Abstract

We present a technique to excite Raman transitions with minimum phase noise. A phase modulator generates the Raman beams and a long calcite crystal rotates the polarization of the sidebands by 90° with respect to the carrier. That polarization converts the destructive interference of the Raman pairs into constructive interference, opening the possibility to drive both co-propagating and counter-propagating transitions at high detuning with the same setup. The technique has low phase noise and a low sensitivity to vibrations or temperature fluctuations. We apply it to drive velocity insensitive Raman transitions. The crystal can be also configured to filter out one of the sidebands.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  3. R. Bouchendira, P. Cladé, S. Guellati-Khélifa, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, “State of the art in the determination of the fine structure constant: test of Quantum Electrodynamics and determination of h/mu,” Ann. Phys. 525, 484 (2013).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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2016 (3)

Q. Wang, Z. Wang, Z. Fu, W. Liu, and Q. Lin, “A compact laser system for the cold atom gravimeter,” Opt. Commun. 358, 82–87 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Hamzeloui, N. Arias, V. Abediyeh, D. Martínez, M. Gutiérrez, E. Uruñuela, E. del Rio, E. Cerda-Méndez, and E. Gomez, “Towards Precision Measurements at UASLP,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 698, 012011 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Hamzeloui, D. Martínez, V. Abediyeh, N. Arias, E. Gomez, and V. M. Valenzuela, “Dual atomic interferometer with a tunable point of minimum magnetic sensitivity,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 033634 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

A. Bonnin, N. Zahzam, Y. Bidel, and A. Bresson, “Characterization of a simultaneous dual-species atom interferometer for a quantum test of the weak equivalence principle,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 023626 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Theron, O. Carraz, G. Renon, N. Zahzam, Y. Bidel, M. Cadoret, and A. Bresson, “Narrow linewidth single laser source system for onboard atom interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 118(1), 1–5 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Lee and J. Kim, “A Phase-modulated Laser System of Ultra-low Phase Noise for Compact Atom Interferometers,”J. Kor. Phys. Soc. 67, 318 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, S. Long, B. Tang, X. Chen, F. Gao, W. Peng, W. Duan, J. Zhong, Z. Xiong, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, and M. Zhan, “Test of Equivalence Principle at 10−8 Level by a Dual-Species Double-Diffraction Raman Atom Interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 013004 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

D. Schlippert, J. Hartwig, H. Albers, L. L. Richardson, C. Schubert, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, W. Ertmer, and E. M. Rasel, “Quantum Test of the Universality of Free Fall,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 203002 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Rosi, F. Sorrentino, L. Cacciapouti, M. Prevedelli, and G. M. Tino, “Precision measurement of the Newtonian gravitational constant using cold atoms,” Nature 510, 518 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yim, S. B. Lee, T. Y. Kwon, and S. E. Park, “Optical phase locking of two extended-cavity diode lasers with ultra-low phase noise for atom interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 115(4), 491–495 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Kang, X. Dong, Y. Zhu, S. Jin, and S. Zhuang, “A fiber strain and vibration sensor based on high birefringence polarization mantaining fibers,” Opt. Commun. 322, 105–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

V. M. Valenzuela, S. Hamzeloui, M. Gutiérrez, and E. Gomez, “Multiple isotope magneto-optical trap from a single diode laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(5), 1205–1210 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Bouchendira, P. Cladé, S. Guellati-Khélifa, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, “State of the art in the determination of the fine structure constant: test of Quantum Electrodynamics and determination of h/mu,” Ann. Phys. 525, 484 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. M. Dickerson, J. M. Hogan, A. Sugarbaker, D. M. S. Johnson, and M. A. Kasevich, “Multiaxis Inertial Sensing with Long-Time Point Source Atom Interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 083001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Bidel, O. Carraz, R. Charrière, M. Cadoret, N. Zahzam, and A. Bresson, “Compact cold atom gravimeter for field applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 144107 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Xue, Y. Feng, X. Wang, S. Chen, and Z. Zhou, “Note: Generation of Raman laser beams based on a sideband injection-locking technique using a fiber electro-optical modulator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 046104 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

V.M. Valenzuela, L. Hernández, and E. Gomez, “High power rapidly tunable system for laser cooling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 015111 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Carraz, R. Charrière, M. Cadoret, N. Zahzam, Y. Bidel, and A. Bresson, “Phase shift in an atom interferometer induced by the additional laser lines of a Raman laser generated by modulation,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 033605 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Charrière, M. Cadoret, N. Zahzam, Y. Bidel, and A. Bresson, “Local gravity measurement with the combination of atom interferometry and Bloch oscillations,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 013639 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

R. Bouchendira, P. Cladé, S. Guellati-Khélifa, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, “New Determination of the Fine Structure Constant and Test of the Quantum Electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 080801 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schmidt, M. Prevedelli, A. Giorgini, G. M. Tino, and A. Peters, “A portable laser system for high-precision atom interferometry experiments,” Appl. Phys. B 102(1), 11–18 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Ménoret, R. Geiger, G. Stern, N. Zahzam, B. Battelier, A. Bresson, A. Landragin, and P. Bouyer, “Dual-wavelength laser source for onboard atom interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 36(21), 4128–4130 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

D. M. S. Johnson, J. M. Hogan, S. W. Chiow, and M. A. Kasevich, “Broadband optical serrodyne frequency shifting,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 745–747 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I.H. Deutsch and P.S. Jessen, “Quantum control and measurement of atomic spins in polarization spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 283(5), 681–694 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Döring, G. McDonald, J. E. Debs, C. Figl, P. A. Altin, H. A. Bachor, N. P. Robins, and J. D. Close, “Quantum-projection-noise-limited interferometry with coherent atoms in a Ramsey-type setup,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043633 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (6)

J. Wang, L. Zhou, R. Li, M. Liu, and M. Zhan, ”Cold atom interferometers and their applications in precision measurements,” Phys. China 4, 179 (2009).

O. Carraz, F. Lienhart, R. Charrière, M. Cadoret, N. Zahzam, Y. Bidel, and A. Bresson, “Compact and robust laser system for onboard atom Interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 405–411 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. L. Gouët, J. Kim, C. Bourassin-Bouchet, M. Lours, A. Landragin, and F. P. Dos Santos, “Wide bandwidth phase-locked diode laser with an intra-cavity electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Commun. 282(5), 977–980 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, A. Lin, C. L. Lee, J. Lee, and W. T. Han, “Large temperature sensitivity of Sagnac loop interferometer based on the birefringent holey fiber filled with metal indium,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1789–1794 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Debs, D. Döring, N. P. Robins, C. Figl, P. A. Altin, and J. D. Close, “A two-state Raman coupler for coherent atom optics,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2319–2325 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Döring, J. E. Debs, N. P. Robins, C. Figl, P. A. Altin, and J.D. Close, “Ramsey interferometry with an atom laser,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20661–=20668 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

J. L. Gouët, T. E. Mehlstäubler, J. Kim, S. Merlet, A. Clairon, A. Landragin, and F. P. Dos Santos, “Limits to the sensitivity of a low noise compact atomic gravimeter,” Appl. Phys. B 92(2), 133–144 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Cheinet, B. Canuel, F. P. Dos Santos, A. Gauguet, F. Yver-Leduc, and A. Landragin, “Measurement of the Sensitivity Function in a Time-Domain Atomic Interferometer,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 57(6), 1141–1148 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

J.L. Gouët, P. Cheinet, J. Kim, D. Holleville, A. Clarion, A. Landragin, and F.P. Dos Santos, “Influence of lasers propagation delay on the sensitivity of atom interferometers,”Eur. Phys. J. D 44, 419–425 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

P. Cheinet, F. Pereira Dos Santos, T. Petelski, J. Le Gouët, J. Kim, K. T. Therkildsen, A. Clairon, and A. Landragin, “Compact laser system for atom interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 84(4), 643–646 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Ferrari, N. Poli, F. Sorrentino, and G. M. Tino, “Long lived Bloch oscillations with bosonic Sr atoms and application to gravity measurement at the micrometer scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 060402 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

L. Cacciapuoti, M. de Angelis, M. Fattori, G. Lamporesi, T. Petelski, M. Prevedelli, J. Stuhler, and G. M. Tino, “Analog + digital phase and frequency detector for phase locking of diode lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 053111 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

M. S. Shahriar, A. V. Turukhin, T. Liptay, Y. Tan, and P. R. Hemmer, “Demonstration of injection locking a diode laser using a filtered electro-optic modulator sideband,” Opt. Commun. 184(5–6), 457–462 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

Y. Han, Q. Li, X. Liu, and B. Zhou, “Architecture of High-Order All-Fiber Birefringent filters by the Use of the Sagnac Interferometer,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 11(1), 90–92 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. Ghosh, “Dispersion-equation coefficients for the refractive index and birefringence of calcite and quartz crystals,” Opt. Commun. 163(1–3), 95–102 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

K. Szymaniec, S. Ghezali, L. Cognet, and A. Clairon, “Injection locking of diode lasers to frequency modulated source,” Opt. Commun. 144(1–3), 50–54 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, S. N. Lea, and G. M. Tino, “Heterodyne optical phase-locking of extended-cavity semi-conductor lasers at 9 GHz,” Opt. Commun. 104, 339–344 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

K. Moler, D. S. Weiss, M. Kasevich, and S. Chu, “Theoretical analysis of velocity-selective Raman transitions,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 342 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

M. Kasevich and S. Chu, “Atomic interferometry using stimulated Raman transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abediyeh, V.

S. Hamzeloui, N. Arias, V. Abediyeh, D. Martínez, M. Gutiérrez, E. Uruñuela, E. del Rio, E. Cerda-Méndez, and E. Gomez, “Towards Precision Measurements at UASLP,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 698, 012011 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Hamzeloui, D. Martínez, V. Abediyeh, N. Arias, E. Gomez, and V. M. Valenzuela, “Dual atomic interferometer with a tunable point of minimum magnetic sensitivity,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 033634 (2016).
[Crossref]

Albers, H.

D. Schlippert, J. Hartwig, H. Albers, L. L. Richardson, C. Schubert, A. Roura, W. P. Schleich, W. Ertmer, and E. M. Rasel, “Quantum Test of the Universality of Free Fall,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 203002 (2014).
[Crossref]

Altin, P. A.

Arias, N.

S. Hamzeloui, D. Martínez, V. Abediyeh, N. Arias, E. Gomez, and V. M. Valenzuela, “Dual atomic interferometer with a tunable point of minimum magnetic sensitivity,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 033634 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Hamzeloui, N. Arias, V. Abediyeh, D. Martínez, M. Gutiérrez, E. Uruñuela, E. del Rio, E. Cerda-Méndez, and E. Gomez, “Towards Precision Measurements at UASLP,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 698, 012011 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bachor, H. A.

D. Döring, G. McDonald, J. E. Debs, C. Figl, P. A. Altin, H. A. Bachor, N. P. Robins, and J. D. Close, “Quantum-projection-noise-limited interferometry with coherent atoms in a Ramsey-type setup,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043633 (2010).
[Crossref]

Battelier, B.

Bidel, Y.

A. Bonnin, N. Zahzam, Y. Bidel, and A. Bresson, “Characterization of a simultaneous dual-species atom interferometer for a quantum test of the weak equivalence principle,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 023626 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Theron, O. Carraz, G. Renon, N. Zahzam, Y. Bidel, M. Cadoret, and A. Bresson, “Narrow linewidth single laser source system for onboard atom interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 118(1), 1–5 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Configuration to generate Raman beams with minimum phase noise. AOM: acousto-optic modulator, FEOM: fiber electro-optic modulator, RF: radio frequency and FPC: Fabry Perot cavity.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Transmitted light through the crystal (quadruple pass with θ = 45°) and polarizer as a function of the laser frequency. ν0 is a reference frequency corresponding to a wavelength around 780 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Fringe visibility as a function of the rotation angle of the crystal (θ) for single (black) and quadruple (red) pass. The solid lines correspond to Eq. (10) with a scale factor and offset fit.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 a) Schematic configuration for a narrow frequency filter by sending the beam in double pass through the crystal and through a polarizing cube and then rotating the polarization of the remaining pair by a quadruple pass through the crystal. We show the polarization of carrier and sidebands at each step. b) Spectrum of the light out of the crystal taken with a Fabry Perot cavity with a Free Spectral Range of 1.5 GHz. The polarizer in front of the cavity was at 0, 45 and 90° for the lower, middle and upper traces respectively. The traces have been displaced vertically for clarity.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Power Spectral Density (PSD) of the beams generated with the phase modulator. The gray (upper) trace corresponds to the signal measured with the spectrum analyzer, the red (middle) trace is the noise measured with the FFT analyzer, the black lower trace is the noise of the microwave synthesizer and the dashed brown line is the noise floor.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Rabi frequency of the Raman transition as a function of detuning (markers) with the expected 1/δ scaling (red solid line).

Equations (16)

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Ω R = e 2 2 n j | E ¯ 1 r ¯ | n k | E ¯ 2 r ¯ | n * 2 δ n ,
Ω R [ E ¯ 1 × E ¯ 2 * ] M ¯ ,
M ¯ = e 2 4 2 δ n j | r ¯ | n × k | r ¯ | n * .
E ¯ = E cos ( ω t + ϕ ) x ^ .
E ¯ = E 0 [ cos ( ω t ) + β 2 { cos [ ( ω + ω m ) t ] + cos [ ( ω ω m ) t ] } ] x ^ .
E ¯ = E 0 [ J 0 ( β ) cos ( ω t ) + J 1 ( β ) { cos [ ( ω ω m ) t ] cos [ ( ω + ω m ) t ] } + ] x ^ ,
E ¯ = E 0 [ cos ( ω t + φ ) cos ( φ 2 ) x ^ + cos ( ω t + φ π / 2 ) sin ( φ 2 ) y ^ ] ,
E ¯ = E 0 [ J 0 ( β ) cos ( ω t ) x ^ + J 1 ( β ) { cos [ ( ω ω m ) t π / 2 ] cos [ ( ω + ω m ) t + π / 2 ] } y ^ ] .
S S 0 = cos 4 ( θ ) + sin 4 ( θ ) + sin 2 ( 2 θ ) cos ( φ ) .
V = sin 2 ( 2 θ ) 1 + cos 2 ( 2 θ ) .
r ¯ 1 = j | r ¯ | n , r ¯ 2 = k | r ¯ | n ,
Ω R = e 2 2 2 δ E ¯ 1 μ E ¯ 2 ξ * n r ¯ 1 μ r ¯ 2 ξ * .
[ r ¯ 1 r ¯ 2 * ] Q K = q 1 q 2 2 K + 1 ( 1 ) Q ( 1 1 K q 1 q 2 Q ) r 1 , q 1 r 2 , q 2 * ,
[ r ¯ 1 r ¯ 2 * ] 1 = r ¯ 12 = i 2 r ¯ 1 × r ¯ 2 * .
[ E ¯ 1 E ¯ 2 * ] 1 = E ¯ 12 = i 2 E ¯ 1 × E ¯ 2 * .
Ω R = e 2 2 2 δ E ¯ 12 n r ¯ 12 = [ E ¯ 1 × E ¯ 2 * ] M ¯ ,

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