Abstract

A solid-state sodium (Na) Doppler lidar developed at YanQing Station, Beijing, China (40°N, 116°E) aiming to simultaneous wind and temperature measurement of mesopause region was reported. The 589 nm pulse laser was produced by two injection seeded 1064 nm and 1319 nm Nd:YAG pulse lasers using the sum-frequency generation (SFG) technique. A fiber amplifier is implemented to boost the seed power at 1064 nm, enabling a robust, all-fiber-coupled design for seeding laser unit, absolute laser frequency locking, and cyclic three-frequency switching necessary for simultaneous temperature and wind measurements. The all-fiber-coupled injection seeding configuration together with the solid-state Nd:YAG lasers make the Na Doppler lidar more compact and greatly reduce the system maintenance, which is conducive to transportable and unattended operation. A preliminary observational result obtained with this solid-state sodium Doppler lidar was also reported in this paper.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  35. L. Du, G. Yang, J. Wang, C. Yue, and L. Chen, “Implementing a wind measurement Doppler Lidar based on a molecular iodine filter to monitor the atmospheric wind field over Beijing,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 188, 3–11 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  36. Y. Yong, C. Xuewu, L. Faquan, H. Xiong, L. Xin, and G. Shunsheng, “A flat spectral Faraday filter for sodium lidar,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1302–1304 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

L. Du, G. Yang, J. Wang, C. Yue, and L. Chen, “Implementing a wind measurement Doppler Lidar based on a molecular iodine filter to monitor the atmospheric wind field over Beijing,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 188, 3–11 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, T. Takahashi, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. Nakamura, and A. Brekke, “A sporadic sodium layer event detected with five-directional lidar and simultaneous wind, electron density, and electric field observation at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(21), 9190–9196 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. A. Smith and X. Chu, “High-efficiency receiver architecture for resonance-fluorescence and Doppler lidars,” Appl. Opt. 54(11), 3173–3184 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Huang, X. Chu, C. S. Gardner, J. D. Carrillo-Sánchez, W. Feng, J. M. C. Plane, and D. Nesvorný, “Measurements of the vertical fluxes of atomic Fe and Na at the mesopause: Implications for the velocity of cosmic dust entering the atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(1), 169–175 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

T. Yuan, C.-Y. She, T. D. Kawahara, and D. A. Krueger, “Seasonal variations of midlatitude mesospheric Na layer and their tidal period perturbations based on full diurnal cycle Na lidar observations of 2002-2008,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(D11), D11304 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Li, X. Fang, W. Liu, S.-Y. Gu, and X. Dou, “Narrowband sodium lidar for the measurements of mesopause region temperature and wind,” Appl. Opt. 51(22), 5401–5411 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, and A. Nomura, “Sodium temperature lidar based on injection seeded Nd:YAG pulse lasers using a sum-frequency generation technique,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3553–3561 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Clemesha, D. Simonich, and P. Batista, “Sodium lidar measurements of mesopause region temperatures at 23°S,” Adv. Space Res. 47(7), 1165–1171 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Hu, Z. A. Yan, S. Y. Guo, Y. Cheng, and J. Gong, “Sodium fluorescence Doppler lidar to measure atmospheric temperature in the mesopause region,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 56(4-5), 417–423 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Yong, C. Xuewu, L. Faquan, H. Xiong, L. Xin, and G. Shunsheng, “A flat spectral Faraday filter for sodium lidar,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1302–1304 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

M. K. Ejiri, T. Nakamura, and T. D. Kawahara, “Seasonal variation of nocturnal temperature and sodium density in the mesopause region observed by a resonance scatter lidar over Uji, Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D18), D18126 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

2008 (2)

E. Mimoun, L. De Sarlo, J. J. Zondy, J. Dalibard, and F. Gerbier, “Sum-frequency generation of 589 nm light with near-unit efficiency,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18684–18691 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Smith, X. Chu, W. Huang, and J. Wiig, “LabVIEW-based laser frequency stabilization system with phase-sensitive detection servo loop for Doppler LIDAR applications,” Opt. Eng. 47(11), 114201 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

C.-Y. She, J. D. Vance, T. D. Kawahara, B. P. Williams, and Q. Wu, “A proposed all-solid-state transportable narrow-band sodium lidar for mesopause region temperature and horizontal wind measurements,” Can. J. Phys. 85(2), 111–118 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. S. Gardner and A. Z. Liu, “Seasonal variations of the vertical fluxes of heat and horizontal momentum in the mesopause region at Starfire Optical Range, New Mexico,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D9), D09113 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

X. Chu, C. S. Gardner, and S. J. Franke, “Nocturnal thermal structure of the MLT region at Maui, HI (20.7°N) and Starfire Optical Range, NM (35°N),” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D09S03 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. J. Franke, X. Chu, A. Z. Liu, and W. K. Hocking, “Comparison of meteor radar and Na Doppler lidar measurements of winds in the mesopause region above Maui, Hawaii,” J. Geophys. Res. 110(D9), D09S02 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

C. Y. She, J. Sherman, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, K. Arnold, T. D. Kawahara, T. Li, L. F. Xu, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, and D. A. Krueger, “The first 80-hour continuous lidar campaign for simultaneous observation of mesopause region temperature and wind,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(6), 1319–1323 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, and M. Tsutsumi, “Wintertime mesopause temperatures observed by lidar measurements over Syowa station (69 °S, 39 °E), Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(15), 1709 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Z. Liu, W. K. Hocking, S. J. Franke, and T. Thayaparan, “Comparison of Na lidar and meteor radar wind measurements at Starfire Optical Range, NM, USA,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 64(1), 31–40 (2002).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

C.-Y. She and J. R. Yu, “Simultaneous three-frequency Na lidar measurements of radial wind and temperature in the mesopause region,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21(17), 1771–1774 (1994).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

P. von der Gathen, “Saturation effects in Na lidar temperature measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 96(A3), 3679–3690 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

C. Y. She, H. Latifi, J. R. Yu, R. J. Alvarez, R. E. Bills, and C. S. Gardner, “Two-Frequency Lidar Technique for Mesospheric Na Temperature Measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17(7), 929–932 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

1985 (1)

K. H. Fricke and U. von Zahn, “Mesopause temperature derived from probing the hyperfine structure of the D2 resonance line of sodium by lidar,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 47(5), 499–512 (1985).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

G. Megie, F. Bos, J. E. Blamont, and M. L. Chanin, “Simultaneous nighttime lidar measurements of atmospheric sodium and potassium,” Planet. Space Sci. 26(1), 27–35 (1978).
[Crossref]

Acott, P.

C. Y. She, J. Sherman, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, K. Arnold, T. D. Kawahara, T. Li, L. F. Xu, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, and D. A. Krueger, “The first 80-hour continuous lidar campaign for simultaneous observation of mesopause region temperature and wind,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(6), 1319–1323 (2003).
[Crossref]

Acott, P. E.

Alvarez, R. J.

C. Y. She, H. Latifi, J. R. Yu, R. J. Alvarez, R. E. Bills, and C. S. Gardner, “Two-Frequency Lidar Technique for Mesospheric Na Temperature Measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17(7), 929–932 (1990).
[Crossref]

Arnold, K.

C. Y. She, J. Sherman, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, K. Arnold, T. D. Kawahara, T. Li, L. F. Xu, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, and D. A. Krueger, “The first 80-hour continuous lidar campaign for simultaneous observation of mesopause region temperature and wind,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(6), 1319–1323 (2003).
[Crossref]

Batista, P.

B. Clemesha, D. Simonich, and P. Batista, “Sodium lidar measurements of mesopause region temperatures at 23°S,” Adv. Space Res. 47(7), 1165–1171 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bills, R. E.

C. Y. She, H. Latifi, J. R. Yu, R. J. Alvarez, R. E. Bills, and C. S. Gardner, “Two-Frequency Lidar Technique for Mesospheric Na Temperature Measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17(7), 929–932 (1990).
[Crossref]

Blamont, J. E.

G. Megie, F. Bos, J. E. Blamont, and M. L. Chanin, “Simultaneous nighttime lidar measurements of atmospheric sodium and potassium,” Planet. Space Sci. 26(1), 27–35 (1978).
[Crossref]

Bos, F.

G. Megie, F. Bos, J. E. Blamont, and M. L. Chanin, “Simultaneous nighttime lidar measurements of atmospheric sodium and potassium,” Planet. Space Sci. 26(1), 27–35 (1978).
[Crossref]

Brekke, A.

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, T. Takahashi, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. Nakamura, and A. Brekke, “A sporadic sodium layer event detected with five-directional lidar and simultaneous wind, electron density, and electric field observation at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(21), 9190–9196 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

Carrillo-Sánchez, J. D.

W. Huang, X. Chu, C. S. Gardner, J. D. Carrillo-Sánchez, W. Feng, J. M. C. Plane, and D. Nesvorný, “Measurements of the vertical fluxes of atomic Fe and Na at the mesopause: Implications for the velocity of cosmic dust entering the atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(1), 169–175 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chanin, M. L.

G. Megie, F. Bos, J. E. Blamont, and M. L. Chanin, “Simultaneous nighttime lidar measurements of atmospheric sodium and potassium,” Planet. Space Sci. 26(1), 27–35 (1978).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

X. Lu, X. Chu, H. Li, C. Chen, J. A. Smith, and S. Vadas, “Statistical characterization of high-tomedium frequency mesoscale gravity waves by lidar-measured vertical winds and temperatures in the MLT,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys.in press.

Chen, L.

L. Du, G. Yang, J. Wang, C. Yue, and L. Chen, “Implementing a wind measurement Doppler Lidar based on a molecular iodine filter to monitor the atmospheric wind field over Beijing,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 188, 3–11 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

X. Hu, Z. A. Yan, S. Y. Guo, Y. Cheng, and J. Gong, “Sodium fluorescence Doppler lidar to measure atmospheric temperature in the mesopause region,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 56(4-5), 417–423 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chu, X.

W. Huang, X. Chu, C. S. Gardner, J. D. Carrillo-Sánchez, W. Feng, J. M. C. Plane, and D. Nesvorný, “Measurements of the vertical fluxes of atomic Fe and Na at the mesopause: Implications for the velocity of cosmic dust entering the atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(1), 169–175 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. A. Smith and X. Chu, “High-efficiency receiver architecture for resonance-fluorescence and Doppler lidars,” Appl. Opt. 54(11), 3173–3184 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Smith, X. Chu, W. Huang, and B. Tan, “Applications of spectral analysis and filter design in laser frequency locking for Na Doppler lidar,” Opt. Eng. 48(10), 104301 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. A. Smith, X. Chu, W. Huang, and J. Wiig, “LabVIEW-based laser frequency stabilization system with phase-sensitive detection servo loop for Doppler LIDAR applications,” Opt. Eng. 47(11), 114201 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. Chu, C. S. Gardner, and S. J. Franke, “Nocturnal thermal structure of the MLT region at Maui, HI (20.7°N) and Starfire Optical Range, NM (35°N),” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D09S03 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. J. Franke, X. Chu, A. Z. Liu, and W. K. Hocking, “Comparison of meteor radar and Na Doppler lidar measurements of winds in the mesopause region above Maui, Hawaii,” J. Geophys. Res. 110(D9), D09S02 (2005).
[Crossref]

X. Lu, X. Chu, H. Li, C. Chen, J. A. Smith, and S. Vadas, “Statistical characterization of high-tomedium frequency mesoscale gravity waves by lidar-measured vertical winds and temperatures in the MLT,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys.in press.

Clemesha, B.

B. Clemesha, D. Simonich, and P. Batista, “Sodium lidar measurements of mesopause region temperatures at 23°S,” Adv. Space Res. 47(7), 1165–1171 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dalibard, J.

De Sarlo, L.

Dou, X.

Du, L.

L. Du, G. Yang, J. Wang, C. Yue, and L. Chen, “Implementing a wind measurement Doppler Lidar based on a molecular iodine filter to monitor the atmospheric wind field over Beijing,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 188, 3–11 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ejiri, M. K.

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, T. Takahashi, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. Nakamura, and A. Brekke, “A sporadic sodium layer event detected with five-directional lidar and simultaneous wind, electron density, and electric field observation at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(21), 9190–9196 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. K. Ejiri, T. Nakamura, and T. D. Kawahara, “Seasonal variation of nocturnal temperature and sodium density in the mesopause region observed by a resonance scatter lidar over Uji, Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D18), D18126 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fang, X.

Faquan, L.

Feng, W.

W. Huang, X. Chu, C. S. Gardner, J. D. Carrillo-Sánchez, W. Feng, J. M. C. Plane, and D. Nesvorný, “Measurements of the vertical fluxes of atomic Fe and Na at the mesopause: Implications for the velocity of cosmic dust entering the atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(1), 169–175 (2015).
[Crossref]

Franke, S. J.

X. Chu, C. S. Gardner, and S. J. Franke, “Nocturnal thermal structure of the MLT region at Maui, HI (20.7°N) and Starfire Optical Range, NM (35°N),” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D09S03 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. J. Franke, X. Chu, A. Z. Liu, and W. K. Hocking, “Comparison of meteor radar and Na Doppler lidar measurements of winds in the mesopause region above Maui, Hawaii,” J. Geophys. Res. 110(D9), D09S02 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Z. Liu, W. K. Hocking, S. J. Franke, and T. Thayaparan, “Comparison of Na lidar and meteor radar wind measurements at Starfire Optical Range, NM, USA,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 64(1), 31–40 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fricke, K. H.

K. H. Fricke and U. von Zahn, “Mesopause temperature derived from probing the hyperfine structure of the D2 resonance line of sodium by lidar,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 47(5), 499–512 (1985).
[Crossref]

Fujii, R.

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fujiwara, H.

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gardner, C. S.

W. Huang, X. Chu, C. S. Gardner, J. D. Carrillo-Sánchez, W. Feng, J. M. C. Plane, and D. Nesvorný, “Measurements of the vertical fluxes of atomic Fe and Na at the mesopause: Implications for the velocity of cosmic dust entering the atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(1), 169–175 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. S. Gardner and A. Z. Liu, “Seasonal variations of the vertical fluxes of heat and horizontal momentum in the mesopause region at Starfire Optical Range, New Mexico,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D9), D09113 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Chu, C. S. Gardner, and S. J. Franke, “Nocturnal thermal structure of the MLT region at Maui, HI (20.7°N) and Starfire Optical Range, NM (35°N),” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D09S03 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Y. She, H. Latifi, J. R. Yu, R. J. Alvarez, R. E. Bills, and C. S. Gardner, “Two-Frequency Lidar Technique for Mesospheric Na Temperature Measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17(7), 929–932 (1990).
[Crossref]

B. M. Welsh and C. S. Gardner, “Nonlinear resonant absorption effects on the design of resonance fluorescence lidars and laser guide stars,” Appl. Opt. 28(19), 4141–4153 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gerbier, F.

Gong, J.

X. Hu, Z. A. Yan, S. Y. Guo, Y. Cheng, and J. Gong, “Sodium fluorescence Doppler lidar to measure atmospheric temperature in the mesopause region,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 56(4-5), 417–423 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gu, S.-Y.

Guo, S. Y.

X. Hu, Z. A. Yan, S. Y. Guo, Y. Cheng, and J. Gong, “Sodium fluorescence Doppler lidar to measure atmospheric temperature in the mesopause region,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 56(4-5), 417–423 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hall, C. M.

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, T. Takahashi, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. Nakamura, and A. Brekke, “A sporadic sodium layer event detected with five-directional lidar and simultaneous wind, electron density, and electric field observation at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(21), 9190–9196 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

Harrell, S. D.

Hocking, W. K.

S. J. Franke, X. Chu, A. Z. Liu, and W. K. Hocking, “Comparison of meteor radar and Na Doppler lidar measurements of winds in the mesopause region above Maui, Hawaii,” J. Geophys. Res. 110(D9), D09S02 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Z. Liu, W. K. Hocking, S. J. Franke, and T. Thayaparan, “Comparison of Na lidar and meteor radar wind measurements at Starfire Optical Range, NM, USA,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 64(1), 31–40 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hu, X.

X. Hu, Z. A. Yan, S. Y. Guo, Y. Cheng, and J. Gong, “Sodium fluorescence Doppler lidar to measure atmospheric temperature in the mesopause region,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 56(4-5), 417–423 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, W.

W. Huang, X. Chu, C. S. Gardner, J. D. Carrillo-Sánchez, W. Feng, J. M. C. Plane, and D. Nesvorný, “Measurements of the vertical fluxes of atomic Fe and Na at the mesopause: Implications for the velocity of cosmic dust entering the atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(1), 169–175 (2015).
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J. A. Smith, X. Chu, W. Huang, and B. Tan, “Applications of spectral analysis and filter design in laser frequency locking for Na Doppler lidar,” Opt. Eng. 48(10), 104301 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. A. Smith, X. Chu, W. Huang, and J. Wiig, “LabVIEW-based laser frequency stabilization system with phase-sensitive detection servo loop for Doppler LIDAR applications,” Opt. Eng. 47(11), 114201 (2008).
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Kawabata, T.

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, T. Takahashi, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. Nakamura, and A. Brekke, “A sporadic sodium layer event detected with five-directional lidar and simultaneous wind, electron density, and electric field observation at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(21), 9190–9196 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kawahara, T. D.

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, T. Takahashi, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. Nakamura, and A. Brekke, “A sporadic sodium layer event detected with five-directional lidar and simultaneous wind, electron density, and electric field observation at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(21), 9190–9196 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Yuan, C.-Y. She, T. D. Kawahara, and D. A. Krueger, “Seasonal variations of midlatitude mesospheric Na layer and their tidal period perturbations based on full diurnal cycle Na lidar observations of 2002-2008,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(D11), D11304 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, and A. Nomura, “Sodium temperature lidar based on injection seeded Nd:YAG pulse lasers using a sum-frequency generation technique,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3553–3561 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Ejiri, T. Nakamura, and T. D. Kawahara, “Seasonal variation of nocturnal temperature and sodium density in the mesopause region observed by a resonance scatter lidar over Uji, Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D18), D18126 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Yue, C.-Y. She, B. P. Williams, J. D. Vance, P. E. Acott, and T. D. Kawahara, “Continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation generated in single-pass sum-frequency generation with periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1093–1095 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. She, J. D. Vance, T. D. Kawahara, B. P. Williams, and Q. Wu, “A proposed all-solid-state transportable narrow-band sodium lidar for mesopause region temperature and horizontal wind measurements,” Can. J. Phys. 85(2), 111–118 (2007).
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C. Y. She, J. Sherman, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, K. Arnold, T. D. Kawahara, T. Li, L. F. Xu, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, and D. A. Krueger, “The first 80-hour continuous lidar campaign for simultaneous observation of mesopause region temperature and wind,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(6), 1319–1323 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, and M. Tsutsumi, “Wintertime mesopause temperatures observed by lidar measurements over Syowa station (69 °S, 39 °E), Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(15), 1709 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kitahara, T.

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, and A. Nomura, “Sodium temperature lidar based on injection seeded Nd:YAG pulse lasers using a sum-frequency generation technique,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3553–3561 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, and M. Tsutsumi, “Wintertime mesopause temperatures observed by lidar measurements over Syowa station (69 °S, 39 °E), Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(15), 1709 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, F.

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, and A. Nomura, “Sodium temperature lidar based on injection seeded Nd:YAG pulse lasers using a sum-frequency generation technique,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3553–3561 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, and M. Tsutsumi, “Wintertime mesopause temperatures observed by lidar measurements over Syowa station (69 °S, 39 °E), Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(15), 1709 (2002).
[Crossref]

Krueger, D. A.

T. Yuan, C.-Y. She, T. D. Kawahara, and D. A. Krueger, “Seasonal variations of midlatitude mesospheric Na layer and their tidal period perturbations based on full diurnal cycle Na lidar observations of 2002-2008,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(D11), D11304 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Yuan, J. Yue, C.-Y. She, J. P. Sherman, M. A. White, S. D. Harrell, P. E. Acott, and D. A. Krueger, “Wind-bias correction method for narrowband sodium Doppler lidars using iodine absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 48(20), 3988–3993 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. She, J. Sherman, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, K. Arnold, T. D. Kawahara, T. Li, L. F. Xu, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, and D. A. Krueger, “The first 80-hour continuous lidar campaign for simultaneous observation of mesopause region temperature and wind,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(6), 1319–1323 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, and M. Tsutsumi, “Wintertime mesopause temperatures observed by lidar measurements over Syowa station (69 °S, 39 °E), Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(15), 1709 (2002).
[Crossref]

Latifi, H.

C. Y. She, H. Latifi, J. R. Yu, R. J. Alvarez, R. E. Bills, and C. S. Gardner, “Two-Frequency Lidar Technique for Mesospheric Na Temperature Measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17(7), 929–932 (1990).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

X. Lu, X. Chu, H. Li, C. Chen, J. A. Smith, and S. Vadas, “Statistical characterization of high-tomedium frequency mesoscale gravity waves by lidar-measured vertical winds and temperatures in the MLT,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys.in press.

Li, T.

T. Li, X. Fang, W. Liu, S.-Y. Gu, and X. Dou, “Narrowband sodium lidar for the measurements of mesopause region temperature and wind,” Appl. Opt. 51(22), 5401–5411 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. She, J. Sherman, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, K. Arnold, T. D. Kawahara, T. Li, L. F. Xu, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, and D. A. Krueger, “The first 80-hour continuous lidar campaign for simultaneous observation of mesopause region temperature and wind,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(6), 1319–1323 (2003).
[Crossref]

Liu, A. Z.

C. S. Gardner and A. Z. Liu, “Seasonal variations of the vertical fluxes of heat and horizontal momentum in the mesopause region at Starfire Optical Range, New Mexico,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D9), D09113 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. J. Franke, X. Chu, A. Z. Liu, and W. K. Hocking, “Comparison of meteor radar and Na Doppler lidar measurements of winds in the mesopause region above Maui, Hawaii,” J. Geophys. Res. 110(D9), D09S02 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Z. Liu, W. K. Hocking, S. J. Franke, and T. Thayaparan, “Comparison of Na lidar and meteor radar wind measurements at Starfire Optical Range, NM, USA,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 64(1), 31–40 (2002).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

Lu, X.

X. Lu, X. Chu, H. Li, C. Chen, J. A. Smith, and S. Vadas, “Statistical characterization of high-tomedium frequency mesoscale gravity waves by lidar-measured vertical winds and temperatures in the MLT,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys.in press.

Megie, G.

G. Megie, F. Bos, J. E. Blamont, and M. L. Chanin, “Simultaneous nighttime lidar measurements of atmospheric sodium and potassium,” Planet. Space Sci. 26(1), 27–35 (1978).
[Crossref]

Mimoun, E.

Nakamura, T.

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, T. Takahashi, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. Nakamura, and A. Brekke, “A sporadic sodium layer event detected with five-directional lidar and simultaneous wind, electron density, and electric field observation at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(21), 9190–9196 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. K. Ejiri, T. Nakamura, and T. D. Kawahara, “Seasonal variation of nocturnal temperature and sodium density in the mesopause region observed by a resonance scatter lidar over Uji, Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D18), D18126 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nesvorný, D.

W. Huang, X. Chu, C. S. Gardner, J. D. Carrillo-Sánchez, W. Feng, J. M. C. Plane, and D. Nesvorný, “Measurements of the vertical fluxes of atomic Fe and Na at the mesopause: Implications for the velocity of cosmic dust entering the atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(1), 169–175 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nishiyama, T.

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, T. Takahashi, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. Nakamura, and A. Brekke, “A sporadic sodium layer event detected with five-directional lidar and simultaneous wind, electron density, and electric field observation at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(21), 9190–9196 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nomura, A.

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, and A. Nomura, “Sodium temperature lidar based on injection seeded Nd:YAG pulse lasers using a sum-frequency generation technique,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3553–3561 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, and M. Tsutsumi, “Wintertime mesopause temperatures observed by lidar measurements over Syowa station (69 °S, 39 °E), Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(15), 1709 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nozawa, S.

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, T. Takahashi, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. Nakamura, and A. Brekke, “A sporadic sodium layer event detected with five-directional lidar and simultaneous wind, electron density, and electric field observation at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(21), 9190–9196 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ogawa, Y.

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, T. Takahashi, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. Nakamura, and A. Brekke, “A sporadic sodium layer event detected with five-directional lidar and simultaneous wind, electron density, and electric field observation at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(21), 9190–9196 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

Oyama, S.

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, T. Takahashi, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. Nakamura, and A. Brekke, “A sporadic sodium layer event detected with five-directional lidar and simultaneous wind, electron density, and electric field observation at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(21), 9190–9196 (2015).
[Crossref]

Plane, J. M. C.

W. Huang, X. Chu, C. S. Gardner, J. D. Carrillo-Sánchez, W. Feng, J. M. C. Plane, and D. Nesvorný, “Measurements of the vertical fluxes of atomic Fe and Na at the mesopause: Implications for the velocity of cosmic dust entering the atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(1), 169–175 (2015).
[Crossref]

Saito, N.

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, T. Takahashi, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. Nakamura, and A. Brekke, “A sporadic sodium layer event detected with five-directional lidar and simultaneous wind, electron density, and electric field observation at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(21), 9190–9196 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

Saito, Y.

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, and A. Nomura, “Sodium temperature lidar based on injection seeded Nd:YAG pulse lasers using a sum-frequency generation technique,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3553–3561 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, and M. Tsutsumi, “Wintertime mesopause temperatures observed by lidar measurements over Syowa station (69 °S, 39 °E), Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(15), 1709 (2002).
[Crossref]

She, C. Y.

C. Y. She, J. Sherman, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, K. Arnold, T. D. Kawahara, T. Li, L. F. Xu, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, and D. A. Krueger, “The first 80-hour continuous lidar campaign for simultaneous observation of mesopause region temperature and wind,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(6), 1319–1323 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. Y. She, H. Latifi, J. R. Yu, R. J. Alvarez, R. E. Bills, and C. S. Gardner, “Two-Frequency Lidar Technique for Mesospheric Na Temperature Measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17(7), 929–932 (1990).
[Crossref]

She, C.-Y.

T. Yuan, C.-Y. She, T. D. Kawahara, and D. A. Krueger, “Seasonal variations of midlatitude mesospheric Na layer and their tidal period perturbations based on full diurnal cycle Na lidar observations of 2002-2008,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(D11), D11304 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Yue, C.-Y. She, B. P. Williams, J. D. Vance, P. E. Acott, and T. D. Kawahara, “Continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation generated in single-pass sum-frequency generation with periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1093–1095 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yuan, J. Yue, C.-Y. She, J. P. Sherman, M. A. White, S. D. Harrell, P. E. Acott, and D. A. Krueger, “Wind-bias correction method for narrowband sodium Doppler lidars using iodine absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 48(20), 3988–3993 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. She, J. D. Vance, T. D. Kawahara, B. P. Williams, and Q. Wu, “A proposed all-solid-state transportable narrow-band sodium lidar for mesopause region temperature and horizontal wind measurements,” Can. J. Phys. 85(2), 111–118 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, and M. Tsutsumi, “Wintertime mesopause temperatures observed by lidar measurements over Syowa station (69 °S, 39 °E), Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(15), 1709 (2002).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. She and J. R. Yu, “Doppler-free saturation fluorescence spectroscopy of Na atoms for atmospheric application,” Appl. Opt. 34(6), 1063–1075 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. She and J. R. Yu, “Simultaneous three-frequency Na lidar measurements of radial wind and temperature in the mesopause region,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21(17), 1771–1774 (1994).
[Crossref]

Sherman, J.

C. Y. She, J. Sherman, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, K. Arnold, T. D. Kawahara, T. Li, L. F. Xu, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, and D. A. Krueger, “The first 80-hour continuous lidar campaign for simultaneous observation of mesopause region temperature and wind,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(6), 1319–1323 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sherman, J. P.

Shunsheng, G.

Simonich, D.

B. Clemesha, D. Simonich, and P. Batista, “Sodium lidar measurements of mesopause region temperatures at 23°S,” Adv. Space Res. 47(7), 1165–1171 (2011).
[Crossref]

Smith, J. A.

J. A. Smith and X. Chu, “High-efficiency receiver architecture for resonance-fluorescence and Doppler lidars,” Appl. Opt. 54(11), 3173–3184 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Smith, X. Chu, W. Huang, and B. Tan, “Applications of spectral analysis and filter design in laser frequency locking for Na Doppler lidar,” Opt. Eng. 48(10), 104301 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. A. Smith, X. Chu, W. Huang, and J. Wiig, “LabVIEW-based laser frequency stabilization system with phase-sensitive detection servo loop for Doppler LIDAR applications,” Opt. Eng. 47(11), 114201 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. Lu, X. Chu, H. Li, C. Chen, J. A. Smith, and S. Vadas, “Statistical characterization of high-tomedium frequency mesoscale gravity waves by lidar-measured vertical winds and temperatures in the MLT,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys.in press.

Takahashi, T.

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, T. Takahashi, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. Nakamura, and A. Brekke, “A sporadic sodium layer event detected with five-directional lidar and simultaneous wind, electron density, and electric field observation at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(21), 9190–9196 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tan, B.

J. A. Smith, X. Chu, W. Huang, and B. Tan, “Applications of spectral analysis and filter design in laser frequency locking for Na Doppler lidar,” Opt. Eng. 48(10), 104301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Thayaparan, T.

A. Z. Liu, W. K. Hocking, S. J. Franke, and T. Thayaparan, “Comparison of Na lidar and meteor radar wind measurements at Starfire Optical Range, NM, USA,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 64(1), 31–40 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tsuda, T. T.

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, T. Takahashi, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. Nakamura, and A. Brekke, “A sporadic sodium layer event detected with five-directional lidar and simultaneous wind, electron density, and electric field observation at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(21), 9190–9196 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tsutsumi, M.

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, T. Takahashi, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. Nakamura, and A. Brekke, “A sporadic sodium layer event detected with five-directional lidar and simultaneous wind, electron density, and electric field observation at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(21), 9190–9196 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, and M. Tsutsumi, “Wintertime mesopause temperatures observed by lidar measurements over Syowa station (69 °S, 39 °E), Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(15), 1709 (2002).
[Crossref]

Vadas, S.

X. Lu, X. Chu, H. Li, C. Chen, J. A. Smith, and S. Vadas, “Statistical characterization of high-tomedium frequency mesoscale gravity waves by lidar-measured vertical winds and temperatures in the MLT,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys.in press.

Vance, J. D.

J. Yue, C.-Y. She, B. P. Williams, J. D. Vance, P. E. Acott, and T. D. Kawahara, “Continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation generated in single-pass sum-frequency generation with periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1093–1095 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. She, J. D. Vance, T. D. Kawahara, B. P. Williams, and Q. Wu, “A proposed all-solid-state transportable narrow-band sodium lidar for mesopause region temperature and horizontal wind measurements,” Can. J. Phys. 85(2), 111–118 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Y. She, J. Sherman, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, K. Arnold, T. D. Kawahara, T. Li, L. F. Xu, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, and D. A. Krueger, “The first 80-hour continuous lidar campaign for simultaneous observation of mesopause region temperature and wind,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(6), 1319–1323 (2003).
[Crossref]

von der Gathen, P.

P. von der Gathen, “Saturation effects in Na lidar temperature measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 96(A3), 3679–3690 (1991).
[Crossref]

von Zahn, U.

K. H. Fricke and U. von Zahn, “Mesopause temperature derived from probing the hyperfine structure of the D2 resonance line of sodium by lidar,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 47(5), 499–512 (1985).
[Crossref]

Wada, S.

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, T. Takahashi, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. Nakamura, and A. Brekke, “A sporadic sodium layer event detected with five-directional lidar and simultaneous wind, electron density, and electric field observation at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(21), 9190–9196 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

L. Du, G. Yang, J. Wang, C. Yue, and L. Chen, “Implementing a wind measurement Doppler Lidar based on a molecular iodine filter to monitor the atmospheric wind field over Beijing,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 188, 3–11 (2017).
[Crossref]

Welsh, B. M.

White, M. A.

Wiig, J.

J. A. Smith, X. Chu, W. Huang, and J. Wiig, “LabVIEW-based laser frequency stabilization system with phase-sensitive detection servo loop for Doppler LIDAR applications,” Opt. Eng. 47(11), 114201 (2008).
[Crossref]

Williams, B. P.

J. Yue, C.-Y. She, B. P. Williams, J. D. Vance, P. E. Acott, and T. D. Kawahara, “Continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation generated in single-pass sum-frequency generation with periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1093–1095 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. She, J. D. Vance, T. D. Kawahara, B. P. Williams, and Q. Wu, “A proposed all-solid-state transportable narrow-band sodium lidar for mesopause region temperature and horizontal wind measurements,” Can. J. Phys. 85(2), 111–118 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Y. She, J. Sherman, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, K. Arnold, T. D. Kawahara, T. Li, L. F. Xu, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, and D. A. Krueger, “The first 80-hour continuous lidar campaign for simultaneous observation of mesopause region temperature and wind,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(6), 1319–1323 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wu, Q.

C.-Y. She, J. D. Vance, T. D. Kawahara, B. P. Williams, and Q. Wu, “A proposed all-solid-state transportable narrow-band sodium lidar for mesopause region temperature and horizontal wind measurements,” Can. J. Phys. 85(2), 111–118 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xin, L.

Xiong, H.

Xu, L. F.

C. Y. She, J. Sherman, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, K. Arnold, T. D. Kawahara, T. Li, L. F. Xu, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, and D. A. Krueger, “The first 80-hour continuous lidar campaign for simultaneous observation of mesopause region temperature and wind,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(6), 1319–1323 (2003).
[Crossref]

Xuewu, C.

Yan, Z. A.

X. Hu, Z. A. Yan, S. Y. Guo, Y. Cheng, and J. Gong, “Sodium fluorescence Doppler lidar to measure atmospheric temperature in the mesopause region,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 56(4-5), 417–423 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, G.

L. Du, G. Yang, J. Wang, C. Yue, and L. Chen, “Implementing a wind measurement Doppler Lidar based on a molecular iodine filter to monitor the atmospheric wind field over Beijing,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 188, 3–11 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yong, Y.

Yu, J. R.

C.-Y. She and J. R. Yu, “Doppler-free saturation fluorescence spectroscopy of Na atoms for atmospheric application,” Appl. Opt. 34(6), 1063–1075 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. She and J. R. Yu, “Simultaneous three-frequency Na lidar measurements of radial wind and temperature in the mesopause region,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21(17), 1771–1774 (1994).
[Crossref]

C. Y. She, H. Latifi, J. R. Yu, R. J. Alvarez, R. E. Bills, and C. S. Gardner, “Two-Frequency Lidar Technique for Mesospheric Na Temperature Measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17(7), 929–932 (1990).
[Crossref]

Yuan, T.

T. Yuan, C.-Y. She, T. D. Kawahara, and D. A. Krueger, “Seasonal variations of midlatitude mesospheric Na layer and their tidal period perturbations based on full diurnal cycle Na lidar observations of 2002-2008,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(D11), D11304 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Yuan, J. Yue, C.-Y. She, J. P. Sherman, M. A. White, S. D. Harrell, P. E. Acott, and D. A. Krueger, “Wind-bias correction method for narrowband sodium Doppler lidars using iodine absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 48(20), 3988–3993 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. She, J. Sherman, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, K. Arnold, T. D. Kawahara, T. Li, L. F. Xu, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, and D. A. Krueger, “The first 80-hour continuous lidar campaign for simultaneous observation of mesopause region temperature and wind,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(6), 1319–1323 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yue, C.

L. Du, G. Yang, J. Wang, C. Yue, and L. Chen, “Implementing a wind measurement Doppler Lidar based on a molecular iodine filter to monitor the atmospheric wind field over Beijing,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 188, 3–11 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yue, J.

Zondy, J. J.

Adv. Space Res. (1)

B. Clemesha, D. Simonich, and P. Batista, “Sodium lidar measurements of mesopause region temperatures at 23°S,” Adv. Space Res. 47(7), 1165–1171 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Can. J. Phys. (1)

C.-Y. She, J. D. Vance, T. D. Kawahara, B. P. Williams, and Q. Wu, “A proposed all-solid-state transportable narrow-band sodium lidar for mesopause region temperature and horizontal wind measurements,” Can. J. Phys. 85(2), 111–118 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chin. Sci. Bull. (1)

X. Hu, Z. A. Yan, S. Y. Guo, Y. Cheng, and J. Gong, “Sodium fluorescence Doppler lidar to measure atmospheric temperature in the mesopause region,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 56(4-5), 417–423 (2011).
[Crossref]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (6)

W. Huang, X. Chu, C. S. Gardner, J. D. Carrillo-Sánchez, W. Feng, J. M. C. Plane, and D. Nesvorný, “Measurements of the vertical fluxes of atomic Fe and Na at the mesopause: Implications for the velocity of cosmic dust entering the atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(1), 169–175 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, Y. Ogawa, S. Oyama, T. Takahashi, M. K. Ejiri, T. Nishiyama, T. Nakamura, and A. Brekke, “A sporadic sodium layer event detected with five-directional lidar and simultaneous wind, electron density, and electric field observation at Tromsø, Norway,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(21), 9190–9196 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Y. She, H. Latifi, J. R. Yu, R. J. Alvarez, R. E. Bills, and C. S. Gardner, “Two-Frequency Lidar Technique for Mesospheric Na Temperature Measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17(7), 929–932 (1990).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. She and J. R. Yu, “Simultaneous three-frequency Na lidar measurements of radial wind and temperature in the mesopause region,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21(17), 1771–1774 (1994).
[Crossref]

T. D. Kawahara, T. Kitahara, F. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, C.-Y. She, D. A. Krueger, and M. Tsutsumi, “Wintertime mesopause temperatures observed by lidar measurements over Syowa station (69 °S, 39 °E), Antarctica,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(15), 1709 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Y. She, J. Sherman, T. Yuan, B. P. Williams, K. Arnold, T. D. Kawahara, T. Li, L. F. Xu, J. D. Vance, P. Acott, and D. A. Krueger, “The first 80-hour continuous lidar campaign for simultaneous observation of mesopause region temperature and wind,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(6), 1319–1323 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. (1)

A. Z. Liu, W. K. Hocking, S. J. Franke, and T. Thayaparan, “Comparison of Na lidar and meteor radar wind measurements at Starfire Optical Range, NM, USA,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 64(1), 31–40 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. (1)

K. H. Fricke and U. von Zahn, “Mesopause temperature derived from probing the hyperfine structure of the D2 resonance line of sodium by lidar,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 47(5), 499–512 (1985).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. (8)

M. K. Ejiri, T. Nakamura, and T. D. Kawahara, “Seasonal variation of nocturnal temperature and sodium density in the mesopause region observed by a resonance scatter lidar over Uji, Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D18), D18126 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Yuan, C.-Y. She, T. D. Kawahara, and D. A. Krueger, “Seasonal variations of midlatitude mesospheric Na layer and their tidal period perturbations based on full diurnal cycle Na lidar observations of 2002-2008,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(D11), D11304 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Chu, C. S. Gardner, and S. J. Franke, “Nocturnal thermal structure of the MLT region at Maui, HI (20.7°N) and Starfire Optical Range, NM (35°N),” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D09S03 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, N. Saito, C. M. Hall, T. T. Tsuda, T. Kawabata, S. Wada, A. Brekke, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, Y. Ogawa, and R. Fujii, “Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Tromsø during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 119(1), 441–451 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. J. Franke, X. Chu, A. Z. Liu, and W. K. Hocking, “Comparison of meteor radar and Na Doppler lidar measurements of winds in the mesopause region above Maui, Hawaii,” J. Geophys. Res. 110(D9), D09S02 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. von der Gathen, “Saturation effects in Na lidar temperature measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 96(A3), 3679–3690 (1991).
[Crossref]

C. S. Gardner and A. Z. Liu, “Seasonal variations of the vertical fluxes of heat and horizontal momentum in the mesopause region at Starfire Optical Range, New Mexico,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D9), D09113 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

L. Du, G. Yang, J. Wang, C. Yue, and L. Chen, “Implementing a wind measurement Doppler Lidar based on a molecular iodine filter to monitor the atmospheric wind field over Beijing,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 188, 3–11 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (2)

J. A. Smith, X. Chu, W. Huang, and J. Wiig, “LabVIEW-based laser frequency stabilization system with phase-sensitive detection servo loop for Doppler LIDAR applications,” Opt. Eng. 47(11), 114201 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. A. Smith, X. Chu, W. Huang, and B. Tan, “Applications of spectral analysis and filter design in laser frequency locking for Na Doppler lidar,” Opt. Eng. 48(10), 104301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Planet. Space Sci. (1)

G. Megie, F. Bos, J. E. Blamont, and M. L. Chanin, “Simultaneous nighttime lidar measurements of atmospheric sodium and potassium,” Planet. Space Sci. 26(1), 27–35 (1978).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

J. Yu, W. Yang, and C. S. Gardner, “A Novel Acousto-optic Modulation Technique for Na Wind/Temperature Lidars,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann et al., eds. (1997), pp. 573–576.

X. Z. Chu and G. Papen, “Resonance fluorescence lidar for measurements of the middle and upper atmosphere,” in Laser Remote Sensing, T. Fujii and T. Fukuchi, eds. (CRC, 2005).

T. Li, “Sodium lidar observed variability in mesopause region temperature and horizontal wind: Planetary wave influence and tidal-gravity wave interactions,” Ph.D. Dissertation (Colorado State University, 2005).

X. Lu, X. Chu, H. Li, C. Chen, J. A. Smith, and S. Vadas, “Statistical characterization of high-tomedium frequency mesoscale gravity waves by lidar-measured vertical winds and temperatures in the MLT,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys.in press.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic setup of the newly designed Na Doppler lidar system.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Absolute laser frequency control and locking subunit. WG-PPLN: PPLN waveguide mixer. F: 589 nm optical filter to separate the sum-generated 589 nm laser light from the unconverted part of the infrared laser beams. C: collimating lens. HWP: half-wave plate to control the ratio of the pumping beam and probing beam. M1, M2 and M3: reflecting mirrors. PBS1 and PBS2: polarizing beam splitting cubes. BS1 and BS2: beam splitters. PD1 and PD2: photodiodes. FC: fiber coupler. DAQ: Data Acquisition Card. TC: temperature control. The blue, yellow and green lines in Na Doppler-free saturation-absorption setup designate the strong pump beam, the weak probe beam and the reference beam, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Working procedure of sum-generated 589 nm laser frequency control and locking.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Na D2 absorption spectrum. Blue line: Doppler-limited absorption spectrum; red line: saturation-absorption spectrum. (b) The differential signal of saturation-absorption and Doppler-limited absorption. (c) D2a transition signal (solid red line) with higher spectral resolution by tuning the voltage of PZT that changes the cavity length of 1064 nm laser, providing distinct Doppler-free features for absolute frequency discrimination. The spectrum data near peak is linear fitted (black dotted line).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Subprogram flowchart of laser frequency compensation employed in LabVIEW program.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Normalized Doppler-free saturation-absorption signal recorded over time when the seed laser is locked to Na D2a peak. (b) PZT voltage of 1064 laser cavity simultaneously recorded over time.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 All-fiber-coupled three-frequency switching subunit for cyclical measurement among fa, f+ = fa + δf and f- = fa - δf, where δf = 585 MHz.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Measured temperature structures of the mesopause region at (a) UT 14:30 on 19 September, and (b) UT 16:50 on 31 October, 2016. The black solid lines with error bars denote the results obtained by the Na lidar and the red asterisks indicate the SABER temperature. The lidar data were integrated using ~16 min temporal resolution and 1.8 km spatial resolution.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Vertical wind measurements on Oct.31, 2016. The color curves represent the 1 hour integrated profiles from 16:30 UT to 22:30 UT, and the black curve is the nightly-mean result.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Comparison of meridional and zonal wind profiles measured by the new lidar and meteor radar over Beijing at UT 16:00 on 19 September (a-b) and UT 13:00 on 11 October (c-d) 2016. The solid lines with error bars represent the lidar profiles and the radar results are marked with circles.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 (a-b) Meridional and (c-d) zonal winds simultaneously measured by lidar and meteor radar on the night of 31 October 2016.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 System parameters of the lidar system.

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Table 2 The main parameters of the seed laser sources.

Equations (3)

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D= V p0 S p S t
Δf= S p S s e
Δγ= c 2nL

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