–204 (2006).
[Crossref]

de Heer, W. A.

R. H. Baughman, A. A. Zakhidov, and W. A. de Heer, “Carbon nanotubes–the route toward applications,” Science 297 (5582), 787–792 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deorsola, F.

G. Neri, A. Bonavita, G. Micali, N. Donato, F. Deorsola, P. Mossino, I. Amato, and B. De Benedetti, “Ethanol sensors based on Pt-doped tin oxide nanopowders synthesised by gel-combustion,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 117 (1), 196–204 (2006).
[Crossref]

Donà, A.

N. Cennamo, A. Donà, P. Pallavicini, G. D’Agostino, G. Dacarro, L. Zeni, and M. Pesavento, “Sensitive detection of 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene by tridimensional monitoring of molecularly imprinted polymer with optical fiber and five-branched gold nanostars,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 208, 291–298 (2015).
[Crossref]

Donato, N.

G. Neri, A. Bonavita, G. Micali, N. Donato, F. Deorsola, P. Mossino, I. Amato, and B. De Benedetti, “Ethanol sensors based on Pt-doped tin oxide nanopowders synthesised by gel-combustion,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 117 (1), 196–204 (2006).
[Crossref]

Du, G.

P. Hu, G. Du, W. Zhou, J. Cui, J. Lin, H. Liu, D. Liu, J. Wang, and S. Chen, “Enhancement of ethanol vapor sensing of TiO2 nanobelts by surface engineering,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2 (11), 3263–3269 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elosua, C.

C. Elosua, I. R. Matias, C. Bariain, and F. J. Arregui, “Volatile organic compound optical fiber sensors: a review,” Sensors 6 (11), 440–1465 (2006).
[Crossref]

Feng, D.

H. Qiu, S. Xu, S. Jiang, Z. Li, P. Chen, S. Gao, C. Zhang, and D. Feng, “A novel graphene-based tapered optical fiber sensor for glucose detection,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 329, 390–395 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fry, B.

K. Kalantar-zadeh and B. Fry, Nanotechnology-enabled sensors (Academic, 2007).

Furue, R.

K. Toda, R. Furue, and S. Hayami, “Recent progress in applications of graphene oxide for gas sensing: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 878, 43–53 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, S.

S. Jiang, H. Qiu, S. Gao, P. Chen, Z. Li, K. Yu, W. Yue, C. Yang, Y. Huo, and S. Wang, “Evanescent wave absorption sensor based tapered plastic optical fiber coated with monolayer graphene for ethanol molecules detection,” Chin. J. Chem. 34, 1039–1047 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Qiu, S. Xu, S. Jiang, Z. Li, P. Chen, S. Gao, C. Zhang, and D. Feng, “A novel graphene-based tapered optical fiber sensor for glucose detection,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 329, 390–395 (2015).
[Crossref]

Giordani, S.

F. R. Baptista, S. A. Belhout, S. Giordani, and S. J. Quinn, “Recent developments in carbon nanomaterial sensors,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44, 4433–4453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Girei, S.

A. Aziz, H. Lim, S. Girei, M. Yaacob, M. Mahdi, N. Huang, and A. Pandikumar, “Silver/graphene nanocomposite-modified optical fiber sensor platform for ethanol detection in water medium,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 206, 119–125 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Girei, A. Shabaneh, H. Lim, N. Huang, M. Mahdi, and M. Yaacob, “Absorbance response of graphene oxide coated on tapered multimode optical fiber towards liquid ethanol,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc.-Rapid Publ. 10, 15019 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Shabaneh, S. Girei, P. Arasu, M. Mahdi, S. Rashid, S. Paiman, and M. Yaacob, “Dynamic response of tapered optical multimode fiber coated with carbon nanotubes for ethanol sensing application,” Sensors 15 (5), 10452–10464 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Shabaneh, S. Girei, P. Arasu, W. Rahman, A. A. A. Bakar, A. Sadek, H. Lim, N. Huang, and M. Yaacob, “Reflectance response of tapered optical fiber coated with graphene oxide nanostructured thin film for aqueous ethanol sensing,” Opt. Commun. 331, 320–324 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gobi, G.

S. Manivannan, A. M. Saranya, B. Renganathan, D. Sastikumar, G. Gobi, and K. C. Park, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes wrapped poly-methyl methacrylate fiber optic sensor for ammonia, ethanol and methanol vapors at room temperature,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 171, 634–638 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gorton, L.

T. Buttler, L. Gorton, H. Jarskog, G. Marko-Varga, B. Hahn-HäGerdal, N. Meinander, and L. Olsson, “Monitoring of ethanol during fermentation of a lignocellulose hydrolysate by on-line microdialysis sampling, column liquid chromatography, and an alcohol biosensor,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 44 (3), 322–328 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Granville, A. M.

Y. Jin and A. M. Granville, “Polymer Fiber Optic Sensors–A Mini Review of their Synthesis and Applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 7, 2 (2016).

Gupta, B.

C. Piloto, F. Mirri, E. A. Bengio, M. Notarianni, B. Gupta, M. Shafiei, M. Pasquali, and N. Motta, “Room temperature gas sensing properties of ultrathin carbon nanotube films by surfactant-free dip coating,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 227, 128–134 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gupta, B. D.

V. Semwal, A. M. Shrivastav, R. Verma, and B. D. Gupta, “Surface plasmon resonance based fiber optic ethanol sensor using layers of silver/silicon/hydrogel entrapped with ADH/NAD,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 230, 485–492 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hahn-HäGerdal, B.

T. Buttler, L. Gorton, H. Jarskog, G. Marko-Varga, B. Hahn-HäGerdal, N. Meinander, and L. Olsson, “Monitoring of ethanol during fermentation of a lignocellulose hydrolysate by on-line microdialysis sampling, column liquid chromatography, and an alcohol biosensor,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 44 (3), 322–328 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, H.

S. B. Khan, M. M. Rahman, K. Akhtar, A. M. Asiri, J. Seo, H. Han, and K. Alamry, “Novel and sensitive ethanol chemi-sensor based on nanohybrid materials, ” Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 7, 4030–4038 (2012).

Harith, Z.

Z. Harith, N. Irawati, H. A. Rafaie, M. Batumalay, S. W. Harun, R. M. Nor, and H. Ahmad, “Tapered plastic optical fiber coated with Al-doped ZnO nanostructures for detecting relative humidity,” IEEE Sens. J. 15 (2), 845–849 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Batumalay, Z. Harith, H. A. Rafaie, F. Ahmed, M. Khasanah, S. W. Harun, R. M. Nor, and H. Ahmad, “Tapered plastic optical fiber coated with ZnO nanostructures for the measurement of uric acid concentrations and changes in relative humidity,” Sens. Actuat. A-Phys 210, 190–196 (2014).
[Crossref]

Harun, S. W.

Z. Harith, N. Irawati, H. A. Rafaie, M. Batumalay, S. W. Harun, R. M. Nor, and H. Ahmad, “Tapered plastic optical fiber coated with Al-doped ZnO nanostructures for detecting relative humidity,” IEEE Sens. J. 15 (2), 845–849 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Batumalay, Z. Harith, H. A. Rafaie, F. Ahmed, M. Khasanah, S. W. Harun, R. M. Nor, and H. Ahmad, “Tapered plastic optical fiber coated with ZnO nanostructures for the measurement of uric acid concentrations and changes in relative humidity,” Sens. Actuat. A-Phys 210, 190–196 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hassan, H. A.

C. Ching, S. Lee, P. Ooi, S. Ng, Z. Hassan, H. A. Hassan, and M. Abdullah, “Optical and structural properties of porous zinc oxide fabricated via electrochemical etching method,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B-Adv. Funct. Solid-State Mater. 178 (15), 956–959 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hassan, Z.

C. Ching, S. Lee, P. Ooi, S. Ng, Z. Hassan, H. A. Hassan, and M. Abdullah, “Optical and structural properties of porous zinc oxide fabricated via electrochemical etching method,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B-Adv. Funct. Solid-State Mater. 178 (15), 956–959 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hayami, S.

K. Toda, R. Furue, and S. Hayami, “Recent progress in applications of graphene oxide for gas sensing: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 878, 43–53 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, P.

P. Hu, G. Du, W. Zhou, J. Cui, J. Lin, H. Liu, D. Liu, J. Wang, and S. Chen, “Enhancement of ethanol vapor sensing of TiO2 nanobelts by surface engineering,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2 (11), 3263–3269 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, N.

S. Girei, A. Shabaneh, H. Lim, N. Huang, M. Mahdi, and M. Yaacob, “Absorbance response of graphene oxide coated on tapered multimode optical fiber towards liquid ethanol,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc.-Rapid Publ. 10, 15019 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Aziz, H. Lim, S. Girei, M. Yaacob, M. Mahdi, N. Huang, and A. Pandikumar, “Silver/graphene nanocomposite-modified optical fiber sensor platform for ethanol detection in water medium,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 206, 119–125 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Shabaneh, S. Girei, P. Arasu, W. Rahman, A. A. A. Bakar, A. Sadek, H. Lim, N. Huang, and M. Yaacob, “Reflectance response of tapered optical fiber coated with graphene oxide nanostructured thin film for aqueous ethanol sensing,” Opt. Commun. 331, 320–324 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

N. Zhong, Q. Liao, X. Zhu, M. Zhao, Y. Huang, and R. Chen, “Temperature-independent polymer optical fiber evanescent wave sensor, ” Sci. Rep. 5, 11508 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hui, S.

B. Tao, J. Zhang, S. Hui, and L. Wan, “An amperometric ethanol sensor based on a Pd–Ni/SiNWs electrode,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 142 (1), 298–303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Huo, Y.

S. Jiang, H. Qiu, S. Gao, P. Chen, Z. Li, K. Yu, W. Yue, C. Yang, Y. Huo, and S. Wang, “Evanescent wave absorption sensor based tapered plastic optical fiber coated with monolayer graphene for ethanol molecules detection,” Chin. J. Chem. 34, 1039–1047 (2016).
[Crossref]

Irawati, N.

Z. Harith, N. Irawati, H. A. Rafaie, M. Batumalay, S. W. Harun, R. M. Nor, and H. Ahmad, “Tapered plastic optical fiber coated with Al-doped ZnO nanostructures for detecting relative humidity,” IEEE Sens. J. 15 (2), 845–849 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jarskog, H.

T. Buttler, L. Gorton, H. Jarskog, G. Marko-Varga, B. Hahn-HäGerdal, N. Meinander, and L. Olsson, “Monitoring of ethanol during fermentation of a lignocellulose hydrolysate by on-line microdialysis sampling, column liquid chromatography, and an alcohol biosensor,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 44 (3), 322–328 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, J.

M. Zhao, X. Wang, J. Cheng, L. Zhang, J. Jia, and X. Li, “Synthesis and ethanol sensing properties of Al-doped ZnO nanofibers,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13, 403–407 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jiang, S.

S. Jiang, H. Qiu, S. Gao, P. Chen, Z. Li, K. Yu, W. Yue, C. Yang, Y. Huo, and S. Wang, “Evanescent wave absorption sensor based tapered plastic optical fiber coated with monolayer graphene for ethanol molecules detection,” Chin. J. Chem. 34, 1039–1047 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Qiu, S. Xu, S. Jiang, Z. Li, P. Chen, S. Gao, C. Zhang, and D. Feng, “A novel graphene-based tapered optical fiber sensor for glucose detection,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 329, 390–395 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Y.

H. Tai, Y. Jiang, G. Xie, J. Yu, and X. Chen, “Fabrication and gas sensitivity of polyaniline–titanium dioxide nanocomposite thin film,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 125 (2), 644–650 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jin, Y.

Y. Jin and A. M. Granville, “Polymer Fiber Optic Sensors–A Mini Review of their Synthesis and Applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 7, 2 (2016).

Kalantar-zadeh, K.

K. Kalantar-zadeh and B. Fry, Nanotechnology-enabled sensors (Academic, 2007).

Khalaf, A. L.

A. L. Khalaf, F. S. Mohamad, P. T. Arasu, A. A. Shabaneh, N. A. Rahman, H. N. Lim, S. Paiman, N. A. Yusof, M. A. Mahdi, and M. H. Yaacob, “Modified plastic optical fiber coated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite for ammonia sensing,” in Proceedings of IEEE 6th International Conference on Photonics (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–3.

Khan, S. B.

S. B. Khan, M. M. Rahman, K. Akhtar, A. M. Asiri, J. Seo, H. Han, and K. Alamry, “Novel and sensitive ethanol chemi-sensor based on nanohybrid materials, ” Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 7, 4030–4038 (2012).

Khasanah, M.

M. Batumalay, Z. Harith, H. A. Rafaie, F. Ahmed, M. Khasanah, S. W. Harun, R. M. Nor, and H. Ahmad, “Tapered plastic optical fiber coated with ZnO nanostructures for the measurement of uric acid concentrations and changes in relative humidity,” Sens. Actuat. A-Phys 210, 190–196 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. C.

Y. T. Shieh, G. L. Liu, H. H. Wu, and C. C. Lee, “Effects of polarity and pH on the solubility of acid-treated carbon nanotubes in different media,” Carbon 45 (9), 1880–1890 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

C. Ching, S. Lee, P. Ooi, S. Ng, Z. Hassan, H. A. Hassan, and M. Abdullah, “Optical and structural properties of porous zinc oxide fabricated via electrochemical etching method,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B-Adv. Funct. Solid-State Mater. 178 (15), 956–959 (2013).
[Crossref]

Leong, P. H. W.

M. L. Y. Sin, G. C. T. Chow, G. M. K. Wong, W. J. Li, P. H. W. Leong, and K. W. Wong, “Ultralow-power alcohol vapor sensors using chemically functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 6 (5), 571–577 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, P.

W. Xue and P. Li, “Dielectrophoretic deposition and alignment of carbon nanotubes,” in Handbook of Carbon Nanotubes - Synthesis, Characterization, Applications, S. Yellampalli, ed. (Academic, 2011), pp. 172–190.

Li, W. J.

M. L. Y. Sin, G. C. T. Chow, G. M. K. Wong, W. J. Li, P. H. W. Leong, and K. W. Wong, “Ultralow-power alcohol vapor sensors using chemically functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 6 (5), 571–577 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

Y. Zhao, X. Li, X. Zhou, and Y. Zhang, “Review on the graphene based optical fiber chemical and biological sensors,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 231, 324–340 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Zhao, X. Wang, J. Cheng, L. Zhang, J. Jia, and X. Li, “Synthesis and ethanol sensing properties of Al-doped ZnO nanofibers,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13, 403–407 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

S. Jiang, H. Qiu, S. Gao, P. Chen, Z. Li, K. Yu, W. Yue, C. Yang, Y. Huo, and S. Wang, “Evanescent wave absorption sensor based tapered plastic optical fiber coated with monolayer graphene for ethanol molecules detection,” Chin. J. Chem. 34, 1039–1047 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Qiu, S. Xu, S. Jiang, Z. Li, P. Chen, S. Gao, C. Zhang, and D. Feng, “A novel graphene-based tapered optical fiber sensor for glucose detection,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 329, 390–395 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liao, Q.

N. Zhong, Q. Liao, X. Zhu, M. Zhao, Y. Huang, and R. Chen, “Temperature-independent polymer optical fiber evanescent wave sensor, ” Sci. Rep. 5, 11508 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lim, H.

A. Aziz, H. Lim, S. Girei, M. Yaacob, M. Mahdi, N. Huang, and A. Pandikumar, “Silver/graphene nanocomposite-modified optical fiber sensor platform for ethanol detection in water medium,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 206, 119–125 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Girei, A. Shabaneh, H. Lim, N. Huang, M. Mahdi, and M. Yaacob, “Absorbance response of graphene oxide coated on tapered multimode optical fiber towards liquid ethanol,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc.-Rapid Publ. 10, 15019 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Shabaneh, S. Girei, P. Arasu, W. Rahman, A. A. A. Bakar, A. Sadek, H. Lim, N. Huang, and M. Yaacob, “Reflectance response of tapered optical fiber coated with graphene oxide nanostructured thin film for aqueous ethanol sensing,” Opt. Commun. 331, 320–324 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lim, H. N.

A. L. Khalaf, F. S. Mohamad, P. T. Arasu, A. A. Shabaneh, N. A. Rahman, H. N. Lim, S. Paiman, N. A. Yusof, M. A. Mahdi, and M. H. Yaacob, “Modified plastic optical fiber coated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite for ammonia sensing,” in Proceedings of IEEE 6th International Conference on Photonics (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–3.

Lin, J.

P. Hu, G. Du, W. Zhou, J. Cui, J. Lin, H. Liu, D. Liu, J. Wang, and S. Chen, “Enhancement of ethanol vapor sensing of TiO2 nanobelts by surface engineering,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2 (11), 3263–3269 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, D.

P. Hu, G. Du, W. Zhou, J. Cui, J. Lin, H. Liu, D. Liu, J. Wang, and S. Chen, “Enhancement of ethanol vapor sensing of TiO2 nanobelts by surface engineering,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2 (11), 3263–3269 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, G. L.

Y. T. Shieh, G. L. Liu, H. H. Wu, and C. C. Lee, “Effects of polarity and pH on the solubility of acid-treated carbon nanotubes in different media,” Carbon 45 (9), 1880–1890 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

P. Hu, G. Du, W. Zhou, J. Cui, J. Lin, H. Liu, D. Liu, J. Wang, and S. Chen, “Enhancement of ethanol vapor sensing of TiO2 nanobelts by surface engineering,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2 (11), 3263–3269 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahdi, M.

S. Girei, A. Shabaneh, H. Lim, N. Huang, M. Mahdi, and M. Yaacob, “Absorbance response of graphene oxide coated on tapered multimode optical fiber towards liquid ethanol,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc.-Rapid Publ. 10, 15019 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Aziz, H. Lim, S. Girei, M. Yaacob, M. Mahdi, N. Huang, and A. Pandikumar, “Silver/graphene nanocomposite-modified optical fiber sensor platform for ethanol detection in water medium,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 206, 119–125 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Shabaneh, S. Girei, P. Arasu, M. Mahdi, S. Rashid, S. Paiman, and M. Yaacob, “Dynamic response of tapered optical multimode fiber coated with carbon nanotubes for ethanol sensing application,” Sensors 15 (5), 10452–10464 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahdi, M. A.

A. L. Khalaf, F. S. Mohamad, P. T. Arasu, A. A. Shabaneh, N. A. Rahman, H. N. Lim, S. Paiman, N. A. Yusof, M. A. Mahdi, and M. H. Yaacob, “Modified plastic optical fiber coated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite for ammonia sensing,” in Proceedings of IEEE 6th International Conference on Photonics (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–3.

Manivannan, S.

S. Manivannan, A. M. Saranya, B. Renganathan, D. Sastikumar, G. Gobi, and K. C. Park, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes wrapped poly-methyl methacrylate fiber optic sensor for ammonia, ethanol and methanol vapors at room temperature,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 171, 634–638 (2012).
[Crossref]

Marko-Varga, G.

T. Buttler, L. Gorton, H. Jarskog, G. Marko-Varga, B. Hahn-HäGerdal, N. Meinander, and L. Olsson, “Monitoring of ethanol during fermentation of a lignocellulose hydrolysate by on-line microdialysis sampling, column liquid chromatography, and an alcohol biosensor,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 44 (3), 322–328 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matias, I. R.

C. R. Zamarreno, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “Nanofabrication techniques applied to the development of novel optical fiber sensors based on nanostructured coatings,” IEEE Sens. J. 12 (8), 2699–2710 (2012).
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C. Elosua, I. R. Matias, C. Bariain, and F. J. Arregui, “Volatile organic compound optical fiber sensors: a review,” Sensors 6 (11), 440–1465 (2006).
[Crossref]

Meinander, N.

T. Buttler, L. Gorton, H. Jarskog, G. Marko-Varga, B. Hahn-HäGerdal, N. Meinander, and L. Olsson, “Monitoring of ethanol during fermentation of a lignocellulose hydrolysate by on-line microdialysis sampling, column liquid chromatography, and an alcohol biosensor,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 44 (3), 322–328 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Merchant, D.

D. Merchant, P. Scully, and N. Schmitt, “Chemical tapering of polymer optical fibre,” Sens. Actuat. A-Phys 76 (1), 365–371 (1999).
[Crossref]

Micali, G.

G. Neri, A. Bonavita, G. Micali, N. Donato, F. Deorsola, P. Mossino, I. Amato, and B. De Benedetti, “Ethanol sensors based on Pt-doped tin oxide nanopowders synthesised by gel-combustion,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 117 (1), 196–204 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mirri, F.

C. Piloto, F. Mirri, E. A. Bengio, M. Notarianni, B. Gupta, M. Shafiei, M. Pasquali, and N. Motta, “Room temperature gas sensing properties of ultrathin carbon nanotube films by surfactant-free dip coating,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 227, 128–134 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mohamad, F. S.

A. L. Khalaf, F. S. Mohamad, P. T. Arasu, A. A. Shabaneh, N. A. Rahman, H. N. Lim, S. Paiman, N. A. Yusof, M. A. Mahdi, and M. H. Yaacob, “Modified plastic optical fiber coated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite for ammonia sensing,” in Proceedings of IEEE 6th International Conference on Photonics (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–3.

Mossino, P.

G. Neri, A. Bonavita, G. Micali, N. Donato, F. Deorsola, P. Mossino, I. Amato, and B. De Benedetti, “Ethanol sensors based on Pt-doped tin oxide nanopowders synthesised by gel-combustion,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 117 (1), 196–204 (2006).
[Crossref]

Motta, N.

C. Piloto, F. Mirri, E. A. Bengio, M. Notarianni, B. Gupta, M. Shafiei, M. Pasquali, and N. Motta, “Room temperature gas sensing properties of ultrathin carbon nanotube films by surfactant-free dip coating,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 227, 128–134 (2016).
[Crossref]

Neri, G.

G. Neri, A. Bonavita, G. Micali, N. Donato, F. Deorsola, P. Mossino, I. Amato, and B. De Benedetti, “Ethanol sensors based on Pt-doped tin oxide nanopowders synthesised by gel-combustion,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 117 (1), 196–204 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ng, S.

C. Ching, S. Lee, P. Ooi, S. Ng, Z. Hassan, H. A. Hassan, and M. Abdullah, “Optical and structural properties of porous zinc oxide fabricated via electrochemical etching method,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B-Adv. Funct. Solid-State Mater. 178 (15), 956–959 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nogueira, R.

L. Bilro, N. Alberto, J. L. Pinto, and R. Nogueira, “Optical sensors based on plastic fibers, ” Sensors 12 (9),12184–12207 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nor, R. M.

Z. Harith, N. Irawati, H. A. Rafaie, M. Batumalay, S. W. Harun, R. M. Nor, and H. Ahmad, “Tapered plastic optical fiber coated with Al-doped ZnO nanostructures for detecting relative humidity,” IEEE Sens. J. 15 (2), 845–849 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Batumalay, Z. Harith, H. A. Rafaie, F. Ahmed, M. Khasanah, S. W. Harun, R. M. Nor, and H. Ahmad, “Tapered plastic optical fiber coated with ZnO nanostructures for the measurement of uric acid concentrations and changes in relative humidity,” Sens. Actuat. A-Phys 210, 190–196 (2014).
[Crossref]

Notarianni, M.

C. Piloto, F. Mirri, E. A. Bengio, M. Notarianni, B. Gupta, M. Shafiei, M. Pasquali, and N. Motta, “Room temperature gas sensing properties of ultrathin carbon nanotube films by surfactant-free dip coating,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 227, 128–134 (2016).
[Crossref]

Olsson, L.

T. Buttler, L. Gorton, H. Jarskog, G. Marko-Varga, B. Hahn-HäGerdal, N. Meinander, and L. Olsson, “Monitoring of ethanol during fermentation of a lignocellulose hydrolysate by on-line microdialysis sampling, column liquid chromatography, and an alcohol biosensor,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 44 (3), 322–328 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ooi, P.

C. Ching, S. Lee, P. Ooi, S. Ng, Z. Hassan, H. A. Hassan, and M. Abdullah, “Optical and structural properties of porous zinc oxide fabricated via electrochemical etching method,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B-Adv. Funct. Solid-State Mater. 178 (15), 956–959 (2013).
[Crossref]

Paiman, S.

A. Shabaneh, S. Girei, P. Arasu, M. Mahdi, S. Rashid, S. Paiman, and M. Yaacob, “Dynamic response of tapered optical multimode fiber coated with carbon nanotubes for ethanol sensing application,” Sensors 15 (5), 10452–10464 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Khalaf, F. S. Mohamad, P. T. Arasu, A. A. Shabaneh, N. A. Rahman, H. N. Lim, S. Paiman, N. A. Yusof, M. A. Mahdi, and M. H. Yaacob, “Modified plastic optical fiber coated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite for ammonia sensing,” in Proceedings of IEEE 6th International Conference on Photonics (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–3.

Pallavicini, P.

N. Cennamo, A. Donà, P. Pallavicini, G. D’Agostino, G. Dacarro, L. Zeni, and M. Pesavento, “Sensitive detection of 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene by tridimensional monitoring of molecularly imprinted polymer with optical fiber and five-branched gold nanostars,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 208, 291–298 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pandikumar, A.

A. Aziz, H. Lim, S. Girei, M. Yaacob, M. Mahdi, N. Huang, and A. Pandikumar, “Silver/graphene nanocomposite-modified optical fiber sensor platform for ethanol detection in water medium,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 206, 119–125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, K. C.

S. Manivannan, A. M. Saranya, B. Renganathan, D. Sastikumar, G. Gobi, and K. C. Park, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes wrapped poly-methyl methacrylate fiber optic sensor for ammonia, ethanol and methanol vapors at room temperature,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 171, 634–638 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pasquali, M.

C. Piloto, F. Mirri, E. A. Bengio, M. Notarianni, B. Gupta, M. Shafiei, M. Pasquali, and N. Motta, “Room temperature gas sensing properties of ultrathin carbon nanotube films by surfactant-free dip coating,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 227, 128–134 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pesavento, M.

N. Cennamo, A. Donà, P. Pallavicini, G. D’Agostino, G. Dacarro, L. Zeni, and M. Pesavento, “Sensitive detection of 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene by tridimensional monitoring of molecularly imprinted polymer with optical fiber and five-branched gold nanostars,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 208, 291–298 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Cennamo, G. D’Agostino, M. Pesavento, and L. Zeni, “High selectivity and sensitivity sensor based on MIP and SPR in tapered plastic optical fibers for the detection of L-nicotine,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 191, 529–536 (2014).
[Crossref]

Philip, B.

B. Philip, J. K. Abraham, A. Chandrasekhar, and V. K. Varadan, “Carbon nanotube/PMMA composite thin films for gas-sensing applications,” Smart Mater. Struct. 12, 935 (2003).
[Crossref]

Piloto, C.

C. Piloto, F. Mirri, E. A. Bengio, M. Notarianni, B. Gupta, M. Shafiei, M. Pasquali, and N. Motta, “Room temperature gas sensing properties of ultrathin carbon nanotube films by surfactant-free dip coating,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 227, 128–134 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pinto, J. L.

L. Bilro, N. Alberto, J. L. Pinto, and R. Nogueira, “Optical sensors based on plastic fibers, ” Sensors 12 (9),12184–12207 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prasanth, S.

D. R. Raj, S. Prasanth, T. Vineeshkumar, and C. Sudarsanakumar, “Ammonia sensing properties of tapered plastic optical fiber coated with silver nanoparticles/PVP/PVA hybrid,” Opt. Commun. 340, 86–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Qiu, H.

S. Jiang, H. Qiu, S. Gao, P. Chen, Z. Li, K. Yu, W. Yue, C. Yang, Y. Huo, and S. Wang, “Evanescent wave absorption sensor based tapered plastic optical fiber coated with monolayer graphene for ethanol molecules detection,” Chin. J. Chem. 34, 1039–1047 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Qiu, S. Xu, S. Jiang, Z. Li, P. Chen, S. Gao, C. Zhang, and D. Feng, “A novel graphene-based tapered optical fiber sensor for glucose detection,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 329, 390–395 (2015).
[Crossref]

Quinn, S. J.

F. R. Baptista, S. A. Belhout, S. Giordani, and S. J. Quinn, “Recent developments in carbon nanomaterial sensors,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44, 4433–4453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rafaie, H. A.

Z. Harith, N. Irawati, H. A. Rafaie, M. Batumalay, S. W. Harun, R. M. Nor, and H. Ahmad, “Tapered plastic optical fiber coated with Al-doped ZnO nanostructures for detecting relative humidity,” IEEE Sens. J. 15 (2), 845–849 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Batumalay, Z. Harith, H. A. Rafaie, F. Ahmed, M. Khasanah, S. W. Harun, R. M. Nor, and H. Ahmad, “Tapered plastic optical fiber coated with ZnO nanostructures for the measurement of uric acid concentrations and changes in relative humidity,” Sens. Actuat. A-Phys 210, 190–196 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rahman, M. M.

S. B. Khan, M. M. Rahman, K. Akhtar, A. M. Asiri, J. Seo, H. Han, and K. Alamry, “Novel and sensitive ethanol chemi-sensor based on nanohybrid materials, ” Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 7, 4030–4038 (2012).

Rahman, N. A.

A. L. Khalaf, F. S. Mohamad, P. T. Arasu, A. A. Shabaneh, N. A. Rahman, H. N. Lim, S. Paiman, N. A. Yusof, M. A. Mahdi, and M. H. Yaacob, “Modified plastic optical fiber coated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite for ammonia sensing,” in Proceedings of IEEE 6th International Conference on Photonics (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–3.

Rahman, W.

A. Shabaneh, S. Girei, P. Arasu, W. Rahman, A. A. A. Bakar, A. Sadek, H. Lim, N. Huang, and M. Yaacob, “Reflectance response of tapered optical fiber coated with graphene oxide nanostructured thin film for aqueous ethanol sensing,” Opt. Commun. 331, 320–324 (2014).
[Crossref]

Raj, D. R.

D. R. Raj, S. Prasanth, T. Vineeshkumar, and C. Sudarsanakumar, “Ammonia sensing properties of tapered plastic optical fiber coated with silver nanoparticles/PVP/PVA hybrid,” Opt. Commun. 340, 86–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rashid, S.

A. Shabaneh, S. Girei, P. Arasu, M. Mahdi, S. Rashid, S. Paiman, and M. Yaacob, “Dynamic response of tapered optical multimode fiber coated with carbon nanotubes for ethanol sensing application,” Sensors 15 (5), 10452–10464 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Renganathan, B.

S. Manivannan, A. M. Saranya, B. Renganathan, D. Sastikumar, G. Gobi, and K. C. Park, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes wrapped poly-methyl methacrylate fiber optic sensor for ammonia, ethanol and methanol vapors at room temperature,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 171, 634–638 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sadek, A.

A. Shabaneh, S. Girei, P. Arasu, W. Rahman, A. A. A. Bakar, A. Sadek, H. Lim, N. Huang, and M. Yaacob, “Reflectance response of tapered optical fiber coated with graphene oxide nanostructured thin film for aqueous ethanol sensing,” Opt. Commun. 331, 320–324 (2014).
[Crossref]

Saranya, A. M.

S. Manivannan, A. M. Saranya, B. Renganathan, D. Sastikumar, G. Gobi, and K. C. Park, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes wrapped poly-methyl methacrylate fiber optic sensor for ammonia, ethanol and methanol vapors at room temperature,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 171, 634–638 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sastikumar, D.

S. Manivannan, A. M. Saranya, B. Renganathan, D. Sastikumar, G. Gobi, and K. C. Park, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes wrapped poly-methyl methacrylate fiber optic sensor for ammonia, ethanol and methanol vapors at room temperature,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 171, 634–638 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schmitt, N.

D. Merchant, P. Scully, and N. Schmitt, “Chemical tapering of polymer optical fibre,” Sens. Actuat. A-Phys 76 (1), 365–371 (1999).
[Crossref]

Scully, P.

D. Merchant, P. Scully, and N. Schmitt, “Chemical tapering of polymer optical fibre,” Sens. Actuat. A-Phys 76 (1), 365–371 (1999).
[Crossref]

Semwal, V.

V. Semwal, A. M. Shrivastav, R. Verma, and B. D. Gupta, “Surface plasmon resonance based fiber optic ethanol sensor using layers of silver/silicon/hydrogel entrapped with ADH/NAD,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 230, 485–492 (2016).
[Crossref]

Seo, J.

S. B. Khan, M. M. Rahman, K. Akhtar, A. M. Asiri, J. Seo, H. Han, and K. Alamry, “Novel and sensitive ethanol chemi-sensor based on nanohybrid materials, ” Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 7, 4030–4038 (2012).

Shabaneh, A.

S. Girei, A. Shabaneh, H. Lim, N. Huang, M. Mahdi, and M. Yaacob, “Absorbance response of graphene oxide coated on tapered multimode optical fiber towards liquid ethanol,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc.-Rapid Publ. 10, 15019 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Shabaneh, S. Girei, P. Arasu, M. Mahdi, S. Rashid, S. Paiman, and M. Yaacob, “Dynamic response of tapered optical multimode fiber coated with carbon nanotubes for ethanol sensing application,” Sensors 15 (5), 10452–10464 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Shabaneh, S. Girei, P. Arasu, W. Rahman, A. A. A. Bakar, A. Sadek, H. Lim, N. Huang, and M. Yaacob, “Reflectance response of tapered optical fiber coated with graphene oxide nanostructured thin film for aqueous ethanol sensing,” Opt. Commun. 331, 320–324 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shabaneh, A. A.

A. L. Khalaf, F. S. Mohamad, P. T. Arasu, A. A. Shabaneh, N. A. Rahman, H. N. Lim, S. Paiman, N. A. Yusof, M. A. Mahdi, and M. H. Yaacob, “Modified plastic optical fiber coated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite for ammonia sensing,” in Proceedings of IEEE 6th International Conference on Photonics (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–3.

Shafiei, M.

C. Piloto, F. Mirri, E. A. Bengio, M. Notarianni, B. Gupta, M. Shafiei, M. Pasquali, and N. Motta, “Room temperature gas sensing properties of ultrathin carbon nanotube films by surfactant-free dip coating,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 227, 128–134 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shieh, Y. T.

Y. T. Shieh, G. L. Liu, H. H. Wu, and C. C. Lee, “Effects of polarity and pH on the solubility of acid-treated carbon nanotubes in different media,” Carbon 45 (9), 1880–1890 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shrivastav, A. M.

V. Semwal, A. M. Shrivastav, R. Verma, and B. D. Gupta, “Surface plasmon resonance based fiber optic ethanol sensor using layers of silver/silicon/hydrogel entrapped with ADH/NAD,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 230, 485–492 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sin, M. L. Y.

M. L. Y. Sin, G. C. T. Chow, G. M. K. Wong, W. J. Li, P. H. W. Leong, and K. W. Wong, “Ultralow-power alcohol vapor sensors using chemically functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 6 (5), 571–577 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sisler, D.

F. B. Xiong and D. Sisler, “Determination of low-level water content in ethanol by fiber-optic evanescent absorption sensor,” Opt. Commun. 283 (7), 1326–1330 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sudarsanakumar, C.

D. R. Raj, S. Prasanth, T. Vineeshkumar, and C. Sudarsanakumar, “Ammonia sensing properties of tapered plastic optical fiber coated with silver nanoparticles/PVP/PVA hybrid,” Opt. Commun. 340, 86–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tai, H.

H. Tai, Y. Jiang, G. Xie, J. Yu, and X. Chen, “Fabrication and gas sensitivity of polyaniline–titanium dioxide nanocomposite thin film,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 125 (2), 644–650 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tao, B.

B. Tao, J. Zhang, S. Hui, and L. Wan, “An amperometric ethanol sensor based on a Pd–Ni/SiNWs electrode,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 142 (1), 298–303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Telefoncu, A.

Ş. Alpat and A. Telefoncu, “Development of an alcohol dehydrogenase biosensor for ethanol determination with toluidine blue O covalently attached to a cellulose acetate modified electrode,” Sensors 10 (1), 748–764 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toda, K.

K. Toda, R. Furue, and S. Hayami, “Recent progress in applications of graphene oxide for gas sensing: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 878, 43–53 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Varadan, V. K.

B. Philip, J. K. Abraham, A. Chandrasekhar, and V. K. Varadan, “Carbon nanotube/PMMA composite thin films for gas-sensing applications,” Smart Mater. Struct. 12, 935 (2003).
[Crossref]

Verma, R.

V. Semwal, A. M. Shrivastav, R. Verma, and B. D. Gupta, “Surface plasmon resonance based fiber optic ethanol sensor using layers of silver/silicon/hydrogel entrapped with ADH/NAD,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 230, 485–492 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vineeshkumar, T.

D. R. Raj, S. Prasanth, T. Vineeshkumar, and C. Sudarsanakumar, “Ammonia sensing properties of tapered plastic optical fiber coated with silver nanoparticles/PVP/PVA hybrid,” Opt. Commun. 340, 86–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wan, L.

B. Tao, J. Zhang, S. Hui, and L. Wan, “An amperometric ethanol sensor based on a Pd–Ni/SiNWs electrode,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 142 (1), 298–303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

P. Hu, G. Du, W. Zhou, J. Cui, J. Lin, H. Liu, D. Liu, J. Wang, and S. Chen, “Enhancement of ethanol vapor sensing of TiO2 nanobelts by surface engineering,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2 (11), 3263–3269 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

S. Jiang, H. Qiu, S. Gao, P. Chen, Z. Li, K. Yu, W. Yue, C. Yang, Y. Huo, and S. Wang, “Evanescent wave absorption sensor based tapered plastic optical fiber coated with monolayer graphene for ethanol molecules detection,” Chin. J. Chem. 34, 1039–1047 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

M. Zhao, X. Wang, J. Cheng, L. Zhang, J. Jia, and X. Li, “Synthesis and ethanol sensing properties of Al-doped ZnO nanofibers,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13, 403–407 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wong, G. M. K.

M. L. Y. Sin, G. C. T. Chow, G. M. K. Wong, W. J. Li, P. H. W. Leong, and K. W. Wong, “Ultralow-power alcohol vapor sensors using chemically functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 6 (5), 571–577 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wong, K. W.

M. L. Y. Sin, G. C. T. Chow, G. M. K. Wong, W. J. Li, P. H. W. Leong, and K. W. Wong, “Ultralow-power alcohol vapor sensors using chemically functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 6 (5), 571–577 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wu, H. H.

Y. T. Shieh, G. L. Liu, H. H. Wu, and C. C. Lee, “Effects of polarity and pH on the solubility of acid-treated carbon nanotubes in different media,” Carbon 45 (9), 1880–1890 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xie, G.

H. Tai, Y. Jiang, G. Xie, J. Yu, and X. Chen, “Fabrication and gas sensitivity of polyaniline–titanium dioxide nanocomposite thin film,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 125 (2), 644–650 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xiong, F. B.

F. B. Xiong and D. Sisler, “Determination of low-level water content in ethanol by fiber-optic evanescent absorption sensor,” Opt. Commun. 283 (7), 1326–1330 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xu, S.

H. Qiu, S. Xu, S. Jiang, Z. Li, P. Chen, S. Gao, C. Zhang, and D. Feng, “A novel graphene-based tapered optical fiber sensor for glucose detection,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 329, 390–395 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xue, W.

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Yaacob, M.

A. Shabaneh, S. Girei, P. Arasu, M. Mahdi, S. Rashid, S. Paiman, and M. Yaacob, “Dynamic response of tapered optical multimode fiber coated with carbon nanotubes for ethanol sensing application,” Sensors 15 (5), 10452–10464 (2015).
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A. Aziz, H. Lim, S. Girei, M. Yaacob, M. Mahdi, N. Huang, and A. Pandikumar, “Silver/graphene nanocomposite-modified optical fiber sensor platform for ethanol detection in water medium,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 206, 119–125 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Girei, A. Shabaneh, H. Lim, N. Huang, M. Mahdi, and M. Yaacob, “Absorbance response of graphene oxide coated on tapered multimode optical fiber towards liquid ethanol,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc.-Rapid Publ. 10, 15019 (2015).
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A. Shabaneh, S. Girei, P. Arasu, W. Rahman, A. A. A. Bakar, A. Sadek, H. Lim, N. Huang, and M. Yaacob, “Reflectance response of tapered optical fiber coated with graphene oxide nanostructured thin film for aqueous ethanol sensing,” Opt. Commun. 331, 320–324 (2014).
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Yaacob, M. H.

A. L. Khalaf, F. S. Mohamad, P. T. Arasu, A. A. Shabaneh, N. A. Rahman, H. N. Lim, S. Paiman, N. A. Yusof, M. A. Mahdi, and M. H. Yaacob, “Modified plastic optical fiber coated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite for ammonia sensing,” in Proceedings of IEEE 6th International Conference on Photonics (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–3.

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N. Cennamo, G. D’Agostino, M. Pesavento, and L. Zeni, “High selectivity and sensitivity sensor based on MIP and SPR in tapered plastic optical fibers for the detection of L-nicotine,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 191, 529–536 (2014).
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H. Qiu, S. Xu, S. Jiang, Z. Li, P. Chen, S. Gao, C. Zhang, and D. Feng, “A novel graphene-based tapered optical fiber sensor for glucose detection,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 329, 390–395 (2015).
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Y. Zhao, X. Li, X. Zhou, and Y. Zhang, “Review on the graphene based optical fiber chemical and biological sensors,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 231, 324–340 (2016).
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N. Zhong, Q. Liao, X. Zhu, M. Zhao, Y. Huang, and R. Chen, “Temperature-independent polymer optical fiber evanescent wave sensor, ” Sci. Rep. 5, 11508 (2015).
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Y. Zhao, X. Li, X. Zhou, and Y. Zhang, “Review on the graphene based optical fiber chemical and biological sensors,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 231, 324–340 (2016).
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N. Zhong, Q. Liao, X. Zhu, M. Zhao, Y. Huang, and R. Chen, “Temperature-independent polymer optical fiber evanescent wave sensor, ” Sci. Rep. 5, 11508 (2015).
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Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

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Y. Jin and A. M. Granville, “Polymer Fiber Optic Sensors–A Mini Review of their Synthesis and Applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 7, 2 (2016).

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Chin. J. Chem. (1)

S. Jiang, H. Qiu, S. Gao, P. Chen, Z. Li, K. Yu, W. Yue, C. Yang, Y. Huo, and S. Wang, “Evanescent wave absorption sensor based tapered plastic optical fiber coated with monolayer graphene for ethanol molecules detection,” Chin. J. Chem. 34, 1039–1047 (2016).
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Curr. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Zhao, X. Wang, J. Cheng, L. Zhang, J. Jia, and X. Li, “Synthesis and ethanol sensing properties of Al-doped ZnO nanofibers,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13, 403–407 (2013).
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IEEE Sens. J. (2)

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J. Eur. Opt. Soc.-Rapid Publ. (1)

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Sci. Rep. (1)

N. Zhong, Q. Liao, X. Zhu, M. Zhao, Y. Huang, and R. Chen, “Temperature-independent polymer optical fiber evanescent wave sensor, ” Sci. Rep. 5, 11508 (2015).
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Science (1)

R. H. Baughman, A. A. Zakhidov, and W. A. de Heer, “Carbon nanotubes–the route toward applications,” Science 297 (5582), 787–792 (2002).
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A. Aziz, H. Lim, S. Girei, M. Yaacob, M. Mahdi, N. Huang, and A. Pandikumar, “Silver/graphene nanocomposite-modified optical fiber sensor platform for ethanol detection in water medium,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 206, 119–125 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Neri, A. Bonavita, G. Micali, N. Donato, F. Deorsola, P. Mossino, I. Amato, and B. De Benedetti, “Ethanol sensors based on Pt-doped tin oxide nanopowders synthesised by gel-combustion,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 117 (1), 196–204 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. Tao, J. Zhang, S. Hui, and L. Wan, “An amperometric ethanol sensor based on a Pd–Ni/SiNWs electrode,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 142 (1), 298–303 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Cennamo, A. Donà, P. Pallavicini, G. D’Agostino, G. Dacarro, L. Zeni, and M. Pesavento, “Sensitive detection of 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene by tridimensional monitoring of molecularly imprinted polymer with optical fiber and five-branched gold nanostars,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 208, 291–298 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Cennamo, G. D’Agostino, M. Pesavento, and L. Zeni, “High selectivity and sensitivity sensor based on MIP and SPR in tapered plastic optical fibers for the detection of L-nicotine,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 191, 529–536 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Semwal, A. M. Shrivastav, R. Verma, and B. D. Gupta, “Surface plasmon resonance based fiber optic ethanol sensor using layers of silver/silicon/hydrogel entrapped with ADH/NAD,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 230, 485–492 (2016).
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H. Tai, Y. Jiang, G. Xie, J. Yu, and X. Chen, “Fabrication and gas sensitivity of polyaniline–titanium dioxide nanocomposite thin film,” Sens. Actuat. B-Chem. 125 (2), 644–650 (2007).
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Sens. Actuator B-Chem. (1)

Y. Zhao, X. Li, X. Zhou, and Y. Zhang, “Review on the graphene based optical fiber chemical and biological sensors,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 231, 324–340 (2016).
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W. Xue and P. Li, “Dielectrophoretic deposition and alignment of carbon nanotubes,” in Handbook of Carbon Nanotubes - Synthesis, Characterization, Applications, S. Yellampalli, ed. (Academic, 2011), pp. 172–190.

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A. L. Khalaf, F. S. Mohamad, P. T. Arasu, A. A. Shabaneh, N. A. Rahman, H. N. Lim, S. Paiman, N. A. Yusof, M. A. Mahdi, and M. H. Yaacob, “Modified plastic optical fiber coated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite for ammonia sensing,” in Proceedings of IEEE 6th International Conference on Photonics (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–3.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Microscopic images of POF before and after cladding removal process.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ethanol sensing experimental setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM images of UCPOF coated with ((a) and (c)) CNT and ((b) and (d)) GO. EDX spectra of (e) CNT and (f) GO coated glass (SiO2) substrate.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

3D topography AFM image of the boundary area between uncoated and coated UCPOF for (a) CNT and (b) GO sensing layers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized absorbance spectra obtained for (a) CNT and (b) GO nanomaterial-coated UCPOF towards different ethanol concentrations in de-ionized water.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Normalized absorbance based dynamic response obtained for (a) CNT based POF sensor towards ethanol and (b) GO nanomaterial based POF sensor towards ethanol. (c) Normalized absorbance change as a function of ethanol concentration for CNT and GO sensing layer.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic representation of the proposed interaction mechanism between ethanol molecules and (a) CNT and (b) GO thin films.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Resolution of the UCPOF coated (a) CNT and (b) GO sensing layers.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Normalized absorbance change of CNT based UCPOF as a function of different concentrations of ethanol, acetone, methanol, xylene, and chloroform in water.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Sensitivity and resolution comparison with existing ethanol optical sensor

Tables Icon

Table 2 S values of the UCPOF sensor coated with CNT

Equations (1)

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A λ = log ( S λ D λ R λ D λ ) .

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