Abstract

Photonic integrated circuits (PICs) written with an ultrashort pulsed laser provide advantages in a range of applications, such as photon-based quantum information processing, where low insertion loss and low polarization dependence are critical concerns. Here we demonstrate the inscription of hybrid waveguides in fused silica at a pulse repetition rate of 1MHz that fulfill both these criteria. The mechanisms for propagation and coupling losses are identified and decoupled, with separate sections of the waveguide minimizing for each and an adiabatic mode conversion between the two. Moreover, differing sources of birefringence were revealed to be non-parallel for the waveguides, such that structures can be designed where these competing sources cancel to remove any polarization dependence.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (3)

T. Meany, D. N. Biggerstaff, M. A. Broome, A. Fedrizzi, M. Delanty, M. J. Steel, A. Gilchrist, G. D. Marshall, A. G. White, and M. J. Withford, “Engineering integrated photonics for heralded quantum gates,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25126 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. T. Feng, M. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, M. Li, X. Xiong, L. Yu, B. S. Shi, G. P. Guo, D. X. Dai, X. F. Ren, and G. C. Guo, “On-chip coherent conversion of photonic quantum entanglement between different degrees of freedom,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11985 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. K. Mehta, C. D. Bruzewicz, R. McConnell, R. J. Ram, J. M. Sage, and J. Chiaverini, “Integrated optical addressing of an ion qubit,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(12), 1066–1070 (2016).
[PubMed]

2015 (3)

J. W. Silverstone, R. Santagati, D. Bonneau, M. J. Strain, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Qubit entanglement between ring-resonator photon-pair sources on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7948 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349(6249), 711–716 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Chaboyer, T. Meany, L. G. Helt, M. J. Withford, and M. J. Steel, “Tunable quantum interference in a 3D integrated circuit,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9601 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

A. Crespi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, and R. Ramponi, “Fabrication of quantum photonic integrated circuits by means of femtosecond laser pulses,” Found. Phys. 44(8), 843–855 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Heilmann, R. Keil, M. Gräfe, S. Nolte, and A. Szameit, “Ultraprecise phase manipulation in integrated photonic quantum circuits with generalized directional coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(6), 061111 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. J. Metcalf, J. B. Spring, P. C. Humphreys, N. Thomas-Peter, M. Barbieri, W. S. Kolthammer, X. Jin, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Quantum teleportation on a photonic chip,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 770–774 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, A. Santamato, P. Jiang, D. Bonneau, E. Engin, J. W. Silverstone, M. Lermer, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Gallium arsenide (GaAs) quantum photonic waveguide circuits,” Opt. Commun. 327, 49–55 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Heilmann, M. Gräfe, S. Nolte, and A. Szameit, “Arbitrary photonic wave plate operations on chip: realizing Hadamard, Pauli-X, and rotation gates for polarisation qubits,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4118 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Fu, T. Ye, W. Tang, and T. Chu, “Efficient adiabatic silicon-on-insulator waveguide taper,” Photonics Res. 2(3), A41–A44 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (9)

A. Jesacher, P. S. Salter, and M. J. Booth, “Refractive index profiling of direct laser written waveguides: tomographic phase imagine,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1223–1232 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. R. Motes, J. P. Dowling, and P. P. Rohde, “Spontaneous parametric down-conversion photon sources are scalable in the asymptotic limit for boson sampling,” Phys. Rev. A 88(6), 063822 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Richter, C. Miese, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Laser induced nanogratings beyond fused silica – periodic nanostructures in borosilicate glassess and ULETM,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(8), 1161–1166 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X. M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339(6121), 798–801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Metcalf, N. Thomas-Peter, J. B. Spring, D. Kundys, M. A. Broome, P. C. Humphreys, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, W. Steven Kolthammer, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, N. K. Langford, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Multiphoton quantum interference in a multiport integrated photonic device,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1356 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Crespi, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, V. Giovannetti, R. Fazio, L. Sansoni, F. De Nicola, F. Sciarrino, and P. Mataloni, “Anderson localization of entangled photons in an integrated quantum walk,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 322–328 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, L. Aparo, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Three-photon bosonic coalescence in an integrated tritter,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1606 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Di Giuseppe, L. Martin, A. Perez-Leija, R. Keil, F. Dreisow, S. Nolte, A. Szameit, A. F. Abouraddy, D. N. Christodoulides, and B. E. A. Saleh, “Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen spatial entanglement in ordered and anderson photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(15), 150503 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Tillmann, B. Dakić, R. Heilmann, S. Nolte, A. Szameit, and P. Walther, “Experimental boson sampling,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 540–544 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2011 (7)

G. D. Marshall, A. Jesacher, A. Thayil, M. J. Withford, and M. Booth, “Three-dimensional imaging of direct-written photonic structures,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 695–697 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat. Commun. 2, 566 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. O. Owens, M. A. Broome, D. N. Biggerstaff, M. E. Goggin, A. Fedrizzi, T. Linjordet, M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, J. Twamley, M. J. Withford, and A. G. White, “Two-photon quantum walks in an elliptical direct-write waveguide array,” New J. Phys. 13(7), 075003 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. A. Fernandes, J. R. Grenier, P. R. Herman, J. S. Aitchison, and P. V. S. Marques, “Femtosecond laser writing of waveguide retarders in fused silica for polarization control in optical circuits,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18294–18301 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Fernandes, J. R. Grenier, P. R. Herman, J. S. Aitchison, and P. V. S. Marques, “Femtosecond laser fabrication of birefringent directional couplers as polarization beam splitters in fused silica,” Opt. Express 19(13), 11992–11999 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Eaton, M. L. Ng, R. Osellame, and P. R. Herman, “High refractive index contrast in fused silica waveguides by tightly focused, high-repetition rate femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11–13), 2387–2391 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, L.-M. Yang, and J. Liu, “Femtosecond fiber laser direct writing of optical waveguide in glasses,” Proc. SPIE 8164, 81640B (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Polarization entangled state measurement on a chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(20), 200503 (2010).
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2009 (5)

2008 (3)

P. J. Mosley, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, P. Wasylczyk, A. B. U’Ren, C. Silberhorn, and I. A. Walmsley, “Heralded generation of ultrafast single photons in pure quantum States,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 133601 (2008).
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R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, and C. Hnatovsky, “Creation of chiral structures inside fused silica glass,” Opt. Lett. 33(12), 1312–1314 (2008).
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2006 (1)

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2002 (1)

1998 (2)

M. Müller, J. Squier, K. R. Wilson, and G. J. Brakenhoff, “3D microscopy of transparent objects using third-harmonic generation,” J. Microsc. 191(3), 266–274 (1998).
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Ams, M.

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Y. Ohtsuka, T. Ando, Y. Imai, and M. Imai, “Modal birefringence measurements of polarization-maintaining single-mode fibers without and with stretching by optical heterodyne interferometry,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5(4), 602–607 (1987).
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A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat. Commun. 2, 566 (2011).
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Booth, M. J.

Bovatsek, J.

Brakenhoff, G. J.

M. Müller, J. Squier, K. R. Wilson, and G. J. Brakenhoff, “3D microscopy of transparent objects using third-harmonic generation,” J. Microsc. 191(3), 266–274 (1998).
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J. O. Owens, M. A. Broome, D. N. Biggerstaff, M. E. Goggin, A. Fedrizzi, T. Linjordet, M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, J. Twamley, M. J. Withford, and A. G. White, “Two-photon quantum walks in an elliptical direct-write waveguide array,” New J. Phys. 13(7), 075003 (2011).
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Cerullo, G.

Chaboyer, Z.

Z. Chaboyer, T. Meany, L. G. Helt, M. J. Withford, and M. J. Steel, “Tunable quantum interference in a 3D integrated circuit,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9601 (2015).
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Chang, S.

J. Liu, Z. Zhang, C. Flueraru, X. Liu, S. Chang, and C. P. Grover, “Waveguide shaping and writing in fused silica using a femtosecond laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(1), 169–173 (2004).
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Chang, T.

J. Tang, C. Chen, T. Chang, S. Wang, L. Chau, and W. Wu, “Fabrication and characterization of a fused silica-based optical waveguide with femtosecond fiber laser pulses,” Microsyst. Technol. 18(11), 1815–1821 (2012).
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J. Tang, C. Chen, T. Chang, S. Wang, L. Chau, and W. Wu, “Fabrication and characterization of a fused silica-based optical waveguide with femtosecond fiber laser pulses,” Microsyst. Technol. 18(11), 1815–1821 (2012).
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Cheng, Y.

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Christodoulides, D. N.

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Y. Fu, T. Ye, W. Tang, and T. Chu, “Efficient adiabatic silicon-on-insulator waveguide taper,” Photonics Res. 2(3), A41–A44 (2014).
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Crespi, A.

A. Crespi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, and R. Ramponi, “Fabrication of quantum photonic integrated circuits by means of femtosecond laser pulses,” Found. Phys. 44(8), 843–855 (2014).
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N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, L. Aparo, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Three-photon bosonic coalescence in an integrated tritter,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1606 (2013).
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A. Crespi, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, V. Giovannetti, R. Fazio, L. Sansoni, F. De Nicola, F. Sciarrino, and P. Mataloni, “Anderson localization of entangled photons in an integrated quantum walk,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 322–328 (2013).
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A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat. Commun. 2, 566 (2011).
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L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Polarization entangled state measurement on a chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(20), 200503 (2010).
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Cryan, M. J.

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-Silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320(5876), 646–649 (2008).
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Dai, D. X.

L. T. Feng, M. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, M. Li, X. Xiong, L. Yu, B. S. Shi, G. P. Guo, D. X. Dai, X. F. Ren, and G. C. Guo, “On-chip coherent conversion of photonic quantum entanglement between different degrees of freedom,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11985 (2016).
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Dakic, B.

M. Tillmann, B. Dakić, R. Heilmann, S. Nolte, A. Szameit, and P. Walther, “Experimental boson sampling,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 540–544 (2013).
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Datta, A.

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X. M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339(6121), 798–801 (2013).
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De Nicola, F.

A. Crespi, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, V. Giovannetti, R. Fazio, L. Sansoni, F. De Nicola, F. Sciarrino, and P. Mataloni, “Anderson localization of entangled photons in an integrated quantum walk,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 322–328 (2013).
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T. Meany, D. N. Biggerstaff, M. A. Broome, A. Fedrizzi, M. Delanty, M. J. Steel, A. Gilchrist, G. D. Marshall, A. G. White, and M. J. Withford, “Engineering integrated photonics for heralded quantum gates,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25126 (2016).
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Di Giuseppe, G.

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J. Wang, A. Santamato, P. Jiang, D. Bonneau, E. Engin, J. W. Silverstone, M. Lermer, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Gallium arsenide (GaAs) quantum photonic waveguide circuits,” Opt. Commun. 327, 49–55 (2014).
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G. Di Giuseppe, L. Martin, A. Perez-Leija, R. Keil, F. Dreisow, S. Nolte, A. Szameit, A. F. Abouraddy, D. N. Christodoulides, and B. E. A. Saleh, “Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen spatial entanglement in ordered and anderson photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(15), 150503 (2013).
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S. M. Eaton, M. L. Ng, R. Osellame, and P. R. Herman, “High refractive index contrast in fused silica waveguides by tightly focused, high-repetition rate femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11–13), 2387–2391 (2011).
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J. Wang, A. Santamato, P. Jiang, D. Bonneau, E. Engin, J. W. Silverstone, M. Lermer, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Gallium arsenide (GaAs) quantum photonic waveguide circuits,” Opt. Commun. 327, 49–55 (2014).
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Fazio, R.

A. Crespi, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, V. Giovannetti, R. Fazio, L. Sansoni, F. De Nicola, F. Sciarrino, and P. Mataloni, “Anderson localization of entangled photons in an integrated quantum walk,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 322–328 (2013).
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T. Meany, D. N. Biggerstaff, M. A. Broome, A. Fedrizzi, M. Delanty, M. J. Steel, A. Gilchrist, G. D. Marshall, A. G. White, and M. J. Withford, “Engineering integrated photonics for heralded quantum gates,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25126 (2016).
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J. O. Owens, M. A. Broome, D. N. Biggerstaff, M. E. Goggin, A. Fedrizzi, T. Linjordet, M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, J. Twamley, M. J. Withford, and A. G. White, “Two-photon quantum walks in an elliptical direct-write waveguide array,” New J. Phys. 13(7), 075003 (2011).
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L. T. Feng, M. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, M. Li, X. Xiong, L. Yu, B. S. Shi, G. P. Guo, D. X. Dai, X. F. Ren, and G. C. Guo, “On-chip coherent conversion of photonic quantum entanglement between different degrees of freedom,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11985 (2016).
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Flueraru, C.

J. Liu, Z. Zhang, C. Flueraru, X. Liu, S. Chang, and C. P. Grover, “Waveguide shaping and writing in fused silica using a femtosecond laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(1), 169–173 (2004).
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Y. Fu, T. Ye, W. Tang, and T. Chu, “Efficient adiabatic silicon-on-insulator waveguide taper,” Photonics Res. 2(3), A41–A44 (2014).
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B. J. Metcalf, J. B. Spring, P. C. Humphreys, N. Thomas-Peter, M. Barbieri, W. S. Kolthammer, X. Jin, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Quantum teleportation on a photonic chip,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 770–774 (2014).
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B. J. Metcalf, N. Thomas-Peter, J. B. Spring, D. Kundys, M. A. Broome, P. C. Humphreys, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, W. Steven Kolthammer, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, N. K. Langford, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Multiphoton quantum interference in a multiport integrated photonic device,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1356 (2013).
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J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X. M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339(6121), 798–801 (2013).
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Gilchrist, A.

T. Meany, D. N. Biggerstaff, M. A. Broome, A. Fedrizzi, M. Delanty, M. J. Steel, A. Gilchrist, G. D. Marshall, A. G. White, and M. J. Withford, “Engineering integrated photonics for heralded quantum gates,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25126 (2016).
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Giovannetti, V.

A. Crespi, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, V. Giovannetti, R. Fazio, L. Sansoni, F. De Nicola, F. Sciarrino, and P. Mataloni, “Anderson localization of entangled photons in an integrated quantum walk,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 322–328 (2013).
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Goggin, M. E.

J. O. Owens, M. A. Broome, D. N. Biggerstaff, M. E. Goggin, A. Fedrizzi, T. Linjordet, M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, J. Twamley, M. J. Withford, and A. G. White, “Two-photon quantum walks in an elliptical direct-write waveguide array,” New J. Phys. 13(7), 075003 (2011).
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Gräfe, M.

R. Heilmann, R. Keil, M. Gräfe, S. Nolte, and A. Szameit, “Ultraprecise phase manipulation in integrated photonic quantum circuits with generalized directional coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(6), 061111 (2014).
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R. Heilmann, M. Gräfe, S. Nolte, and A. Szameit, “Arbitrary photonic wave plate operations on chip: realizing Hadamard, Pauli-X, and rotation gates for polarisation qubits,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4118 (2014).
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Grenier, J. R.

Grieve, K.

Gross, S.

Grover, C. P.

J. Liu, Z. Zhang, C. Flueraru, X. Liu, S. Chang, and C. P. Grover, “Waveguide shaping and writing in fused silica using a femtosecond laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(1), 169–173 (2004).
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Guo, G. C.

L. T. Feng, M. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, M. Li, X. Xiong, L. Yu, B. S. Shi, G. P. Guo, D. X. Dai, X. F. Ren, and G. C. Guo, “On-chip coherent conversion of photonic quantum entanglement between different degrees of freedom,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11985 (2016).
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Guo, G. P.

L. T. Feng, M. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, M. Li, X. Xiong, L. Yu, B. S. Shi, G. P. Guo, D. X. Dai, X. F. Ren, and G. C. Guo, “On-chip coherent conversion of photonic quantum entanglement between different degrees of freedom,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11985 (2016).
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Hadfield, R. H.

J. Wang, A. Santamato, P. Jiang, D. Bonneau, E. Engin, J. W. Silverstone, M. Lermer, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Gallium arsenide (GaAs) quantum photonic waveguide circuits,” Opt. Commun. 327, 49–55 (2014).
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J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349(6249), 711–716 (2015).
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J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349(6249), 711–716 (2015).
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He, F.

Heilmann, R.

R. Heilmann, M. Gräfe, S. Nolte, and A. Szameit, “Arbitrary photonic wave plate operations on chip: realizing Hadamard, Pauli-X, and rotation gates for polarisation qubits,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4118 (2014).
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R. Heilmann, R. Keil, M. Gräfe, S. Nolte, and A. Szameit, “Ultraprecise phase manipulation in integrated photonic quantum circuits with generalized directional coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(6), 061111 (2014).
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M. Tillmann, B. Dakić, R. Heilmann, S. Nolte, A. Szameit, and P. Walther, “Experimental boson sampling,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 540–544 (2013).
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Helt, L. G.

Z. Chaboyer, T. Meany, L. G. Helt, M. J. Withford, and M. J. Steel, “Tunable quantum interference in a 3D integrated circuit,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9601 (2015).
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Herman, P.

Herman, P. R.

Hibino, Y.

Hirao, K.

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L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Polarization entangled state measurement on a chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(20), 200503 (2010).
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G. Di Giuseppe, L. Martin, A. Perez-Leija, R. Keil, F. Dreisow, S. Nolte, A. Szameit, A. F. Abouraddy, D. N. Christodoulides, and B. E. A. Saleh, “Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen spatial entanglement in ordered and anderson photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(15), 150503 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Huang, L.-M. Yang, and J. Liu, “Femtosecond fiber laser direct writing of optical waveguide in glasses,” Proc. SPIE 8164, 81640B (2011).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (3)

T. Meany, D. N. Biggerstaff, M. A. Broome, A. Fedrizzi, M. Delanty, M. J. Steel, A. Gilchrist, G. D. Marshall, A. G. White, and M. J. Withford, “Engineering integrated photonics for heralded quantum gates,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25126 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (3)

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349(6249), 711–716 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured insertion losses in vertical and horizontal polarizations at waveguide lengths of 38.8 mm and 14.2 mm respectively; The horizontal solid and dashed lines in the lower left part of this figure and following figures represent results that will be explained in subsection 2.3; they are included here and in following figures for later direct comparisons.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Peak of the averaged refractive index profile for waveguides written with different RNFs; as an example, the measured refractive index change profile and the transmission microscope image (along the writing direction Z) of the waveguide written with RNF of 3.31 mJ/µm2 are shown in in the upper part of the figure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The relationship between measured propagation losses of the waveguides and their writing RNFs. The horizontal solid and dashed lines in the lower left part of this figure are explained in subsection 2.3

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The polarization dependence (ILH-ILV) of waveguides written with different RNFs. The horizontal solid and dashed lines in the lower left part of this figure are explained in subsection 2.3

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Adaptive THG microscope images (in false color) and their corresponding optical transmission microscope images (insets) of waveguides written with 3.25 mJ/µm2 (a) and with 3.69 mJ/µm2 (b); in (a), the light guiding region is indicated with dashed rectangles, the non-guiding upper part is the region with negative refractive index change.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The difference between normalised mode field diameters of waveguides in horizontal polarization (RMFDH) and vertical polarization (RMFDV); RMFDH and RMFDV were normalised to the mode field diameters of the PM fibre in corresponding polarization. The horizontal solid and dashed lines in the lower left part of this figure are explained in subsection 2.3

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured ΔΦ for waveguides written with different RNFs; insets are the measured relative polarization ellipses of the output beams from corresponding waveguides, with respect to the semi-major axis of the polarization ellipse of the input beam. The results labeled 8 and 9 are explained in subsection 2.3.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Schematic of the proposed hybrid waveguide; (b) design of HW1; (c) design of HW2 (lower), the recoded mode profiles of the fabricated HW2 (right), measured peak of refractive index change at three positions on AMC2 (upper left) and the THG microscopy cross-section images (upper right, in false colors) of AMC2 at corresponding positions.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of the performances (measured mean values) of HW1 and HW2.

Equations (2)

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RNF= 4R E p π V s D .
I L H I L V =C L H C L V +(P L H P L V )L.

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