Abstract

We examine the far-field and near-field properties of complementary screens made of nanostructured gold thin films, a rectangular nanowire and a nanovoid, using an aperture-type scanning near-field optical microscope and electromagnetic field calculations, and discuss the applicability of Babinet’s principle in the optical region. The far-field transmission spectra of the complementary screens are considerably different from each other. On the other hand, genuine near-field extinction spectra exhibit nearly complementary characteristics. The spatial features of the observed near-field images for the complementary screens show little correlation. We have found from the Fourier analysis of the simulated images that high spatial-frequency components of the electromagnetic fields show mutual spatial correlation. These results suggest that Babinet’s principle is applicable to the high spatial-frequency components of electromagnetic fields for the complementary screens.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (1)

X. Yang, X. Hu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Ultracompact all-optical logic gates based on nonlinear plasmonic nanocavities,” Nanophotonics 6(1), 365–376 (2017).

2013 (2)

R. M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers: coherent light source at molecular scales,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 1–21 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, Z. Li, X. Zhang, J. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Submicron bidirectional all-optical plasmonic switches,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1451 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

2009 (1)

H. Okamoto and K. Imura, “Near-field optical imaging of enhanced electric fields and plasmon waves in metal nanostructures,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 84(7–8), 199–229 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

B. T. Draine and P. J. Flatau, “Discrete-dipole approximation for periodic targets: theory and tests,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(11), 2693–2703 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Magnetoinductive and electroinductive coupling in plasmonic metamaterial molecules,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4521–4525 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Zentgraf, T. P. Meyrath, A. Seidel, S. Kaiser, H. Giessen, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Babinet’s principle for optical frequency metamaterials and nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B 76(3), 033407 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science 312(5781), 1777–1780 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Ramakrishna, “Physics of negative refractive index materials,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 68(2), 449–521 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, “Near-field optical imaging of plasmon modes in gold nanorods,” J. Chem. Phys. 122(15), 154701 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Brioude and M. P. Pileni, “Silver nanodisks: optical properties study using the discrete dipole approximation method,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(49), 23371–23377 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, “Characteristic near-field spectra of single gold nanoparticles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 400(4–6), 500–505 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. A. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(19), 197401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[Crossref]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1991 (1)

1988 (1)

B. T. Draine, “The discrete-dipole approximation and its application to interstellar graphite grains,” Astrophys. J. 333, 848–872 (1988).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

B. J. Messinger, U. K. von Raben, R. K. Chang, and P. W. Barber, “Local fields at the surface of noble-metal microspheres,” Phys. Rev. B 24(2), 649–657 (1981).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

E. M. Purcell and C. R. Pennypacker, “Scattering and absorption of light by nonspherical dielectric grains,” Astrophys. J. 186, 705–714 (1973).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and µ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10(4), 509–514 (1968).
[Crossref]

1946 (1)

H. G. Booker, “Slot aerials and their relation to complementary wire aerials,” J. Inst. Electr. Eng. 93(4), 620–626 (1946).

Baena, J. D.

F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. A. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(19), 197401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barber, P. W.

B. J. Messinger, U. K. von Raben, R. K. Chang, and P. W. Barber, “Local fields at the surface of noble-metal microspheres,” Phys. Rev. B 24(2), 649–657 (1981).
[Crossref]

Beruete, M.

F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. A. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(19), 197401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bitzer, A.

Bonache, J.

F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. A. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(19), 197401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Booker, H. G.

H. G. Booker, “Slot aerials and their relation to complementary wire aerials,” J. Inst. Electr. Eng. 93(4), 620–626 (1946).

Brioude, A.

A. Brioude and M. P. Pileni, “Silver nanodisks: optical properties study using the discrete dipole approximation method,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(49), 23371–23377 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carcenac, F.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chang, R. K.

B. J. Messinger, U. K. von Raben, R. K. Chang, and P. W. Barber, “Local fields at the surface of noble-metal microspheres,” Phys. Rev. B 24(2), 649–657 (1981).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, Z. Li, X. Zhang, J. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Submicron bidirectional all-optical plasmonic switches,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1451 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[Crossref]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Coronado, E.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[Crossref]

Couraud, L.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Draine, B. T.

Falcone, F.

F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. A. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(19), 197401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, N.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feurer, T.

Flatau, P. J.

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Magnetoinductive and electroinductive coupling in plasmonic metamaterial molecules,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4521–4525 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Zentgraf, T. P. Meyrath, A. Seidel, S. Kaiser, H. Giessen, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Babinet’s principle for optical frequency metamaterials and nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B 76(3), 033407 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gong, Q.

X. Yang, X. Hu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Ultracompact all-optical logic gates based on nonlinear plasmonic nanocavities,” Nanophotonics 6(1), 365–376 (2017).

J. Chen, Z. Li, X. Zhang, J. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Submicron bidirectional all-optical plasmonic switches,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1451 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goodman, J. J.

Hu, X.

X. Yang, X. Hu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Ultracompact all-optical logic gates based on nonlinear plasmonic nanocavities,” Nanophotonics 6(1), 365–376 (2017).

Imura, K.

K. Imura, K. Ueno, H. Misawa, and H. Okamoto, “Anomalous light transmission from plasmonic-capped nanoapertures,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 960–965 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Okamoto and K. Imura, “Near-field optical imaging of enhanced electric fields and plasmon waves in metal nanostructures,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 84(7–8), 199–229 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, “Near-field optical imaging of plasmon modes in gold nanorods,” J. Chem. Phys. 122(15), 154701 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, “Characteristic near-field spectra of single gold nanoparticles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 400(4–6), 500–505 (2004).
[Crossref]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaiser, S.

N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Magnetoinductive and electroinductive coupling in plasmonic metamaterial molecules,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4521–4525 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Zentgraf, T. P. Meyrath, A. Seidel, S. Kaiser, H. Giessen, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Babinet’s principle for optical frequency metamaterials and nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B 76(3), 033407 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kelly, K. L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[Crossref]

Laso, M. A. A.

F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. A. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(19), 197401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Launois, H.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lebib, A.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lederer, F.

T. Zentgraf, T. P. Meyrath, A. Seidel, S. Kaiser, H. Giessen, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Babinet’s principle for optical frequency metamaterials and nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B 76(3), 033407 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, H.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leonhardt, U.

U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science 312(5781), 1777–1780 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

J. Chen, Z. Li, X. Zhang, J. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Submicron bidirectional all-optical plasmonic switches,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1451 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Magnetoinductive and electroinductive coupling in plasmonic metamaterial molecules,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4521–4525 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lopetegi, T.

F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. A. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(19), 197401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, R. M.

R. M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers: coherent light source at molecular scales,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 1–21 (2013).
[Crossref]

Manin-Ferlazzo, L.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[Crossref]

Marqués, R.

F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. A. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(19), 197401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martín, F.

F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. A. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(19), 197401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mejias, M.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[Crossref]

Merbold, H.

Messinger, B. J.

B. J. Messinger, U. K. von Raben, R. K. Chang, and P. W. Barber, “Local fields at the surface of noble-metal microspheres,” Phys. Rev. B 24(2), 649–657 (1981).
[Crossref]

Meyrath, T. P.

T. Zentgraf, T. P. Meyrath, A. Seidel, S. Kaiser, H. Giessen, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Babinet’s principle for optical frequency metamaterials and nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B 76(3), 033407 (2007).
[Crossref]

Misawa, H.

K. Imura, K. Ueno, H. Misawa, and H. Okamoto, “Anomalous light transmission from plasmonic-capped nanoapertures,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 960–965 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mock, J. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nagahara, T.

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, “Near-field optical imaging of plasmon modes in gold nanorods,” J. Chem. Phys. 122(15), 154701 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, “Characteristic near-field spectra of single gold nanoparticles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 400(4–6), 500–505 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Okamoto, H.

K. Imura, K. Ueno, H. Misawa, and H. Okamoto, “Anomalous light transmission from plasmonic-capped nanoapertures,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 960–965 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Okamoto and K. Imura, “Near-field optical imaging of enhanced electric fields and plasmon waves in metal nanostructures,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 84(7–8), 199–229 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, “Near-field optical imaging of plasmon modes in gold nanorods,” J. Chem. Phys. 122(15), 154701 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, “Characteristic near-field spectra of single gold nanoparticles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 400(4–6), 500–505 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ortner, A.

Oulton, R. F.

R. M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers: coherent light source at molecular scales,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 1–21 (2013).
[Crossref]

Padilla, W. J.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pennypacker, C. R.

E. M. Purcell and C. R. Pennypacker, “Scattering and absorption of light by nonspherical dielectric grains,” Astrophys. J. 186, 705–714 (1973).
[Crossref]

Pepin, A.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[Crossref]

Pileni, M. P.

A. Brioude and M. P. Pileni, “Silver nanodisks: optical properties study using the discrete dipole approximation method,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(49), 23371–23377 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Purcell, E. M.

E. M. Purcell and C. R. Pennypacker, “Scattering and absorption of light by nonspherical dielectric grains,” Astrophys. J. 186, 705–714 (1973).
[Crossref]

Ramakrishna, S. A.

S. A. Ramakrishna, “Physics of negative refractive index materials,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 68(2), 449–521 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rockstuhl, C.

T. Zentgraf, T. P. Meyrath, A. Seidel, S. Kaiser, H. Giessen, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Babinet’s principle for optical frequency metamaterials and nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B 76(3), 033407 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schatz, G. C.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seidel, A.

T. Zentgraf, T. P. Meyrath, A. Seidel, S. Kaiser, H. Giessen, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Babinet’s principle for optical frequency metamaterials and nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B 76(3), 033407 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sorger, V. J.

R. M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers: coherent light source at molecular scales,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 1–21 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sorolla, M.

F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. A. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(19), 197401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ueno, K.

K. Imura, K. Ueno, H. Misawa, and H. Okamoto, “Anomalous light transmission from plasmonic-capped nanoapertures,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 960–965 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and µ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10(4), 509–514 (1968).
[Crossref]

Vier, D. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vieu, C.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[Crossref]

von Raben, U. K.

B. J. Messinger, U. K. von Raben, R. K. Chang, and P. W. Barber, “Local fields at the surface of noble-metal microspheres,” Phys. Rev. B 24(2), 649–657 (1981).
[Crossref]

Walther, M.

Xiao, J.

J. Chen, Z. Li, X. Zhang, J. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Submicron bidirectional all-optical plasmonic switches,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1451 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiong, Y.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

X. Yang, X. Hu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Ultracompact all-optical logic gates based on nonlinear plasmonic nanocavities,” Nanophotonics 6(1), 365–376 (2017).

Yang, X.

X. Yang, X. Hu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Ultracompact all-optical logic gates based on nonlinear plasmonic nanocavities,” Nanophotonics 6(1), 365–376 (2017).

Zentgraf, T.

T. Zentgraf, T. P. Meyrath, A. Seidel, S. Kaiser, H. Giessen, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Babinet’s principle for optical frequency metamaterials and nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B 76(3), 033407 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

J. Chen, Z. Li, X. Zhang, J. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Submicron bidirectional all-optical plasmonic switches,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1451 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers: coherent light source at molecular scales,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 1–21 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, L. L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Magnetoinductive and electroinductive coupling in plasmonic metamaterial molecules,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4521–4525 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[Crossref]

Astrophys. J. (2)

E. M. Purcell and C. R. Pennypacker, “Scattering and absorption of light by nonspherical dielectric grains,” Astrophys. J. 186, 705–714 (1973).
[Crossref]

B. T. Draine, “The discrete-dipole approximation and its application to interstellar graphite grains,” Astrophys. J. 333, 848–872 (1988).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, “Characteristic near-field spectra of single gold nanoparticles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 400(4–6), 500–505 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, “Near-field optical imaging of plasmon modes in gold nanorods,” J. Chem. Phys. 122(15), 154701 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Inst. Electr. Eng. (1)

H. G. Booker, “Slot aerials and their relation to complementary wire aerials,” J. Inst. Electr. Eng. 93(4), 620–626 (1946).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Phys. Chem. B (2)

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Brioude and M. P. Pileni, “Silver nanodisks: optical properties study using the discrete dipole approximation method,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(49), 23371–23377 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

R. M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers: coherent light source at molecular scales,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 1–21 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

K. Imura, K. Ueno, H. Misawa, and H. Okamoto, “Anomalous light transmission from plasmonic-capped nanoapertures,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 960–965 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanophotonics (1)

X. Yang, X. Hu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Ultracompact all-optical logic gates based on nonlinear plasmonic nanocavities,” Nanophotonics 6(1), 365–376 (2017).

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

B. J. Messinger, U. K. von Raben, R. K. Chang, and P. W. Barber, “Local fields at the surface of noble-metal microspheres,” Phys. Rev. B 24(2), 649–657 (1981).
[Crossref]

T. Zentgraf, T. P. Meyrath, A. Seidel, S. Kaiser, H. Giessen, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Babinet’s principle for optical frequency metamaterials and nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B 76(3), 033407 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. A. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(19), 197401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prog. Surf. Sci. (1)

H. Okamoto and K. Imura, “Near-field optical imaging of enhanced electric fields and plasmon waves in metal nanostructures,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 84(7–8), 199–229 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

S. A. Ramakrishna, “Physics of negative refractive index materials,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 68(2), 449–521 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

J. Chen, Z. Li, X. Zhang, J. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Submicron bidirectional all-optical plasmonic switches,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1451 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (6)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science 312(5781), 1777–1780 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and µ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10(4), 509–514 (1968).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: fundamentals and applications (Springer, 2007).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1999), Chap. 11.

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics 3rd ed. (Wiley & Sons, 1999), Chap.10.

B. T. Draine and P. J. Flatau, “User guide for the discrete dipole approximation code DDSCAT 7.3,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1305.6497 .

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A schematic diagram of a homemade aperture-type SNOM. FC: fiber coupler, NFP: aperture near-field probe, OL: objective lens, POL: polarizer, CCD: charge-coupled device detector. Inset: scanning electron micrograph of a gold-coated NFP tip.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Scanning electron micrographs of a fabricated single gold nanowire (left) and nanovoid (right). Scale bar is 500 nm. The dimensions of the nanostructures are 690 ± 10 nm in length, 90 ± 5 nm in width, and 20 ± 0.5 nm in height
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Simulated polarized extinction Q and (b) polarized transmission spectra TFF of a single gold nanowire (solid red curve) and nanovoid (dotted blue curve) obtained under the far-field illumination. Schematic illustrations indicate the orientation of the samples relative to the detected polarization. Bars in (a) indicate the location of the resonance.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Near-field transmission spectra TNF of a single gold nanowire (solid red curve) and nanovoid (dotted blue curve). The polarization directions were parallel to the long axis of the nanowire and perpendicular to that of the nanovoid, which were the same as those for the far-field measurements. (b) Near-field extinction spectra Q e x t N F of a single gold nanowire (solid red curve) and nanovoid (dotted blue curve) obtained by subtracting the far-field transmission spectra from the near-field ones (for details see the text). (c) A sum spectrum of Q e x t N F for the nanowire and nanovoid.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Near-field transmission images of a single gold nanowire in (a), (c), and (e) and nanovoid in (b), (d), and (f). Observation wavelengths: (a) and (b) 738–748 nm, (c) and (d) 812–821 nm, (e) and (f) 916–926 nm. The arrows indicate the detected polarization directions. The white dotted lines indicate the outlines of the nanowire and nanovoid. Scale bars are 500 nm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Calculated electromagnetic field distributions for a gold nanowire and a nanovoid: The electric field (E) of the nanowire at 840 nm (a); the magnetic field (B) of the nanovoid at 840 nm (b). The arrows indicate the incident polarization directions. The white dotted lines indicate the outlines of the nanostructures. Scale bars are 500 nm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The high spatial frequency components of the electromagnetic field distributions for the gold nanowire and the nanovoid based on Fourier analysis (for details see the text): The electric field (E) of the nanowire at 840 nm (a); the magnetic field (B) of the nanovoid at 840 nm (b). The spatial frequency range was from 8 µm−1 to 200 µm−1. The arrows indicate the incident polarization directions. The white dotted lines indicate the outlines of the nanostructures. Scale bars are 500 nm. (c,d) Line profiles of the field distributions for the nanowire and nanovoid taken along the long side of the structure.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E 0 c = c B 0 and c B 0 c = E 0
c B c + E = c B 0 c
E c c B = E 0 c
T + T C = 1
T N F = 1 p Q e x t N F q Q e x t F F
Q e x t N F = ( 1 T N F q Q e x t F F ) / p = [ 1 T N F q ( 1 T F F ) ] / p

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