Abstract

In this study, a new global earth system model is introduced for evaluating the optical performance of space instruments. Simultaneous imaging and spectroscopic results are provided using this global earth system model with fully resolved spatial, spectral, and temporal coverage of sub-models of the Earth. The sun sub-model is a Lambertian scattering sphere with a 6-h scale and 295 lines of solar spectral irradiance. The atmospheric sub-model has a 15-layer three-dimensional (3D) ellipsoid structure. The land sub-model uses spectral bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF) defined by a semi-empirical parametric kernel model. The ocean is modeled with the ocean spectral albedo after subtracting the total integrated scattering of the sun-glint scatter model. A hypothetical two-mirror Cassegrain telescope with a 300-mm-diameter aperture and 21.504 mm × 21.504-mm focal plane imaging instrument is designed. The simulated image results are compared with observational data from HRI-VIS measurements during the EPOXI mission for approximately 24 h from UTC Mar. 18, 2008. Next, the defocus mapping result and edge spread function (ESF) measuring result show that the distance between the primary and secondary mirror increases by 55.498 μm from the diffraction-limited condition. The shift of the focal plane is determined to be 5.813 mm shorter than that of the defocused focal plane, and this result is confirmed through the estimation of point spread function (PSF) measurements. This study shows that the earth system model combined with an instrument model is a powerful tool that can greatly help the development phase of instrument missions.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (2)

S. Sarkar, A. Papageorgiou, and E. Pascale, “Exploring the potential of the ExoSim simulator for transit spectroscopy noise estimation,” Proc. SPIE 9904, 99043R (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Emde, R. Buras-Schnell, A. Kylling, B. Mayer, J. Gasteiger, U. Hamann, J. Kylling, B. Richter, C. Pause, T. Dowling, and L. Bugliaro, “The libRadtran software package for radiative transfer calculations (version 2.0. 1),” Geosci. Model Dev. 9(5), 1647–1672 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

J. N. Choi, D. Ryu, S.-W. Kim, D. W. Kim, P. Su, R. Huang, Y.-S. Kim, and H.-S. Yang, “Integrated Ray Tracing simulation of the SCOTS surface measurement test for the GMT Fast Steering Mirror Prototype,” Adv. Space Res. 56(11), 2483–2494 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

A. Berk, P. Conforti, R. Kennett, T. Perkins, F. Hawes, and J. van den Bosch, “MODTRAN6: a major upgrade of the MODTRAN radiative transfer code,” Proc. SPIE 9088, 90880H (2014).
[Crossref]

R. P. Breault, S.-W. Kim, S.-K. Yang, and D. Ryu, “Sun-, Earth-and Moon-integrated simulation ray tracing for observation from space using ASAP,” Proc. SPIE 9189, 91890F (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

S. Kraft, J.-L. Bézy, U. Del Bello, R. Berlich, M. Drusch, R. Franco, A. Gabriele, B. Harnisch, R. Meynart, and P. Silvestrin, “FLORIS: Phase a status of the fluorescence imaging spectrometer of the Earth explorer mission candidate FLEX,” Proc. SPIE 8889, 88890T (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

D. Ryu, S.-W. Kim, and S. Seong, “Improved atmospheric 3D BSDF model in earthlike exoplanet using ray-tracing based method,” Proc. SPIE 8521, 85210F (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (6)

J. Piskozub and D. McKee, “Effective scattering phase functions for the multiple scattering regime,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4786–4794 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Fujii, H. Kawahara, Y. Suto, S. Fukuda, T. Nakajima, T. A. Livengood, and E. L. Turner, “Colors of a second Earth. II. Effects of clouds on photometric characterization of Earth-like exoplanets,” Astrophys. J. 738(2), 184–199 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. E. Krist, R. N. Hook, and F. Stoehr, “20 years of Hubble Space Telescope optical modeling using Tiny Tim,” Proc. SPIE 8127, 81270J (2011).
[Crossref]

T. D. Robinson, V. S. Meadows, D. Crisp, D. Deming, M. F. A’hearn, D. Charbonneau, T. A. Livengood, S. Seager, R. K. Barry, T. Hearty, T. Hewagama, C. M. Lisse, L. A. McFadden, and D. D. Wellnitz, “Earth as an extrasolar planet: earth model validation using EPOXI earth observations,” Astrobiology 11(5), 393–408 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Livengood, L. D. Deming, M. F. A’hearn, D. Charbonneau, T. Hewagama, C. M. Lisse, L. A. McFadden, V. S. Meadows, T. D. Robinson, S. Seager, and D. D. Wellnitz, “Properties of an Earth-like planet orbiting a Sun-like star: Earth observed by the EPOXI mission,” Astrobiology 11(9), 907–930 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhuo and T. Sim, “Defocus map estimation from a single image,” Pattern Recognit. 44(9), 1852–1858 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

Y. Fujii, H. Kawahara, Y. Suto, A. Taruya, S. Fukuda, T. Nakajima, and E. L. Turner, “Colors of a second Earth: estimating the fractional areas of ocean, land, and vegetation of Earth-like exoplanets,” Astrophys. J. 715(2), 866–880 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Barry, D. Lindler, L. Deming, M. A’Hearn, S. Ballard, B. Carcich, D. Charbonneau, J. Christiansen, T. Hewagama, L. McFadden, and D. Wellnitz, “Development and utilization of a point spread function for the Extrasolar Planet Observation and Characterization/Deep Impact Extended Investigation (EPOXI) mission,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 77313D (2010).
[Crossref]

S. A. Cota, J. T. Bell, R. H. Boucher, T. E. Dutton, C. J. Florio, G. A. Franz, T. J. Grycewicz, L. S. Kalman, R. A. Keller, and T. S. Lomheim, “PICASSO: an end-to-end image simulation tool for space and airborne imaging systems,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 4(1), 043535 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Ryu, S.-W. Kim, D. W. Kim, J.-M. Lee, H. Lee, W. H. Park, S. Seong, and S.-J. Ham, “Integrated ray tracing simulation of annual variation of spectral bio-signatures from cloud free 3D optical earth model,” Proc. SPIE 7819, 78190E (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

D. Ryu, S. Seong, J.-M. Lee, J. Hong, S. Jeong, Y. Jeong, and S.-W. Kim, “Integrated ray tracing simulation of spectral bio-signatures from full 3D earth model,” Proc. SPIE 7441, 74410A (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Seong, J. Yu, D. Ryu, J. Hong, J.-Y. Yoon, S.-W. Kim, J.-H. Lee, and M.-J. Shin, “Imaging and radiometric performance simulation for a new high-performance dual-band airborne reconnaissance camera,” Proc. SPIE 7452, 74520F (2009).

2008 (2)

N. Pfeiffer and G. H. Chapman, “Successive order, multiple scattering of two-term Henyey-Greenstein phase functions,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13637–13642 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. P. Klaasen, M. F. A’Hearn, M. Baca, A. Delamere, M. Desnoyer, T. Farnham, O. Groussin, D. Hampton, S. Ipatov, J. Li, C. Lisse, N. Mastrodemos, S. McLaughlin, J. Sunshine, P. Thomas, and D. Wellnitz, “Invited Article: Deep Impact instrument calibration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(9), 091301 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

J. Lee, W. H. Park, S.-J. Ham, H.-S. Yi, J. Y. Yoon, S.-W. Kim, K.-H. Choi, Z. C. Kim, and M. Lockwood, “Integrated ray tracing model for end-to-end performance verification of Amon-Ra instrument,” J. Astron. Space Sci. 24(1), 69–78 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Kümmel, H. Kuntschner, and J. Walsh, “Simulating Slitless Spectroscopic Images with aXeSIM,” Space Telescope Euro. Coord. Fac. Newsletter 43(1), 8–10 (2007).

2006 (4)

G. Tinetti, V. S. Meadows, D. Crisp, W. Fong, E. Fishbein, M. Turnbull, and J.-P. Bibring, “Detectability of planetary characteristics in disk-averaged spectra. I: The Earth model,” Astrobiology 6(1), 34–47 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Tinetti, V. S. Meadows, D. Crisp, N. Y. Kiang, B. H. Kahn, E. Bosc, E. Fishbein, T. Velusamy, and M. Turnbull, “Detectability of planetary characteristics in disk-averaged spectra II: Synthetic spectra and light-curves of earth,” Astrobiology 6(6), 881–900 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. P. Lorente, A. C. Glasse, G. S. Wright, and M. García-Marín, “Specsim: the MIRI medium resolution spectrometer simulator,” Proc. SPIE 6274, 62741F (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Montañés-Rodríguez, E. Pallé, P. Goode, and F. Martín-Torres, “Vegetation signature in the observed globally integrated spectrum of Earth considering simultaneous cloud data: applications for extrasolar planets,” Astrophys. J. 651(1), 544–552 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

D. L. Hampton, J. W. Baer, M. A. Huisjen, C. C. Varner, A. Delamere, D. D. Wellnitz, M. F. A’Hearn, and K. P. Klaasen, “An overview of the instrument suite for the Deep Impact mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 117(1–2), 43–93 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Clough, M. Shephard, E. Mlawer, J. Delamere, M. Iacono, K. Cady-Pereira, S. Boukabara, and P. Brown, “Atmospheric radiative transfer modeling: a summary of the AER codes,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 91(2), 233–244 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Seager, E. L. Turner, J. Schafer, and E. B. Ford, “Vegetation’s red edge: a possible spectroscopic biosignature of extraterrestrial plants,” Astrobiology 5(3), 372–390 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

V. Grano, T. Scalione, P. G. Emch, H. Agravante, B. Hauss, J. Jackson, S. Mills, T. K. Samec, and M. Shoucri, “End-to-end performance assessment of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System environmental data records,” Proc. SPIE 5549, 53–59 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. A. Gueymard, “The sun’s total and spectral irradiance for solar energy applications and solar radiation models,” Sol. Energy 76(4), 423–453 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

E. J. Ientilucci and S. D. Brown, “Advances in wide-area hyperspectral image simulation,” Proc. SPIE 5075, 110–121 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

F. M. Bréon, F. Maignan, M. Leroy, and I. Grant, “Analysis of hot spot directional signatures measured from space,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 107(D16), AAC1 (2002).

2001 (1)

E. B. Ford, S. Seager, and E. L. Turner, “Characterization of extrasolar terrestrial planets from diurnal photometric variability,” Nature 412(6850), 885–887 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

W. B. Rossow and R. A. Schiffer, “Advances in understanding clouds from ISCCP,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 80(11), 2261–2287 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

M. Hess, P. Koepke, and I. Schult, “Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: The software package OPAC,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79(5), 831–844 (1998).
[Crossref]

Q. Fu, P. Yang, and W. Sun, “An accurate parameterization of the infrared radiative properties of cirrus clouds for climate models,” J. Clim. 11(9), 2223–2237 (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. M. Boone and J. A. Seibert, “An analytical edge spread function model for computer fitting and subsequent calculation of the LSF and MTF,” Med. Phys. 21(10), 1541–1545 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

Y. Hu and K. Stamnes, “An accurate parameterization of the radiative properties of water clouds suitable for use in climate models,” J. Clim. 6(4), 728–742 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

J. L. Roujean, M. Leroy, and P. Y. Deschamps, “A bidirectional reflectance model of the Earth’s surface for the correction of remote sensing data,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 97(D18), 20455–20468 (1992).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

T. Nakajima and M. Tanaka, “Effect of wind-generated waves on the transfer of solar radiation in the atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 29(6), 521–537 (1983).
[Crossref]

A’Hearn, M.

R. Barry, D. Lindler, L. Deming, M. A’Hearn, S. Ballard, B. Carcich, D. Charbonneau, J. Christiansen, T. Hewagama, L. McFadden, and D. Wellnitz, “Development and utilization of a point spread function for the Extrasolar Planet Observation and Characterization/Deep Impact Extended Investigation (EPOXI) mission,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 77313D (2010).
[Crossref]

A’hearn, M. F.

T. D. Robinson, V. S. Meadows, D. Crisp, D. Deming, M. F. A’hearn, D. Charbonneau, T. A. Livengood, S. Seager, R. K. Barry, T. Hearty, T. Hewagama, C. M. Lisse, L. A. McFadden, and D. D. Wellnitz, “Earth as an extrasolar planet: earth model validation using EPOXI earth observations,” Astrobiology 11(5), 393–408 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Livengood, L. D. Deming, M. F. A’hearn, D. Charbonneau, T. Hewagama, C. M. Lisse, L. A. McFadden, V. S. Meadows, T. D. Robinson, S. Seager, and D. D. Wellnitz, “Properties of an Earth-like planet orbiting a Sun-like star: Earth observed by the EPOXI mission,” Astrobiology 11(9), 907–930 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. P. Klaasen, M. F. A’Hearn, M. Baca, A. Delamere, M. Desnoyer, T. Farnham, O. Groussin, D. Hampton, S. Ipatov, J. Li, C. Lisse, N. Mastrodemos, S. McLaughlin, J. Sunshine, P. Thomas, and D. Wellnitz, “Invited Article: Deep Impact instrument calibration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(9), 091301 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Hampton, J. W. Baer, M. A. Huisjen, C. C. Varner, A. Delamere, D. D. Wellnitz, M. F. A’Hearn, and K. P. Klaasen, “An overview of the instrument suite for the Deep Impact mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 117(1–2), 43–93 (2005).
[Crossref]

Acarreta, J. R.

J. Vicent, N. Sabater, C. Tenjo, J. R. Acarreta, M. Manzano, J. P. Rivera, P. Jurado, R. Franco, L. Alonso, and J. Verrelst, “FLEX end-to-end mission performance simulator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (IEEE, 2016), pp. 4215–4223.

Agravante, H.

V. Grano, T. Scalione, P. G. Emch, H. Agravante, B. Hauss, J. Jackson, S. Mills, T. K. Samec, and M. Shoucri, “End-to-end performance assessment of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System environmental data records,” Proc. SPIE 5549, 53–59 (2004).
[Crossref]

Alonso, L.

J. Vicent, N. Sabater, C. Tenjo, J. R. Acarreta, M. Manzano, J. P. Rivera, P. Jurado, R. Franco, L. Alonso, and J. Verrelst, “FLEX end-to-end mission performance simulator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (IEEE, 2016), pp. 4215–4223.

Baca, M.

K. P. Klaasen, M. F. A’Hearn, M. Baca, A. Delamere, M. Desnoyer, T. Farnham, O. Groussin, D. Hampton, S. Ipatov, J. Li, C. Lisse, N. Mastrodemos, S. McLaughlin, J. Sunshine, P. Thomas, and D. Wellnitz, “Invited Article: Deep Impact instrument calibration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(9), 091301 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baer, J. W.

D. L. Hampton, J. W. Baer, M. A. Huisjen, C. C. Varner, A. Delamere, D. D. Wellnitz, M. F. A’Hearn, and K. P. Klaasen, “An overview of the instrument suite for the Deep Impact mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 117(1–2), 43–93 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ballard, S.

R. Barry, D. Lindler, L. Deming, M. A’Hearn, S. Ballard, B. Carcich, D. Charbonneau, J. Christiansen, T. Hewagama, L. McFadden, and D. Wellnitz, “Development and utilization of a point spread function for the Extrasolar Planet Observation and Characterization/Deep Impact Extended Investigation (EPOXI) mission,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 77313D (2010).
[Crossref]

Barry, R.

R. Barry, D. Lindler, L. Deming, M. A’Hearn, S. Ballard, B. Carcich, D. Charbonneau, J. Christiansen, T. Hewagama, L. McFadden, and D. Wellnitz, “Development and utilization of a point spread function for the Extrasolar Planet Observation and Characterization/Deep Impact Extended Investigation (EPOXI) mission,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 77313D (2010).
[Crossref]

Barry, R. K.

T. D. Robinson, V. S. Meadows, D. Crisp, D. Deming, M. F. A’hearn, D. Charbonneau, T. A. Livengood, S. Seager, R. K. Barry, T. Hearty, T. Hewagama, C. M. Lisse, L. A. McFadden, and D. D. Wellnitz, “Earth as an extrasolar planet: earth model validation using EPOXI earth observations,” Astrobiology 11(5), 393–408 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bell, J. T.

S. A. Cota, J. T. Bell, R. H. Boucher, T. E. Dutton, C. J. Florio, G. A. Franz, T. J. Grycewicz, L. S. Kalman, R. A. Keller, and T. S. Lomheim, “PICASSO: an end-to-end image simulation tool for space and airborne imaging systems,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 4(1), 043535 (2010).
[Crossref]

Berk, A.

A. Berk, P. Conforti, R. Kennett, T. Perkins, F. Hawes, and J. van den Bosch, “MODTRAN6: a major upgrade of the MODTRAN radiative transfer code,” Proc. SPIE 9088, 90880H (2014).
[Crossref]

Berlich, R.

S. Kraft, J.-L. Bézy, U. Del Bello, R. Berlich, M. Drusch, R. Franco, A. Gabriele, B. Harnisch, R. Meynart, and P. Silvestrin, “FLORIS: Phase a status of the fluorescence imaging spectrometer of the Earth explorer mission candidate FLEX,” Proc. SPIE 8889, 88890T (2013).
[Crossref]

Bézy, J.-L.

S. Kraft, J.-L. Bézy, U. Del Bello, R. Berlich, M. Drusch, R. Franco, A. Gabriele, B. Harnisch, R. Meynart, and P. Silvestrin, “FLORIS: Phase a status of the fluorescence imaging spectrometer of the Earth explorer mission candidate FLEX,” Proc. SPIE 8889, 88890T (2013).
[Crossref]

Bibring, J.-P.

G. Tinetti, V. S. Meadows, D. Crisp, W. Fong, E. Fishbein, M. Turnbull, and J.-P. Bibring, “Detectability of planetary characteristics in disk-averaged spectra. I: The Earth model,” Astrobiology 6(1), 34–47 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bishop, J. L.

M. Parente, J. T. Clark, A. J. Brown, and J. L. Bishop, “End-to-end simulation and analytical model of remote-sensing systems: Application to CRISM,” in Proceedings of IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (IEEE, 2010), pp. 3877–3888.
[Crossref]

Boone, J. M.

J. M. Boone and J. A. Seibert, “An analytical edge spread function model for computer fitting and subsequent calculation of the LSF and MTF,” Med. Phys. 21(10), 1541–1545 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bosc, E.

G. Tinetti, V. S. Meadows, D. Crisp, N. Y. Kiang, B. H. Kahn, E. Bosc, E. Fishbein, T. Velusamy, and M. Turnbull, “Detectability of planetary characteristics in disk-averaged spectra II: Synthetic spectra and light-curves of earth,” Astrobiology 6(6), 881–900 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boucher, R. H.

S. A. Cota, J. T. Bell, R. H. Boucher, T. E. Dutton, C. J. Florio, G. A. Franz, T. J. Grycewicz, L. S. Kalman, R. A. Keller, and T. S. Lomheim, “PICASSO: an end-to-end image simulation tool for space and airborne imaging systems,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 4(1), 043535 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boukabara, S.

S. Clough, M. Shephard, E. Mlawer, J. Delamere, M. Iacono, K. Cady-Pereira, S. Boukabara, and P. Brown, “Atmospheric radiative transfer modeling: a summary of the AER codes,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 91(2), 233–244 (2005).
[Crossref]

Breault, R. P.

R. P. Breault, S.-W. Kim, S.-K. Yang, and D. Ryu, “Sun-, Earth-and Moon-integrated simulation ray tracing for observation from space using ASAP,” Proc. SPIE 9189, 91890F (2014).
[Crossref]

Bréon, F. M.

F. M. Bréon, F. Maignan, M. Leroy, and I. Grant, “Analysis of hot spot directional signatures measured from space,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 107(D16), AAC1 (2002).

Brown, A. J.

M. Parente, J. T. Clark, A. J. Brown, and J. L. Bishop, “End-to-end simulation and analytical model of remote-sensing systems: Application to CRISM,” in Proceedings of IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (IEEE, 2010), pp. 3877–3888.
[Crossref]

Brown, P.

S. Clough, M. Shephard, E. Mlawer, J. Delamere, M. Iacono, K. Cady-Pereira, S. Boukabara, and P. Brown, “Atmospheric radiative transfer modeling: a summary of the AER codes,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 91(2), 233–244 (2005).
[Crossref]

Brown, S. D.

E. J. Ientilucci and S. D. Brown, “Advances in wide-area hyperspectral image simulation,” Proc. SPIE 5075, 110–121 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bu, F.

F. Bu, D. Yao, Y. Qiu, and B. Jiang, “The digital simulation of end-to-end imaging chain in optical remote sensing system based on MTF models,” in Proceedings of 4th International Conference on Computer Science and Network Technology (IEEE, 2015), pp. 328–333.

Bugliaro, L.

C. Emde, R. Buras-Schnell, A. Kylling, B. Mayer, J. Gasteiger, U. Hamann, J. Kylling, B. Richter, C. Pause, T. Dowling, and L. Bugliaro, “The libRadtran software package for radiative transfer calculations (version 2.0. 1),” Geosci. Model Dev. 9(5), 1647–1672 (2016).
[Crossref]

Buras-Schnell, R.

C. Emde, R. Buras-Schnell, A. Kylling, B. Mayer, J. Gasteiger, U. Hamann, J. Kylling, B. Richter, C. Pause, T. Dowling, and L. Bugliaro, “The libRadtran software package for radiative transfer calculations (version 2.0. 1),” Geosci. Model Dev. 9(5), 1647–1672 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cady-Pereira, K.

S. Clough, M. Shephard, E. Mlawer, J. Delamere, M. Iacono, K. Cady-Pereira, S. Boukabara, and P. Brown, “Atmospheric radiative transfer modeling: a summary of the AER codes,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 91(2), 233–244 (2005).
[Crossref]

Carcich, B.

R. Barry, D. Lindler, L. Deming, M. A’Hearn, S. Ballard, B. Carcich, D. Charbonneau, J. Christiansen, T. Hewagama, L. McFadden, and D. Wellnitz, “Development and utilization of a point spread function for the Extrasolar Planet Observation and Characterization/Deep Impact Extended Investigation (EPOXI) mission,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 77313D (2010).
[Crossref]

Chapman, G. H.

Charbonneau, D.

T. A. Livengood, L. D. Deming, M. F. A’hearn, D. Charbonneau, T. Hewagama, C. M. Lisse, L. A. McFadden, V. S. Meadows, T. D. Robinson, S. Seager, and D. D. Wellnitz, “Properties of an Earth-like planet orbiting a Sun-like star: Earth observed by the EPOXI mission,” Astrobiology 11(9), 907–930 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Robinson, V. S. Meadows, D. Crisp, D. Deming, M. F. A’hearn, D. Charbonneau, T. A. Livengood, S. Seager, R. K. Barry, T. Hearty, T. Hewagama, C. M. Lisse, L. A. McFadden, and D. D. Wellnitz, “Earth as an extrasolar planet: earth model validation using EPOXI earth observations,” Astrobiology 11(5), 393–408 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Barry, D. Lindler, L. Deming, M. A’Hearn, S. Ballard, B. Carcich, D. Charbonneau, J. Christiansen, T. Hewagama, L. McFadden, and D. Wellnitz, “Development and utilization of a point spread function for the Extrasolar Planet Observation and Characterization/Deep Impact Extended Investigation (EPOXI) mission,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 77313D (2010).
[Crossref]

Choi, J. N.

J. N. Choi, D. Ryu, S.-W. Kim, D. W. Kim, P. Su, R. Huang, Y.-S. Kim, and H.-S. Yang, “Integrated Ray Tracing simulation of the SCOTS surface measurement test for the GMT Fast Steering Mirror Prototype,” Adv. Space Res. 56(11), 2483–2494 (2015).
[Crossref]

Choi, K.-H.

J. Lee, W. H. Park, S.-J. Ham, H.-S. Yi, J. Y. Yoon, S.-W. Kim, K.-H. Choi, Z. C. Kim, and M. Lockwood, “Integrated ray tracing model for end-to-end performance verification of Amon-Ra instrument,” J. Astron. Space Sci. 24(1), 69–78 (2007).
[Crossref]

Christiansen, J.

R. Barry, D. Lindler, L. Deming, M. A’Hearn, S. Ballard, B. Carcich, D. Charbonneau, J. Christiansen, T. Hewagama, L. McFadden, and D. Wellnitz, “Development and utilization of a point spread function for the Extrasolar Planet Observation and Characterization/Deep Impact Extended Investigation (EPOXI) mission,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 77313D (2010).
[Crossref]

Clark, J. T.

M. Parente, J. T. Clark, A. J. Brown, and J. L. Bishop, “End-to-end simulation and analytical model of remote-sensing systems: Application to CRISM,” in Proceedings of IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (IEEE, 2010), pp. 3877–3888.
[Crossref]

Clough, S.

S. Clough, M. Shephard, E. Mlawer, J. Delamere, M. Iacono, K. Cady-Pereira, S. Boukabara, and P. Brown, “Atmospheric radiative transfer modeling: a summary of the AER codes,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 91(2), 233–244 (2005).
[Crossref]

Conforti, P.

A. Berk, P. Conforti, R. Kennett, T. Perkins, F. Hawes, and J. van den Bosch, “MODTRAN6: a major upgrade of the MODTRAN radiative transfer code,” Proc. SPIE 9088, 90880H (2014).
[Crossref]

Cota, S. A.

S. A. Cota, J. T. Bell, R. H. Boucher, T. E. Dutton, C. J. Florio, G. A. Franz, T. J. Grycewicz, L. S. Kalman, R. A. Keller, and T. S. Lomheim, “PICASSO: an end-to-end image simulation tool for space and airborne imaging systems,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 4(1), 043535 (2010).
[Crossref]

Crisp, D.

T. D. Robinson, V. S. Meadows, D. Crisp, D. Deming, M. F. A’hearn, D. Charbonneau, T. A. Livengood, S. Seager, R. K. Barry, T. Hearty, T. Hewagama, C. M. Lisse, L. A. McFadden, and D. D. Wellnitz, “Earth as an extrasolar planet: earth model validation using EPOXI earth observations,” Astrobiology 11(5), 393–408 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Tinetti, V. S. Meadows, D. Crisp, N. Y. Kiang, B. H. Kahn, E. Bosc, E. Fishbein, T. Velusamy, and M. Turnbull, “Detectability of planetary characteristics in disk-averaged spectra II: Synthetic spectra and light-curves of earth,” Astrobiology 6(6), 881–900 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Tinetti, V. S. Meadows, D. Crisp, W. Fong, E. Fishbein, M. Turnbull, and J.-P. Bibring, “Detectability of planetary characteristics in disk-averaged spectra. I: The Earth model,” Astrobiology 6(1), 34–47 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Del Bello, U.

S. Kraft, J.-L. Bézy, U. Del Bello, R. Berlich, M. Drusch, R. Franco, A. Gabriele, B. Harnisch, R. Meynart, and P. Silvestrin, “FLORIS: Phase a status of the fluorescence imaging spectrometer of the Earth explorer mission candidate FLEX,” Proc. SPIE 8889, 88890T (2013).
[Crossref]

Delamere, A.

K. P. Klaasen, M. F. A’Hearn, M. Baca, A. Delamere, M. Desnoyer, T. Farnham, O. Groussin, D. Hampton, S. Ipatov, J. Li, C. Lisse, N. Mastrodemos, S. McLaughlin, J. Sunshine, P. Thomas, and D. Wellnitz, “Invited Article: Deep Impact instrument calibration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(9), 091301 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Hampton, J. W. Baer, M. A. Huisjen, C. C. Varner, A. Delamere, D. D. Wellnitz, M. F. A’Hearn, and K. P. Klaasen, “An overview of the instrument suite for the Deep Impact mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 117(1–2), 43–93 (2005).
[Crossref]

Delamere, J.

S. Clough, M. Shephard, E. Mlawer, J. Delamere, M. Iacono, K. Cady-Pereira, S. Boukabara, and P. Brown, “Atmospheric radiative transfer modeling: a summary of the AER codes,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 91(2), 233–244 (2005).
[Crossref]

Deming, D.

T. D. Robinson, V. S. Meadows, D. Crisp, D. Deming, M. F. A’hearn, D. Charbonneau, T. A. Livengood, S. Seager, R. K. Barry, T. Hearty, T. Hewagama, C. M. Lisse, L. A. McFadden, and D. D. Wellnitz, “Earth as an extrasolar planet: earth model validation using EPOXI earth observations,” Astrobiology 11(5), 393–408 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deming, L.

R. Barry, D. Lindler, L. Deming, M. A’Hearn, S. Ballard, B. Carcich, D. Charbonneau, J. Christiansen, T. Hewagama, L. McFadden, and D. Wellnitz, “Development and utilization of a point spread function for the Extrasolar Planet Observation and Characterization/Deep Impact Extended Investigation (EPOXI) mission,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 77313D (2010).
[Crossref]

Deming, L. D.

T. A. Livengood, L. D. Deming, M. F. A’hearn, D. Charbonneau, T. Hewagama, C. M. Lisse, L. A. McFadden, V. S. Meadows, T. D. Robinson, S. Seager, and D. D. Wellnitz, “Properties of an Earth-like planet orbiting a Sun-like star: Earth observed by the EPOXI mission,” Astrobiology 11(9), 907–930 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deschamps, P. Y.

J. L. Roujean, M. Leroy, and P. Y. Deschamps, “A bidirectional reflectance model of the Earth’s surface for the correction of remote sensing data,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 97(D18), 20455–20468 (1992).
[Crossref]

Desnoyer, M.

K. P. Klaasen, M. F. A’Hearn, M. Baca, A. Delamere, M. Desnoyer, T. Farnham, O. Groussin, D. Hampton, S. Ipatov, J. Li, C. Lisse, N. Mastrodemos, S. McLaughlin, J. Sunshine, P. Thomas, and D. Wellnitz, “Invited Article: Deep Impact instrument calibration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(9), 091301 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dowling, T.

C. Emde, R. Buras-Schnell, A. Kylling, B. Mayer, J. Gasteiger, U. Hamann, J. Kylling, B. Richter, C. Pause, T. Dowling, and L. Bugliaro, “The libRadtran software package for radiative transfer calculations (version 2.0. 1),” Geosci. Model Dev. 9(5), 1647–1672 (2016).
[Crossref]

Drusch, M.

S. Kraft, J.-L. Bézy, U. Del Bello, R. Berlich, M. Drusch, R. Franco, A. Gabriele, B. Harnisch, R. Meynart, and P. Silvestrin, “FLORIS: Phase a status of the fluorescence imaging spectrometer of the Earth explorer mission candidate FLEX,” Proc. SPIE 8889, 88890T (2013).
[Crossref]

Dutton, T. E.

S. A. Cota, J. T. Bell, R. H. Boucher, T. E. Dutton, C. J. Florio, G. A. Franz, T. J. Grycewicz, L. S. Kalman, R. A. Keller, and T. S. Lomheim, “PICASSO: an end-to-end image simulation tool for space and airborne imaging systems,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 4(1), 043535 (2010).
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Emch, P. G.

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D. Ryu, S. Seong, J.-M. Lee, J. Hong, S. Jeong, Y. Jeong, and S.-W. Kim, “Integrated ray tracing simulation of spectral bio-signatures from full 3D earth model,” Proc. SPIE 7441, 74410A (2009).
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J. Vicent, N. Sabater, C. Tenjo, J. R. Acarreta, M. Manzano, J. P. Rivera, P. Jurado, R. Franco, L. Alonso, and J. Verrelst, “FLEX end-to-end mission performance simulator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (IEEE, 2016), pp. 4215–4223.

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G. Tinetti, V. S. Meadows, D. Crisp, N. Y. Kiang, B. H. Kahn, E. Bosc, E. Fishbein, T. Velusamy, and M. Turnbull, “Detectability of planetary characteristics in disk-averaged spectra II: Synthetic spectra and light-curves of earth,” Astrobiology 6(6), 881–900 (2006).
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Kawahara, H.

Y. Fujii, H. Kawahara, Y. Suto, S. Fukuda, T. Nakajima, T. A. Livengood, and E. L. Turner, “Colors of a second Earth. II. Effects of clouds on photometric characterization of Earth-like exoplanets,” Astrophys. J. 738(2), 184–199 (2011).
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Y. Fujii, H. Kawahara, Y. Suto, A. Taruya, S. Fukuda, T. Nakajima, and E. L. Turner, “Colors of a second Earth: estimating the fractional areas of ocean, land, and vegetation of Earth-like exoplanets,” Astrophys. J. 715(2), 866–880 (2010).
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S. A. Cota, J. T. Bell, R. H. Boucher, T. E. Dutton, C. J. Florio, G. A. Franz, T. J. Grycewicz, L. S. Kalman, R. A. Keller, and T. S. Lomheim, “PICASSO: an end-to-end image simulation tool for space and airborne imaging systems,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 4(1), 043535 (2010).
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G. Tinetti, V. S. Meadows, D. Crisp, N. Y. Kiang, B. H. Kahn, E. Bosc, E. Fishbein, T. Velusamy, and M. Turnbull, “Detectability of planetary characteristics in disk-averaged spectra II: Synthetic spectra and light-curves of earth,” Astrobiology 6(6), 881–900 (2006).
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J. N. Choi, D. Ryu, S.-W. Kim, D. W. Kim, P. Su, R. Huang, Y.-S. Kim, and H.-S. Yang, “Integrated Ray Tracing simulation of the SCOTS surface measurement test for the GMT Fast Steering Mirror Prototype,” Adv. Space Res. 56(11), 2483–2494 (2015).
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Kim, S.-W.

J. N. Choi, D. Ryu, S.-W. Kim, D. W. Kim, P. Su, R. Huang, Y.-S. Kim, and H.-S. Yang, “Integrated Ray Tracing simulation of the SCOTS surface measurement test for the GMT Fast Steering Mirror Prototype,” Adv. Space Res. 56(11), 2483–2494 (2015).
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D. Ryu, S.-W. Kim, and S. Seong, “Improved atmospheric 3D BSDF model in earthlike exoplanet using ray-tracing based method,” Proc. SPIE 8521, 85210F (2012).
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D. Ryu, S.-W. Kim, D. W. Kim, J.-M. Lee, H. Lee, W. H. Park, S. Seong, and S.-J. Ham, “Integrated ray tracing simulation of annual variation of spectral bio-signatures from cloud free 3D optical earth model,” Proc. SPIE 7819, 78190E (2010).
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D. Ryu, S. Seong, J.-M. Lee, J. Hong, S. Jeong, Y. Jeong, and S.-W. Kim, “Integrated ray tracing simulation of spectral bio-signatures from full 3D earth model,” Proc. SPIE 7441, 74410A (2009).
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S. Seong, J. Yu, D. Ryu, J. Hong, J.-Y. Yoon, S.-W. Kim, J.-H. Lee, and M.-J. Shin, “Imaging and radiometric performance simulation for a new high-performance dual-band airborne reconnaissance camera,” Proc. SPIE 7452, 74520F (2009).

J. Lee, W. H. Park, S.-J. Ham, H.-S. Yi, J. Y. Yoon, S.-W. Kim, K.-H. Choi, Z. C. Kim, and M. Lockwood, “Integrated ray tracing model for end-to-end performance verification of Amon-Ra instrument,” J. Astron. Space Sci. 24(1), 69–78 (2007).
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Kim, Y.-S.

J. N. Choi, D. Ryu, S.-W. Kim, D. W. Kim, P. Su, R. Huang, Y.-S. Kim, and H.-S. Yang, “Integrated Ray Tracing simulation of the SCOTS surface measurement test for the GMT Fast Steering Mirror Prototype,” Adv. Space Res. 56(11), 2483–2494 (2015).
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Kim, Z. C.

J. Lee, W. H. Park, S.-J. Ham, H.-S. Yi, J. Y. Yoon, S.-W. Kim, K.-H. Choi, Z. C. Kim, and M. Lockwood, “Integrated ray tracing model for end-to-end performance verification of Amon-Ra instrument,” J. Astron. Space Sci. 24(1), 69–78 (2007).
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Klaasen, K. P.

K. P. Klaasen, M. F. A’Hearn, M. Baca, A. Delamere, M. Desnoyer, T. Farnham, O. Groussin, D. Hampton, S. Ipatov, J. Li, C. Lisse, N. Mastrodemos, S. McLaughlin, J. Sunshine, P. Thomas, and D. Wellnitz, “Invited Article: Deep Impact instrument calibration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(9), 091301 (2008).
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D. L. Hampton, J. W. Baer, M. A. Huisjen, C. C. Varner, A. Delamere, D. D. Wellnitz, M. F. A’Hearn, and K. P. Klaasen, “An overview of the instrument suite for the Deep Impact mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 117(1–2), 43–93 (2005).
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M. Hess, P. Koepke, and I. Schult, “Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: The software package OPAC,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79(5), 831–844 (1998).
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Kraft, S.

S. Kraft, J.-L. Bézy, U. Del Bello, R. Berlich, M. Drusch, R. Franco, A. Gabriele, B. Harnisch, R. Meynart, and P. Silvestrin, “FLORIS: Phase a status of the fluorescence imaging spectrometer of the Earth explorer mission candidate FLEX,” Proc. SPIE 8889, 88890T (2013).
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P. Montañés-Rodríguez, E. Pallé, P. Goode, and F. Martín-Torres, “Vegetation signature in the observed globally integrated spectrum of Earth considering simultaneous cloud data: applications for extrasolar planets,” Astrophys. J. 651(1), 544–552 (2006).
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K. Segl, L. Guanter, C. Rogass, T. Kuester, S. Roessner, H. Kaufmann, B. Sang, V. Mogulsky, and S. Hofer, “EeteS—The EnMAP end-to-end simulation tool,” in Proceedings of IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing (IEEE 2012), pp. 522–530.

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J. Vicent, N. Sabater, C. Tenjo, J. R. Acarreta, M. Manzano, J. P. Rivera, P. Jurado, R. Franco, L. Alonso, and J. Verrelst, “FLEX end-to-end mission performance simulator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (IEEE, 2016), pp. 4215–4223.

Samec, T. K.

V. Grano, T. Scalione, P. G. Emch, H. Agravante, B. Hauss, J. Jackson, S. Mills, T. K. Samec, and M. Shoucri, “End-to-end performance assessment of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System environmental data records,” Proc. SPIE 5549, 53–59 (2004).
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T. A. Livengood, L. D. Deming, M. F. A’hearn, D. Charbonneau, T. Hewagama, C. M. Lisse, L. A. McFadden, V. S. Meadows, T. D. Robinson, S. Seager, and D. D. Wellnitz, “Properties of an Earth-like planet orbiting a Sun-like star: Earth observed by the EPOXI mission,” Astrobiology 11(9), 907–930 (2011).
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T. D. Robinson, V. S. Meadows, D. Crisp, D. Deming, M. F. A’hearn, D. Charbonneau, T. A. Livengood, S. Seager, R. K. Barry, T. Hearty, T. Hewagama, C. M. Lisse, L. A. McFadden, and D. D. Wellnitz, “Earth as an extrasolar planet: earth model validation using EPOXI earth observations,” Astrobiology 11(5), 393–408 (2011).
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S. Seager, E. L. Turner, J. Schafer, and E. B. Ford, “Vegetation’s red edge: a possible spectroscopic biosignature of extraterrestrial plants,” Astrobiology 5(3), 372–390 (2005).
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E. B. Ford, S. Seager, and E. L. Turner, “Characterization of extrasolar terrestrial planets from diurnal photometric variability,” Nature 412(6850), 885–887 (2001).
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K. Segl, L. Guanter, C. Rogass, T. Kuester, S. Roessner, H. Kaufmann, B. Sang, V. Mogulsky, and S. Hofer, “EeteS—The EnMAP end-to-end simulation tool,” in Proceedings of IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing (IEEE 2012), pp. 522–530.

K. Segl, L. Guanter, F. Gascon, T. Kuester, C. Rogass, and C. Mielke, “S2eteS: An end-to-end modeling tool for the simulation of Sentinel-2 image products,” in Proceedings of IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (IEEE, 2015), pp. 5560–5571.
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J. M. Boone and J. A. Seibert, “An analytical edge spread function model for computer fitting and subsequent calculation of the LSF and MTF,” Med. Phys. 21(10), 1541–1545 (1994).
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D. Ryu, S.-W. Kim, and S. Seong, “Improved atmospheric 3D BSDF model in earthlike exoplanet using ray-tracing based method,” Proc. SPIE 8521, 85210F (2012).
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D. Ryu, S.-W. Kim, D. W. Kim, J.-M. Lee, H. Lee, W. H. Park, S. Seong, and S.-J. Ham, “Integrated ray tracing simulation of annual variation of spectral bio-signatures from cloud free 3D optical earth model,” Proc. SPIE 7819, 78190E (2010).
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D. Ryu, S. Seong, J.-M. Lee, J. Hong, S. Jeong, Y. Jeong, and S.-W. Kim, “Integrated ray tracing simulation of spectral bio-signatures from full 3D earth model,” Proc. SPIE 7441, 74410A (2009).
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Shephard, M.

S. Clough, M. Shephard, E. Mlawer, J. Delamere, M. Iacono, K. Cady-Pereira, S. Boukabara, and P. Brown, “Atmospheric radiative transfer modeling: a summary of the AER codes,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 91(2), 233–244 (2005).
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Shoucri, M.

V. Grano, T. Scalione, P. G. Emch, H. Agravante, B. Hauss, J. Jackson, S. Mills, T. K. Samec, and M. Shoucri, “End-to-end performance assessment of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System environmental data records,” Proc. SPIE 5549, 53–59 (2004).
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S. Kraft, J.-L. Bézy, U. Del Bello, R. Berlich, M. Drusch, R. Franco, A. Gabriele, B. Harnisch, R. Meynart, and P. Silvestrin, “FLORIS: Phase a status of the fluorescence imaging spectrometer of the Earth explorer mission candidate FLEX,” Proc. SPIE 8889, 88890T (2013).
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S. Zhuo and T. Sim, “Defocus map estimation from a single image,” Pattern Recognit. 44(9), 1852–1858 (2011).
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Y. Hu and K. Stamnes, “An accurate parameterization of the radiative properties of water clouds suitable for use in climate models,” J. Clim. 6(4), 728–742 (1993).
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K. P. Klaasen, M. F. A’Hearn, M. Baca, A. Delamere, M. Desnoyer, T. Farnham, O. Groussin, D. Hampton, S. Ipatov, J. Li, C. Lisse, N. Mastrodemos, S. McLaughlin, J. Sunshine, P. Thomas, and D. Wellnitz, “Invited Article: Deep Impact instrument calibration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(9), 091301 (2008).
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Y. Fujii, H. Kawahara, Y. Suto, A. Taruya, S. Fukuda, T. Nakajima, and E. L. Turner, “Colors of a second Earth: estimating the fractional areas of ocean, land, and vegetation of Earth-like exoplanets,” Astrophys. J. 715(2), 866–880 (2010).
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E. B. Ford, S. Seager, and E. L. Turner, “Characterization of extrasolar terrestrial planets from diurnal photometric variability,” Nature 412(6850), 885–887 (2001).
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A. Berk, P. Conforti, R. Kennett, T. Perkins, F. Hawes, and J. van den Bosch, “MODTRAN6: a major upgrade of the MODTRAN radiative transfer code,” Proc. SPIE 9088, 90880H (2014).
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J. Vicent, N. Sabater, C. Tenjo, J. R. Acarreta, M. Manzano, J. P. Rivera, P. Jurado, R. Franco, L. Alonso, and J. Verrelst, “FLEX end-to-end mission performance simulator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (IEEE, 2016), pp. 4215–4223.

Vicent, J.

J. Vicent, N. Sabater, C. Tenjo, J. R. Acarreta, M. Manzano, J. P. Rivera, P. Jurado, R. Franco, L. Alonso, and J. Verrelst, “FLEX end-to-end mission performance simulator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (IEEE, 2016), pp. 4215–4223.

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R. Barry, D. Lindler, L. Deming, M. A’Hearn, S. Ballard, B. Carcich, D. Charbonneau, J. Christiansen, T. Hewagama, L. McFadden, and D. Wellnitz, “Development and utilization of a point spread function for the Extrasolar Planet Observation and Characterization/Deep Impact Extended Investigation (EPOXI) mission,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 77313D (2010).
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T. A. Livengood, L. D. Deming, M. F. A’hearn, D. Charbonneau, T. Hewagama, C. M. Lisse, L. A. McFadden, V. S. Meadows, T. D. Robinson, S. Seager, and D. D. Wellnitz, “Properties of an Earth-like planet orbiting a Sun-like star: Earth observed by the EPOXI mission,” Astrobiology 11(9), 907–930 (2011).
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D. L. Hampton, J. W. Baer, M. A. Huisjen, C. C. Varner, A. Delamere, D. D. Wellnitz, M. F. A’Hearn, and K. P. Klaasen, “An overview of the instrument suite for the Deep Impact mission,” Space Sci. Rev. 117(1–2), 43–93 (2005).
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J. N. Choi, D. Ryu, S.-W. Kim, D. W. Kim, P. Su, R. Huang, Y.-S. Kim, and H.-S. Yang, “Integrated Ray Tracing simulation of the SCOTS surface measurement test for the GMT Fast Steering Mirror Prototype,” Adv. Space Res. 56(11), 2483–2494 (2015).
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Yang, P.

Q. Fu, P. Yang, and W. Sun, “An accurate parameterization of the infrared radiative properties of cirrus clouds for climate models,” J. Clim. 11(9), 2223–2237 (1998).
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Yi, H.-S.

J. Lee, W. H. Park, S.-J. Ham, H.-S. Yi, J. Y. Yoon, S.-W. Kim, K.-H. Choi, Z. C. Kim, and M. Lockwood, “Integrated ray tracing model for end-to-end performance verification of Amon-Ra instrument,” J. Astron. Space Sci. 24(1), 69–78 (2007).
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J. Lee, W. H. Park, S.-J. Ham, H.-S. Yi, J. Y. Yoon, S.-W. Kim, K.-H. Choi, Z. C. Kim, and M. Lockwood, “Integrated ray tracing model for end-to-end performance verification of Amon-Ra instrument,” J. Astron. Space Sci. 24(1), 69–78 (2007).
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S. Seong, J. Yu, D. Ryu, J. Hong, J.-Y. Yoon, S.-W. Kim, J.-H. Lee, and M.-J. Shin, “Imaging and radiometric performance simulation for a new high-performance dual-band airborne reconnaissance camera,” Proc. SPIE 7452, 74520F (2009).

Yu, J.

S. Seong, J. Yu, D. Ryu, J. Hong, J.-Y. Yoon, S.-W. Kim, J.-H. Lee, and M.-J. Shin, “Imaging and radiometric performance simulation for a new high-performance dual-band airborne reconnaissance camera,” Proc. SPIE 7452, 74520F (2009).

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Astrobiology (5)

S. Seager, E. L. Turner, J. Schafer, and E. B. Ford, “Vegetation’s red edge: a possible spectroscopic biosignature of extraterrestrial plants,” Astrobiology 5(3), 372–390 (2005).
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T. A. Livengood, L. D. Deming, M. F. A’hearn, D. Charbonneau, T. Hewagama, C. M. Lisse, L. A. McFadden, V. S. Meadows, T. D. Robinson, S. Seager, and D. D. Wellnitz, “Properties of an Earth-like planet orbiting a Sun-like star: Earth observed by the EPOXI mission,” Astrobiology 11(9), 907–930 (2011).
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G. Tinetti, V. S. Meadows, D. Crisp, W. Fong, E. Fishbein, M. Turnbull, and J.-P. Bibring, “Detectability of planetary characteristics in disk-averaged spectra. I: The Earth model,” Astrobiology 6(1), 34–47 (2006).
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G. Tinetti, V. S. Meadows, D. Crisp, N. Y. Kiang, B. H. Kahn, E. Bosc, E. Fishbein, T. Velusamy, and M. Turnbull, “Detectability of planetary characteristics in disk-averaged spectra II: Synthetic spectra and light-curves of earth,” Astrobiology 6(6), 881–900 (2006).
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T. D. Robinson, V. S. Meadows, D. Crisp, D. Deming, M. F. A’hearn, D. Charbonneau, T. A. Livengood, S. Seager, R. K. Barry, T. Hearty, T. Hewagama, C. M. Lisse, L. A. McFadden, and D. D. Wellnitz, “Earth as an extrasolar planet: earth model validation using EPOXI earth observations,” Astrobiology 11(5), 393–408 (2011).
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Astrophys. J. (3)

Y. Fujii, H. Kawahara, Y. Suto, A. Taruya, S. Fukuda, T. Nakajima, and E. L. Turner, “Colors of a second Earth: estimating the fractional areas of ocean, land, and vegetation of Earth-like exoplanets,” Astrophys. J. 715(2), 866–880 (2010).
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Y. Fujii, H. Kawahara, Y. Suto, S. Fukuda, T. Nakajima, T. A. Livengood, and E. L. Turner, “Colors of a second Earth. II. Effects of clouds on photometric characterization of Earth-like exoplanets,” Astrophys. J. 738(2), 184–199 (2011).
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J. Clim. (2)

Y. Hu and K. Stamnes, “An accurate parameterization of the radiative properties of water clouds suitable for use in climate models,” J. Clim. 6(4), 728–742 (1993).
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J. M. Boone and J. A. Seibert, “An analytical edge spread function model for computer fitting and subsequent calculation of the LSF and MTF,” Med. Phys. 21(10), 1541–1545 (1994).
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Nature (1)

E. B. Ford, S. Seager, and E. L. Turner, “Characterization of extrasolar terrestrial planets from diurnal photometric variability,” Nature 412(6850), 885–887 (2001).
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Opt. Express (2)

Pattern Recognit. (1)

S. Zhuo and T. Sim, “Defocus map estimation from a single image,” Pattern Recognit. 44(9), 1852–1858 (2011).
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Proc. SPIE (13)

E. J. Ientilucci and S. D. Brown, “Advances in wide-area hyperspectral image simulation,” Proc. SPIE 5075, 110–121 (2003).
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A. Berk, P. Conforti, R. Kennett, T. Perkins, F. Hawes, and J. van den Bosch, “MODTRAN6: a major upgrade of the MODTRAN radiative transfer code,” Proc. SPIE 9088, 90880H (2014).
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S. Sarkar, A. Papageorgiou, and E. Pascale, “Exploring the potential of the ExoSim simulator for transit spectroscopy noise estimation,” Proc. SPIE 9904, 99043R (2016).
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S. Kraft, J.-L. Bézy, U. Del Bello, R. Berlich, M. Drusch, R. Franco, A. Gabriele, B. Harnisch, R. Meynart, and P. Silvestrin, “FLORIS: Phase a status of the fluorescence imaging spectrometer of the Earth explorer mission candidate FLEX,” Proc. SPIE 8889, 88890T (2013).
[Crossref]

N. P. Lorente, A. C. Glasse, G. S. Wright, and M. García-Marín, “Specsim: the MIRI medium resolution spectrometer simulator,” Proc. SPIE 6274, 62741F (2006).
[Crossref]

J. E. Krist, R. N. Hook, and F. Stoehr, “20 years of Hubble Space Telescope optical modeling using Tiny Tim,” Proc. SPIE 8127, 81270J (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Barry, D. Lindler, L. Deming, M. A’Hearn, S. Ballard, B. Carcich, D. Charbonneau, J. Christiansen, T. Hewagama, L. McFadden, and D. Wellnitz, “Development and utilization of a point spread function for the Extrasolar Planet Observation and Characterization/Deep Impact Extended Investigation (EPOXI) mission,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 77313D (2010).
[Crossref]

V. Grano, T. Scalione, P. G. Emch, H. Agravante, B. Hauss, J. Jackson, S. Mills, T. K. Samec, and M. Shoucri, “End-to-end performance assessment of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System environmental data records,” Proc. SPIE 5549, 53–59 (2004).
[Crossref]

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Supplementary Material (3)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: AVI (1436 KB)      RGB true-color images of the Earth from observing simulation without atmosphere, the instrument of the simulation shows diffraction limit performance.
» Visualization 2: AVI (1320 KB)      RGB true-color images of the Earth from observing simulation, the instrument of the simulation shows diffraction limit performance.
» Visualization 3: AVI (3774 KB)      RGB true-color images of the Earth from observation by HRI-VIS EPOXI mission, the instrument has defocus aberration during observation

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Illustration of specular (A) and scattering (B) ray tracing.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Flowchart of the IRT method showing molecular atmosphere sub-model enveloping other sub-models within the earth system model.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Flowchart of the molecular atmospheric sub-model.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Flowchart of cloud sub-model.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Flowchart of land, ocean, snow cover, and sea ice sub-models.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Instrument design and traced rays.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 RGB true-color image from simulation and observation. Two movie files from the simulation and one movie file from the observation over 24 h are included. Visualization 1 shows the simulation images of the Earth surface without atmosphere. Visualization 2 is the simulation for the Earth with atmospheric components. Visualization 3 shows the Earth images from the EPOXI HRI-VIS observation.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 RGB composite images, edge map, defocus map, and magnified difference map of the observation and simulation maps of defocus aberration.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Disk-averaged spectra of line-by-line simulation with IRT method.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Resolution of Input Data and Optical Properties of Objects in Sub-Models

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Table 2 Land Surface Composition

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Table 3 Summary of Case Definition

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

(λ, P , D ,F,i,m,o,),
RT (λ, P RT , D RT , F RT ,i,1,1, RT ),
S,j (λ, P S,j , D S,j , F S,j ,i,m,o, S,j ).
F S,j =BSDF( θ s , θ v , ϕ s , ϕ v )F A cos θ e cos θ v n d 2 ,
S= BSDF( θ s , θ v , ϕ s , ϕ v )cos θ v sin θ v d θ v d ϕ v ,
R+T+S+A=1.
BRD F M = ω ¯ M 4 1 cos θ v +cos θ s P M (Θ){ 1exp[ τ M s ( 1 cos θ v + 1 cos θ s ) ] },
BTD F M = ω ¯ M 4 1 cos θ v cos θ s P M (Θ)[ exp( τ M s cos θ v )exp( τ M s cos θ s ) ],
BRD F land ( θ s , θ v , ϕ s , ϕ v ,λ)= K 0 (λ)+ K 1 (λ) F 1 ( θ s , θ v , ϕ s , ϕ v )+ K 2 (λ) F 2 ( θ s , θ v , ϕ s , ϕ v ).
BRD F ocean ( θ s , θ v , ϕ s , ϕ v ,λ)=BRD F L (λ)+BRD F SG ( θ s , θ v , ϕ s , ϕ v ,λ).

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