Abstract

We theoretically and numerically study the influence of both instantaneous and Raman-delayed Kerr nonlinearities as well as a long-wavelength pump in the terahertz (THz) emissions produced by two-color femtosecond filaments in air. Although the Raman-delayed nonlinearity induced by air molecules weakens THz generation, four-wave mixing is found to impact the THz spectra accumulated upon propagation via self-, cross-phase modulations and self-steepening. Besides, using the local current theory, we show that the scaling of laser-to-THz conversion efficiency with the fundamental laser wavelength strongly depends on the relative phase between the two colors, the pulse duration and shape, rendering a universal scaling law impossible. Scaling laws in powers of the pump wavelength may only provide a rough estimate of the increase in the THz yield. We confront these results with comprehensive numerical simulations of strongly focused pulses and of filaments propagating over meter-range distances.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
  6. J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave remote sensing using coherent manipulation of fluorescence from asymmetrically ionized gases,” Nat. Photon. 4, 627 (2010).
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  7. C. D’Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. Le Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Forward THz radiation emission by femtosecond filamentation in gases: theory and experiment,” New J. Phys. 10, 013015 (2007).
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    [Crossref]
  23. I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, A. Husakou, C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, L. Bergé, and J. Herrmann, “Tailoring terahertz radiation by controling tunnel photoionization events in gases,” New J. Phys. 13, 123029 (2011).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  26. P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, B. Hafizi, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Ultrashort laser pulses and electromagnetic pulse generation in air and on dielectric surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066415 (2004).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. W. Ettoumi, Y. Petit, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, “Generalized Miller formulae,” Opt. Express 18, 6613–6620 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. L. Bergé, J. Rolle, and C. Köhler, “Enhanced self-compression of mid-infrared laser filaments in argon,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 023816 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  40. S. Champeaux and L. Bergé, “Postionization regimes of femtosecond laser pulses self-channeling in air,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 046604 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  41. S. Champeaux, L. Bergé, D. Gordon, A. Ting, J. Peñano, and P. Sprangle, “(3+1)-dimensional numerical simulations of femtosecond laser filaments in air: Toward a quantitative agreement with experiments,” Phys. Rev. E 77, 036406 (2008).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  47. S. Zahedpour, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Measurements of the nonlinear refractive index of air constituents at mid-infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 40, 5794–5797 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

P. González de Alaiza Martínez, X. Davoine, A. Debayle, L. Gremillet, and L. Bergé, “Terahertz radiation driven by two-color laser pulses at near-relativistic intensities: Competition between photoionization and wakefield effects,” Scientific Reports 6, 26743 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad terahertz spectrum generation from an air-based filament plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 063902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Thiele, R. Nuter, B. Bousquet, V. Tikhonchuk, S. Skupin, X. Davoine, L. Gremillet, and L. Bergé, “Theory of terahertz emission from femtosecond-laser-induced microplasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 94, 063202 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

P. González de Alaiza Martínez, I. Babushkin, L. Bergé, S. Skupin, E. Cabrera-Granado, C. Köhler, U. Morgner, A. Husakou, and J. Herrmann, “Boosting Terahertz generation in laser-field ionized gases using a sawtooth wave shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 183901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. W. Rosenthal, J. P. Palastro, N. Jhajj, S. Zahedpour, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Sensitivity of propagation and energy deposition in femtosecond filamentation to the nonlinear refractive index,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 094011 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Debayle, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, L. Gremillet, and L. Bergé, “Non-monotonic increase in laser-driven THz emissions through multiple ionization events,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 041801 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Zahedpour, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Measurements of the nonlinear refractive index of air constituents at mid-infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 40, 5794–5797 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

2013 (4)

A. V. Borodin, N. A. Panov, O. G. Kosareva, V. A. Andreeva, M. N. Esaulkov, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, “Transformation of terahertz spectra emitted from dual-frequency femtosecond pulse interaction in gases,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1906 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, C. Köhler, I. Babushkin, and J. Herrmann, “3D numerical simulations of THz generation by two-color laser filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 073901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, J. Rolle, and C. Köhler, “Enhanced self-compression of mid-infrared laser filaments in argon,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 023816 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

J. P. Palastro, T. M. Antonsen, and H. M. Milchberg, “Compression, spectral broadening, and collimation in multiple, femtosecond pulse filamentation in atmosphere,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 033834 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. K. Wahlstrand, Y.-H. Cheng, and H. M. Milchberg, “Absolute measurement of the transient optical nonlinearity in N2, O2, N2O, and Ar,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 043820 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Li, W. Li, Y. Shi, P. Lu, H. Pan, and H. Zeng, “Verification of the physical mechanism of THz generation by dual-color ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. S. You, T. I. Oh, and K. Y. Kim, “Off-axis phase-matched terahertz emission from two-color laser-induced plasma filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 183902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, A. Husakou, C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, L. Bergé, and J. Herrmann, “Tailoring terahertz radiation by controling tunnel photoionization events in gases,” New J. Phys. 13, 123029 (2011).
[Crossref]

O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, R. V. Volkov, V. A. Andreeva, A. V. Borodin, M. N. Esaulkov, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, A. B. Savel’ev, and S. L. Chin, “Analysis of dual frequency interaction in the filament with the purpose of efficiency control of THz pulse generation,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32, 1157–1167 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

J. Wu, Y. Tong, M. Li, H. Pan, and H. Zeng, “THz generation by a two-color pulse in prealigned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053416 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave remote sensing using coherent manipulation of fluorescence from asymmetrically ionized gases,” Nat. Photon. 4, 627 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Ettoumi, Y. Petit, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, “Generalized Miller formulae,” Opt. Express 18, 6613–6620 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

V. Loriot, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, and B. Lavorel, “Measurement of high order Kerr refractive index of major air components,” Opt. Express 17, 13429–13434 (2009); See also erratum in Opt. Express 18, 3011–3012 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-J. Wang, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “High energy terahertz emission from two-color laser-induced filamentation in air with pump pulse duration control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 131108 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Photon. 2, 605 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Bergé and S. Skupin, “Few-cycle light bullets created by femtosecond filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 113902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Champeaux, L. Bergé, D. Gordon, A. Ting, J. Peñano, and P. Sprangle, “(3+1)-dimensional numerical simulations of femtosecond laser filaments in air: Toward a quantitative agreement with experiments,” Phys. Rev. E 77, 036406 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (5)

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. Le Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Forward THz radiation emission by femtosecond filamentation in gases: theory and experiment,” New J. Phys. 10, 013015 (2007).

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. D. Thomson, M. Kress, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15, 4577 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: Physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Champeaux and L. Bergé, “Postionization regimes of femtosecond laser pulses self-channeling in air,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 046604 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

M. Kolesik and J. V. Moloney, “Nonlinear optical pulse propagation simulation: From Maxwell’s to unidirectional equations,” Phys. Rev. E 7, 036604 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, B. Hafizi, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Ultrashort laser pulses and electromagnetic pulse generation in air and on dielectric surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066415 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. A. Pitts, T. S. Luk, J. K. Gruetzner, T. R. Nelson, A. McPherson, S. M. Cameron, and A. C. Bernstein, “Propagation of self-focusing laser pulses in atmosphere: experiment versus numerical simulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 2008 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, P. Serafim, B. Hafizi, and A. Ting, “Stimulated Raman scattering of intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 056502 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and M. Mlejnek, “Unidirectional optical pulse propagation equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 283902 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

A. Talebpour, J. Yang, and S. L. Chin, “Semi-empirical model for the rate of tunnel ionization of N2 and O2 molecule in an intense Ti:sapphire laser pulse,” Opt. Commun. 163, 29–32 (1999).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

1966 (1)

A. M. Perelomov, V. S. Popov, and M. V. Terent’ev, “Ionization of atoms in an alternating electric field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 23, 924–934 (1966).

Aközbek, N.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: Physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Akturk, S.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. Le Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Forward THz radiation emission by femtosecond filamentation in gases: theory and experiment,” New J. Phys. 10, 013015 (2007).

André, Y. B.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andreeva, V. A.

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad terahertz spectrum generation from an air-based filament plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 063902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Borodin, N. A. Panov, O. G. Kosareva, V. A. Andreeva, M. N. Esaulkov, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, “Transformation of terahertz spectra emitted from dual-frequency femtosecond pulse interaction in gases,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1906 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, R. V. Volkov, V. A. Andreeva, A. V. Borodin, M. N. Esaulkov, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, A. B. Savel’ev, and S. L. Chin, “Analysis of dual frequency interaction in the filament with the purpose of efficiency control of THz pulse generation,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32, 1157–1167 (2011).
[Crossref]

Antonsen, T. M.

J. P. Palastro, T. M. Antonsen, and H. M. Milchberg, “Compression, spectral broadening, and collimation in multiple, femtosecond pulse filamentation in atmosphere,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 033834 (2012).
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Babushkin, I.

P. González de Alaiza Martínez, I. Babushkin, L. Bergé, S. Skupin, E. Cabrera-Granado, C. Köhler, U. Morgner, A. Husakou, and J. Herrmann, “Boosting Terahertz generation in laser-field ionized gases using a sawtooth wave shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 183901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, C. Köhler, I. Babushkin, and J. Herrmann, “3D numerical simulations of THz generation by two-color laser filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 073901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, A. Husakou, C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, L. Bergé, and J. Herrmann, “Tailoring terahertz radiation by controling tunnel photoionization events in gases,” New J. Phys. 13, 123029 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, A.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: Physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
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Bergé, L.

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad terahertz spectrum generation from an air-based filament plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 063902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. González de Alaiza Martínez, X. Davoine, A. Debayle, L. Gremillet, and L. Bergé, “Terahertz radiation driven by two-color laser pulses at near-relativistic intensities: Competition between photoionization and wakefield effects,” Scientific Reports 6, 26743 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Thiele, R. Nuter, B. Bousquet, V. Tikhonchuk, S. Skupin, X. Davoine, L. Gremillet, and L. Bergé, “Theory of terahertz emission from femtosecond-laser-induced microplasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 94, 063202 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. González de Alaiza Martínez, I. Babushkin, L. Bergé, S. Skupin, E. Cabrera-Granado, C. Köhler, U. Morgner, A. Husakou, and J. Herrmann, “Boosting Terahertz generation in laser-field ionized gases using a sawtooth wave shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 183901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Debayle, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, L. Gremillet, and L. Bergé, “Non-monotonic increase in laser-driven THz emissions through multiple ionization events,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 041801 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Debayle, L. Gremillet, L. Bergé, and C. Köhler, “Analytical model for THz emissions induced by laser-gas interaction,” Opt. Express 22, 13691 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, J. Rolle, and C. Köhler, “Enhanced self-compression of mid-infrared laser filaments in argon,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 023816 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, C. Köhler, I. Babushkin, and J. Herrmann, “3D numerical simulations of THz generation by two-color laser filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 073901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, A. Husakou, C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, L. Bergé, and J. Herrmann, “Tailoring terahertz radiation by controling tunnel photoionization events in gases,” New J. Phys. 13, 123029 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bergé and S. Skupin, “Few-cycle light bullets created by femtosecond filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 113902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Champeaux, L. Bergé, D. Gordon, A. Ting, J. Peñano, and P. Sprangle, “(3+1)-dimensional numerical simulations of femtosecond laser filaments in air: Toward a quantitative agreement with experiments,” Phys. Rev. E 77, 036406 (2008).
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L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
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R. Nuter and L. Bergé, “Pulse chirping and ionization of O2 molecules for the filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses in air,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 874–884 (2006).
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S. Champeaux and L. Bergé, “Postionization regimes of femtosecond laser pulses self-channeling in air,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 046604 (2005).
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Bernstein, A. C.

Borodin, A. V.

A. V. Borodin, N. A. Panov, O. G. Kosareva, V. A. Andreeva, M. N. Esaulkov, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, “Transformation of terahertz spectra emitted from dual-frequency femtosecond pulse interaction in gases,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1906 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, R. V. Volkov, V. A. Andreeva, A. V. Borodin, M. N. Esaulkov, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, A. B. Savel’ev, and S. L. Chin, “Analysis of dual frequency interaction in the filament with the purpose of efficiency control of THz pulse generation,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32, 1157–1167 (2011).
[Crossref]

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J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bousquet, B.

I. Thiele, R. Nuter, B. Bousquet, V. Tikhonchuk, S. Skupin, X. Davoine, L. Gremillet, and L. Bergé, “Theory of terahertz emission from femtosecond-laser-induced microplasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 94, 063202 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cabrera-Granado, E.

P. González de Alaiza Martínez, I. Babushkin, L. Bergé, S. Skupin, E. Cabrera-Granado, C. Köhler, U. Morgner, A. Husakou, and J. Herrmann, “Boosting Terahertz generation in laser-field ionized gases using a sawtooth wave shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 183901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, A. Husakou, C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, L. Bergé, and J. Herrmann, “Tailoring terahertz radiation by controling tunnel photoionization events in gases,” New J. Phys. 13, 123029 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cameron, S. M.

Caspani, L.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Champeaux, S.

S. Champeaux, L. Bergé, D. Gordon, A. Ting, J. Peñano, and P. Sprangle, “(3+1)-dimensional numerical simulations of femtosecond laser filaments in air: Toward a quantitative agreement with experiments,” Phys. Rev. E 77, 036406 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Champeaux and L. Bergé, “Postionization regimes of femtosecond laser pulses self-channeling in air,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 046604 (2005).
[Crossref]

Châteauneuf, M.

T.-J. Wang, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “High energy terahertz emission from two-color laser-induced filamentation in air with pump pulse duration control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 131108 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, R. V. Volkov, V. A. Andreeva, A. V. Borodin, M. N. Esaulkov, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, A. B. Savel’ev, and S. L. Chin, “Analysis of dual frequency interaction in the filament with the purpose of efficiency control of THz pulse generation,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32, 1157–1167 (2011).
[Crossref]

T.-J. Wang, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “High energy terahertz emission from two-color laser-induced filamentation in air with pump pulse duration control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 131108 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.-H.

J. K. Wahlstrand, Y.-H. Cheng, and H. M. Milchberg, “Absolute measurement of the transient optical nonlinearity in N2, O2, N2O, and Ar,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 043820 (2012).
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Chin, S. L.

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad terahertz spectrum generation from an air-based filament plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 063902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Borodin, N. A. Panov, O. G. Kosareva, V. A. Andreeva, M. N. Esaulkov, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, “Transformation of terahertz spectra emitted from dual-frequency femtosecond pulse interaction in gases,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1906 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, R. V. Volkov, V. A. Andreeva, A. V. Borodin, M. N. Esaulkov, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, A. B. Savel’ev, and S. L. Chin, “Analysis of dual frequency interaction in the filament with the purpose of efficiency control of THz pulse generation,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32, 1157–1167 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave remote sensing using coherent manipulation of fluorescence from asymmetrically ionized gases,” Nat. Photon. 4, 627 (2010).
[Crossref]

T.-J. Wang, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “High energy terahertz emission from two-color laser-induced filamentation in air with pump pulse duration control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 131108 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: Physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Talebpour, J. Yang, and S. L. Chin, “Semi-empirical model for the rate of tunnel ionization of N2 and O2 molecule in an intense Ti:sapphire laser pulse,” Opt. Commun. 163, 29–32 (1999).
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Clerici, M.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cook, D. J.

Couairon, A.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. Le Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Forward THz radiation emission by femtosecond filamentation in gases: theory and experiment,” New J. Phys. 10, 013015 (2007).

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[Crossref]

D’Amico, C.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. Le Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Forward THz radiation emission by femtosecond filamentation in gases: theory and experiment,” New J. Phys. 10, 013015 (2007).

Dai, J.

J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave remote sensing using coherent manipulation of fluorescence from asymmetrically ionized gases,” Nat. Photon. 4, 627 (2010).
[Crossref]

Davoine, X.

I. Thiele, R. Nuter, B. Bousquet, V. Tikhonchuk, S. Skupin, X. Davoine, L. Gremillet, and L. Bergé, “Theory of terahertz emission from femtosecond-laser-induced microplasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 94, 063202 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. González de Alaiza Martínez, X. Davoine, A. Debayle, L. Gremillet, and L. Bergé, “Terahertz radiation driven by two-color laser pulses at near-relativistic intensities: Competition between photoionization and wakefield effects,” Scientific Reports 6, 26743 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Debayle, A.

P. González de Alaiza Martínez, X. Davoine, A. Debayle, L. Gremillet, and L. Bergé, “Terahertz radiation driven by two-color laser pulses at near-relativistic intensities: Competition between photoionization and wakefield effects,” Scientific Reports 6, 26743 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Debayle, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, L. Gremillet, and L. Bergé, “Non-monotonic increase in laser-driven THz emissions through multiple ionization events,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 041801 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Debayle, L. Gremillet, L. Bergé, and C. Köhler, “Analytical model for THz emissions induced by laser-gas interaction,” Opt. Express 22, 13691 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dubois, J.

T.-J. Wang, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “High energy terahertz emission from two-color laser-induced filamentation in air with pump pulse duration control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 131108 (2009).
[Crossref]

Elsaesser, T.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Esaulkov, M. N.

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad terahertz spectrum generation from an air-based filament plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 063902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Borodin, N. A. Panov, O. G. Kosareva, V. A. Andreeva, M. N. Esaulkov, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, “Transformation of terahertz spectra emitted from dual-frequency femtosecond pulse interaction in gases,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1906 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, R. V. Volkov, V. A. Andreeva, A. V. Borodin, M. N. Esaulkov, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, A. B. Savel’ev, and S. L. Chin, “Analysis of dual frequency interaction in the filament with the purpose of efficiency control of THz pulse generation,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32, 1157–1167 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ettoumi, W.

Faccio, D.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faucher, O.

Franco, M.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. Le Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Forward THz radiation emission by femtosecond filamentation in gases: theory and experiment,” New J. Phys. 10, 013015 (2007).

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[Crossref]

Frey, S.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giguère, M.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glownia, J. H.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Photon. 2, 605 (2008).
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K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15, 4577 (2007).
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González de Alaiza Martínez, P.

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad terahertz spectrum generation from an air-based filament plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 063902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. González de Alaiza Martínez, X. Davoine, A. Debayle, L. Gremillet, and L. Bergé, “Terahertz radiation driven by two-color laser pulses at near-relativistic intensities: Competition between photoionization and wakefield effects,” Scientific Reports 6, 26743 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Debayle, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, L. Gremillet, and L. Bergé, “Non-monotonic increase in laser-driven THz emissions through multiple ionization events,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 041801 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. González de Alaiza Martínez, I. Babushkin, L. Bergé, S. Skupin, E. Cabrera-Granado, C. Köhler, U. Morgner, A. Husakou, and J. Herrmann, “Boosting Terahertz generation in laser-field ionized gases using a sawtooth wave shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 183901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. González de Alaiza Martínez, “Generation of intense terahertz sources by ultrashort laser pulses,” PhD Dissertation Thesis, Université Paris-Saclay NNT # 2016SACLS350, Chap. 3 (2016).

Gordon, D.

S. Champeaux, L. Bergé, D. Gordon, A. Ting, J. Peñano, and P. Sprangle, “(3+1)-dimensional numerical simulations of femtosecond laser filaments in air: Toward a quantitative agreement with experiments,” Phys. Rev. E 77, 036406 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gremillet, L.

I. Thiele, R. Nuter, B. Bousquet, V. Tikhonchuk, S. Skupin, X. Davoine, L. Gremillet, and L. Bergé, “Theory of terahertz emission from femtosecond-laser-induced microplasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 94, 063202 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. González de Alaiza Martínez, X. Davoine, A. Debayle, L. Gremillet, and L. Bergé, “Terahertz radiation driven by two-color laser pulses at near-relativistic intensities: Competition between photoionization and wakefield effects,” Scientific Reports 6, 26743 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Debayle, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, L. Gremillet, and L. Bergé, “Non-monotonic increase in laser-driven THz emissions through multiple ionization events,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 041801 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Debayle, L. Gremillet, L. Bergé, and C. Köhler, “Analytical model for THz emissions induced by laser-gas interaction,” Opt. Express 22, 13691 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gruetzner, J. K.

Hafizi, B.

P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, B. Hafizi, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Ultrashort laser pulses and electromagnetic pulse generation in air and on dielectric surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066415 (2004).
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J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, P. Serafim, B. Hafizi, and A. Ting, “Stimulated Raman scattering of intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 056502 (2003).
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Herrmann, J.

P. González de Alaiza Martínez, I. Babushkin, L. Bergé, S. Skupin, E. Cabrera-Granado, C. Köhler, U. Morgner, A. Husakou, and J. Herrmann, “Boosting Terahertz generation in laser-field ionized gases using a sawtooth wave shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 183901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, C. Köhler, I. Babushkin, and J. Herrmann, “3D numerical simulations of THz generation by two-color laser filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 073901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, A. Husakou, C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, L. Bergé, and J. Herrmann, “Tailoring terahertz radiation by controling tunnel photoionization events in gases,” New J. Phys. 13, 123029 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hertz, E.

Hochstrasser, R. M.

Hosseini, S. A.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: Physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Houard, A.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. Le Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Forward THz radiation emission by femtosecond filamentation in gases: theory and experiment,” New J. Phys. 10, 013015 (2007).

Husakou, A.

P. González de Alaiza Martínez, I. Babushkin, L. Bergé, S. Skupin, E. Cabrera-Granado, C. Köhler, U. Morgner, A. Husakou, and J. Herrmann, “Boosting Terahertz generation in laser-field ionized gases using a sawtooth wave shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 183901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, A. Husakou, C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, L. Bergé, and J. Herrmann, “Tailoring terahertz radiation by controling tunnel photoionization events in gases,” New J. Phys. 13, 123029 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jhajj, N.

E. W. Rosenthal, J. P. Palastro, N. Jhajj, S. Zahedpour, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Sensitivity of propagation and energy deposition in femtosecond filamentation to the nonlinear refractive index,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 094011 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kandidov, V. P.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: Physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kapetanakos, C. A.

P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, B. Hafizi, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Ultrashort laser pulses and electromagnetic pulse generation in air and on dielectric surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066415 (2004).
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W. Ettoumi, Y. Petit, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, “Generalized Miller formulae,” Opt. Express 18, 6613–6620 (2010).
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L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K. Y.

Y. S. You, T. I. Oh, and K. Y. Kim, “Off-axis phase-matched terahertz emission from two-color laser-induced plasma filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 183902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Photon. 2, 605 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15, 4577 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Köhler, C.

P. González de Alaiza Martínez, I. Babushkin, L. Bergé, S. Skupin, E. Cabrera-Granado, C. Köhler, U. Morgner, A. Husakou, and J. Herrmann, “Boosting Terahertz generation in laser-field ionized gases using a sawtooth wave shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 183901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Debayle, L. Gremillet, L. Bergé, and C. Köhler, “Analytical model for THz emissions induced by laser-gas interaction,” Opt. Express 22, 13691 (2014).
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L. Bergé, J. Rolle, and C. Köhler, “Enhanced self-compression of mid-infrared laser filaments in argon,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 023816 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, C. Köhler, I. Babushkin, and J. Herrmann, “3D numerical simulations of THz generation by two-color laser filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 073901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, A. Husakou, C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, L. Bergé, and J. Herrmann, “Tailoring terahertz radiation by controling tunnel photoionization events in gases,” New J. Phys. 13, 123029 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Kolesik and J. V. Moloney, “Nonlinear optical pulse propagation simulation: From Maxwell’s to unidirectional equations,” Phys. Rev. E 7, 036604 (2004).
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M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and M. Mlejnek, “Unidirectional optical pulse propagation equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 283902 (2002).
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V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad terahertz spectrum generation from an air-based filament plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 063902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Borodin, N. A. Panov, O. G. Kosareva, V. A. Andreeva, M. N. Esaulkov, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, “Transformation of terahertz spectra emitted from dual-frequency femtosecond pulse interaction in gases,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1906 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, R. V. Volkov, V. A. Andreeva, A. V. Borodin, M. N. Esaulkov, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, A. B. Savel’ev, and S. L. Chin, “Analysis of dual frequency interaction in the filament with the purpose of efficiency control of THz pulse generation,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32, 1157–1167 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: Physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kress, M.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kress, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kuehn, W.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
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L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics (Pergamon Press, 1965).

Lavorel, B.

Le Bloas, J.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. Le Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Forward THz radiation emission by femtosecond filamentation in gases: theory and experiment,” New J. Phys. 10, 013015 (2007).

Légaré, F.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 253901 (2013).
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M. Li, W. Li, Y. Shi, P. Lu, H. Pan, and H. Zeng, “Verification of the physical mechanism of THz generation by dual-color ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161104 (2012).
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J. Wu, Y. Tong, M. Li, H. Pan, and H. Zeng, “THz generation by a two-color pulse in prealigned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053416 (2010).
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M. Li, W. Li, Y. Shi, P. Lu, H. Pan, and H. Zeng, “Verification of the physical mechanism of THz generation by dual-color ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161104 (2012).
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L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics (Pergamon Press, 1965).

Liu, J.

J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave remote sensing using coherent manipulation of fluorescence from asymmetrically ionized gases,” Nat. Photon. 4, 627 (2010).
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S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: Physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
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Liu, Y.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. Le Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Forward THz radiation emission by femtosecond filamentation in gases: theory and experiment,” New J. Phys. 10, 013015 (2007).

Löffler, T.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kress, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
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Lotti, A.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 253901 (2013).
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M. Li, W. Li, Y. Shi, P. Lu, H. Pan, and H. Zeng, “Verification of the physical mechanism of THz generation by dual-color ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161104 (2012).
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Luo, Q.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: Physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
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V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad terahertz spectrum generation from an air-based filament plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 063902 (2016).
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A. V. Borodin, N. A. Panov, O. G. Kosareva, V. A. Andreeva, M. N. Esaulkov, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, “Transformation of terahertz spectra emitted from dual-frequency femtosecond pulse interaction in gases,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1906 (2013).
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O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, R. V. Volkov, V. A. Andreeva, A. V. Borodin, M. N. Esaulkov, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, A. B. Savel’ev, and S. L. Chin, “Analysis of dual frequency interaction in the filament with the purpose of efficiency control of THz pulse generation,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32, 1157–1167 (2011).
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O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, R. V. Volkov, V. A. Andreeva, A. V. Borodin, M. N. Esaulkov, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, A. B. Savel’ev, and S. L. Chin, “Analysis of dual frequency interaction in the filament with the purpose of efficiency control of THz pulse generation,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32, 1157–1167 (2011).
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T.-J. Wang, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “High energy terahertz emission from two-color laser-induced filamentation in air with pump pulse duration control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 131108 (2009).
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E. W. Rosenthal, J. P. Palastro, N. Jhajj, S. Zahedpour, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Sensitivity of propagation and energy deposition in femtosecond filamentation to the nonlinear refractive index,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 094011 (2015).
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S. Zahedpour, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Measurements of the nonlinear refractive index of air constituents at mid-infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 40, 5794–5797 (2015).
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J. K. Wahlstrand, Y.-H. Cheng, and H. M. Milchberg, “Absolute measurement of the transient optical nonlinearity in N2, O2, N2O, and Ar,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 043820 (2012).
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J. P. Palastro, T. M. Antonsen, and H. M. Milchberg, “Compression, spectral broadening, and collimation in multiple, femtosecond pulse filamentation in atmosphere,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 033834 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mlejnek, M.

M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and M. Mlejnek, “Unidirectional optical pulse propagation equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 283902 (2002).
[Crossref]

Moloney, J. V.

M. Kolesik and J. V. Moloney, “Nonlinear optical pulse propagation simulation: From Maxwell’s to unidirectional equations,” Phys. Rev. E 7, 036604 (2004).
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M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and M. Mlejnek, “Unidirectional optical pulse propagation equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 283902 (2002).
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Morandotti, R.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 253901 (2013).
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Morgner, U.

P. González de Alaiza Martínez, I. Babushkin, L. Bergé, S. Skupin, E. Cabrera-Granado, C. Köhler, U. Morgner, A. Husakou, and J. Herrmann, “Boosting Terahertz generation in laser-field ionized gases using a sawtooth wave shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 183901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mysyrowicz, A.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. Le Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Forward THz radiation emission by femtosecond filamentation in gases: theory and experiment,” New J. Phys. 10, 013015 (2007).

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
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Nuter, R.

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L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
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Y. S. You, T. I. Oh, and K. Y. Kim, “Off-axis phase-matched terahertz emission from two-color laser-induced plasma filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 183902 (2012).
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M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palastro, J. P.

E. W. Rosenthal, J. P. Palastro, N. Jhajj, S. Zahedpour, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Sensitivity of propagation and energy deposition in femtosecond filamentation to the nonlinear refractive index,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 094011 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. P. Palastro, T. M. Antonsen, and H. M. Milchberg, “Compression, spectral broadening, and collimation in multiple, femtosecond pulse filamentation in atmosphere,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 033834 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pan, H.

M. Li, W. Li, Y. Shi, P. Lu, H. Pan, and H. Zeng, “Verification of the physical mechanism of THz generation by dual-color ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161104 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, Y. Tong, M. Li, H. Pan, and H. Zeng, “THz generation by a two-color pulse in prealigned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053416 (2010).
[Crossref]

Panov, N. A.

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad terahertz spectrum generation from an air-based filament plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 063902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Borodin, N. A. Panov, O. G. Kosareva, V. A. Andreeva, M. N. Esaulkov, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, “Transformation of terahertz spectra emitted from dual-frequency femtosecond pulse interaction in gases,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1906 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, R. V. Volkov, V. A. Andreeva, A. V. Borodin, M. N. Esaulkov, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, A. B. Savel’ev, and S. L. Chin, “Analysis of dual frequency interaction in the filament with the purpose of efficiency control of THz pulse generation,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32, 1157–1167 (2011).
[Crossref]

Peccianti, M.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 253901 (2013).
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Peñano, J.

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P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, B. Hafizi, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Ultrashort laser pulses and electromagnetic pulse generation in air and on dielectric surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066415 (2004).
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Prade, B.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. Le Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Forward THz radiation emission by femtosecond filamentation in gases: theory and experiment,” New J. Phys. 10, 013015 (2007).

Reeder, K.

Reimann, K.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, G.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Photon. 2, 605 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15, 4577 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, M.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rolle, J.

L. Bergé, J. Rolle, and C. Köhler, “Enhanced self-compression of mid-infrared laser filaments in argon,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 023816 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rosenthal, E. W.

E. W. Rosenthal, J. P. Palastro, N. Jhajj, S. Zahedpour, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Sensitivity of propagation and energy deposition in femtosecond filamentation to the nonlinear refractive index,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 094011 (2015).
[Crossref]

Roskos, H. G.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kress, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[Crossref]

Salmon, E.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sauerbrey, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Savel’ev, A. B.

O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, R. V. Volkov, V. A. Andreeva, A. V. Borodin, M. N. Esaulkov, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, A. B. Savel’ev, and S. L. Chin, “Analysis of dual frequency interaction in the filament with the purpose of efficiency control of THz pulse generation,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32, 1157–1167 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, B. E.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schroeder, H.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: Physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Serafim, P.

J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, P. Serafim, B. Hafizi, and A. Ting, “Stimulated Raman scattering of intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 056502 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shalaby, M.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, Y.

M. Li, W. Li, Y. Shi, P. Lu, H. Pan, and H. Zeng, “Verification of the physical mechanism of THz generation by dual-color ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shipilo, D. E.

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad terahertz spectrum generation from an air-based filament plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 063902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shkurinov, A. P.

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad terahertz spectrum generation from an air-based filament plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 063902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Borodin, N. A. Panov, O. G. Kosareva, V. A. Andreeva, M. N. Esaulkov, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, “Transformation of terahertz spectra emitted from dual-frequency femtosecond pulse interaction in gases,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1906 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, R. V. Volkov, V. A. Andreeva, A. V. Borodin, M. N. Esaulkov, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, A. B. Savel’ev, and S. L. Chin, “Analysis of dual frequency interaction in the filament with the purpose of efficiency control of THz pulse generation,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32, 1157–1167 (2011).
[Crossref]

Skupin, S.

I. Thiele, R. Nuter, B. Bousquet, V. Tikhonchuk, S. Skupin, X. Davoine, L. Gremillet, and L. Bergé, “Theory of terahertz emission from femtosecond-laser-induced microplasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 94, 063202 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. González de Alaiza Martínez, I. Babushkin, L. Bergé, S. Skupin, E. Cabrera-Granado, C. Köhler, U. Morgner, A. Husakou, and J. Herrmann, “Boosting Terahertz generation in laser-field ionized gases using a sawtooth wave shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 183901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, C. Köhler, I. Babushkin, and J. Herrmann, “3D numerical simulations of THz generation by two-color laser filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 073901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, A. Husakou, C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, L. Bergé, and J. Herrmann, “Tailoring terahertz radiation by controling tunnel photoionization events in gases,” New J. Phys. 13, 123029 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bergé and S. Skupin, “Few-cycle light bullets created by femtosecond filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 113902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[Crossref]

Solyankin, P. M.

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad terahertz spectrum generation from an air-based filament plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 063902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sprangle, P.

S. Champeaux, L. Bergé, D. Gordon, A. Ting, J. Peñano, and P. Sprangle, “(3+1)-dimensional numerical simulations of femtosecond laser filaments in air: Toward a quantitative agreement with experiments,” Phys. Rev. E 77, 036406 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, B. Hafizi, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Ultrashort laser pulses and electromagnetic pulse generation in air and on dielectric surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066415 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, P. Serafim, B. Hafizi, and A. Ting, “Stimulated Raman scattering of intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 056502 (2003).
[Crossref]

Talebpour, A.

A. Talebpour, J. Yang, and S. L. Chin, “Semi-empirical model for the rate of tunnel ionization of N2 and O2 molecule in an intense Ti:sapphire laser pulse,” Opt. Commun. 163, 29–32 (1999).
[Crossref]

Taylor, A. J.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Photon. 2, 605 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15, 4577 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Terent’ev, M. V.

A. M. Perelomov, V. S. Popov, and M. V. Terent’ev, “Ionization of atoms in an alternating electric field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 23, 924–934 (1966).

Théberge, F.

T.-J. Wang, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “High energy terahertz emission from two-color laser-induced filamentation in air with pump pulse duration control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 131108 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: Physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

Thiele, I.

I. Thiele, R. Nuter, B. Bousquet, V. Tikhonchuk, S. Skupin, X. Davoine, L. Gremillet, and L. Bergé, “Theory of terahertz emission from femtosecond-laser-induced microplasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 94, 063202 (2016).
[Crossref]

Thomson, M. D.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kress, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tikhonchuk, V.

I. Thiele, R. Nuter, B. Bousquet, V. Tikhonchuk, S. Skupin, X. Davoine, L. Gremillet, and L. Bergé, “Theory of terahertz emission from femtosecond-laser-induced microplasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 94, 063202 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. Le Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Forward THz radiation emission by femtosecond filamentation in gases: theory and experiment,” New J. Phys. 10, 013015 (2007).

Tikhonchuk, V. T.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ting, A.

S. Champeaux, L. Bergé, D. Gordon, A. Ting, J. Peñano, and P. Sprangle, “(3+1)-dimensional numerical simulations of femtosecond laser filaments in air: Toward a quantitative agreement with experiments,” Phys. Rev. E 77, 036406 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, P. Serafim, B. Hafizi, and A. Ting, “Stimulated Raman scattering of intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 056502 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tong, Y.

J. Wu, Y. Tong, M. Li, H. Pan, and H. Zeng, “THz generation by a two-color pulse in prealigned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053416 (2010).
[Crossref]

Volkov, R. V.

O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, R. V. Volkov, V. A. Andreeva, A. V. Borodin, M. N. Esaulkov, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, A. B. Savel’ev, and S. L. Chin, “Analysis of dual frequency interaction in the filament with the purpose of efficiency control of THz pulse generation,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32, 1157–1167 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wahlstrand, J. K.

E. W. Rosenthal, J. P. Palastro, N. Jhajj, S. Zahedpour, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Sensitivity of propagation and energy deposition in femtosecond filamentation to the nonlinear refractive index,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 094011 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Zahedpour, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Measurements of the nonlinear refractive index of air constituents at mid-infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 40, 5794–5797 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Wahlstrand, Y.-H. Cheng, and H. M. Milchberg, “Absolute measurement of the transient optical nonlinearity in N2, O2, N2O, and Ar,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 043820 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.-J.

T.-J. Wang, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “High energy terahertz emission from two-color laser-induced filamentation in air with pump pulse duration control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 131108 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wille, H.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woerner, M.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolf, J. P.

W. Ettoumi, Y. Petit, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, “Generalized Miller formulae,” Opt. Express 18, 6613–6620 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wöste, L.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, Y. Tong, M. Li, H. Pan, and H. Zeng, “THz generation by a two-color pulse in prealigned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053416 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

A. Talebpour, J. Yang, and S. L. Chin, “Semi-empirical model for the rate of tunnel ionization of N2 and O2 molecule in an intense Ti:sapphire laser pulse,” Opt. Commun. 163, 29–32 (1999).
[Crossref]

You, Y. S.

Y. S. You, T. I. Oh, and K. Y. Kim, “Off-axis phase-matched terahertz emission from two-color laser-induced plasma filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 183902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, J.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zahedpour, S.

E. W. Rosenthal, J. P. Palastro, N. Jhajj, S. Zahedpour, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Sensitivity of propagation and energy deposition in femtosecond filamentation to the nonlinear refractive index,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 094011 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Zahedpour, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Measurements of the nonlinear refractive index of air constituents at mid-infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 40, 5794–5797 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, H.

M. Li, W. Li, Y. Shi, P. Lu, H. Pan, and H. Zeng, “Verification of the physical mechanism of THz generation by dual-color ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161104 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, Y. Tong, M. Li, H. Pan, and H. Zeng, “THz generation by a two-color pulse in prealigned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053416 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.-C.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T.-J. Wang, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “High energy terahertz emission from two-color laser-induced filamentation in air with pump pulse duration control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 131108 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Li, W. Li, Y. Shi, P. Lu, H. Pan, and H. Zeng, “Verification of the physical mechanism of THz generation by dual-color ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: Physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves (1)

O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, R. V. Volkov, V. A. Andreeva, A. V. Borodin, M. N. Esaulkov, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, A. B. Savel’ev, and S. L. Chin, “Analysis of dual frequency interaction in the filament with the purpose of efficiency control of THz pulse generation,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32, 1157–1167 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

E. W. Rosenthal, J. P. Palastro, N. Jhajj, S. Zahedpour, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Sensitivity of propagation and energy deposition in femtosecond filamentation to the nonlinear refractive index,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 094011 (2015).
[Crossref]

Laser & Photon. Rev. (1)

M. D. Thomson, M. Kress, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photon. (2)

J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave remote sensing using coherent manipulation of fluorescence from asymmetrically ionized gases,” Nat. Photon. 4, 627 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Photon. 2, 605 (2008).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (2)

I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, A. Husakou, C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, L. Bergé, and J. Herrmann, “Tailoring terahertz radiation by controling tunnel photoionization events in gases,” New J. Phys. 13, 123029 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. Le Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Forward THz radiation emission by femtosecond filamentation in gases: theory and experiment,” New J. Phys. 10, 013015 (2007).

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Talebpour, J. Yang, and S. L. Chin, “Semi-empirical model for the rate of tunnel ionization of N2 and O2 molecule in an intense Ti:sapphire laser pulse,” Opt. Commun. 163, 29–32 (1999).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (5)

L. Bergé, J. Rolle, and C. Köhler, “Enhanced self-compression of mid-infrared laser filaments in argon,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 023816 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. K. Wahlstrand, Y.-H. Cheng, and H. M. Milchberg, “Absolute measurement of the transient optical nonlinearity in N2, O2, N2O, and Ar,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 043820 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Debayle, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, L. Gremillet, and L. Bergé, “Non-monotonic increase in laser-driven THz emissions through multiple ionization events,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 041801 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. P. Palastro, T. M. Antonsen, and H. M. Milchberg, “Compression, spectral broadening, and collimation in multiple, femtosecond pulse filamentation in atmosphere,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 033834 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, Y. Tong, M. Li, H. Pan, and H. Zeng, “THz generation by a two-color pulse in prealigned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053416 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E (6)

J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, P. Serafim, B. Hafizi, and A. Ting, “Stimulated Raman scattering of intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 056502 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Kolesik and J. V. Moloney, “Nonlinear optical pulse propagation simulation: From Maxwell’s to unidirectional equations,” Phys. Rev. E 7, 036604 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, B. Hafizi, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Ultrashort laser pulses and electromagnetic pulse generation in air and on dielectric surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066415 (2004).
[Crossref]

I. Thiele, R. Nuter, B. Bousquet, V. Tikhonchuk, S. Skupin, X. Davoine, L. Gremillet, and L. Bergé, “Theory of terahertz emission from femtosecond-laser-induced microplasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 94, 063202 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Champeaux and L. Bergé, “Postionization regimes of femtosecond laser pulses self-channeling in air,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 046604 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Champeaux, L. Bergé, D. Gordon, A. Ting, J. Peñano, and P. Sprangle, “(3+1)-dimensional numerical simulations of femtosecond laser filaments in air: Toward a quantitative agreement with experiments,” Phys. Rev. E 77, 036406 (2008).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (9)

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, C. Köhler, I. Babushkin, and J. Herrmann, “3D numerical simulations of THz generation by two-color laser filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 073901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. S. You, T. I. Oh, and K. Y. Kim, “Off-axis phase-matched terahertz emission from two-color laser-induced plasma filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 183902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad terahertz spectrum generation from an air-based filament plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 063902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Bergé and S. Skupin, “Few-cycle light bullets created by femtosecond filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 113902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and M. Mlejnek, “Unidirectional optical pulse propagation equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 283902 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. González de Alaiza Martínez, I. Babushkin, L. Bergé, S. Skupin, E. Cabrera-Granado, C. Köhler, U. Morgner, A. Husakou, and J. Herrmann, “Boosting Terahertz generation in laser-field ionized gases using a sawtooth wave shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 183901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light Filaments for Atmospheric Analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scientific Reports (1)

P. González de Alaiza Martínez, X. Davoine, A. Debayle, L. Gremillet, and L. Bergé, “Terahertz radiation driven by two-color laser pulses at near-relativistic intensities: Competition between photoionization and wakefield effects,” Scientific Reports 6, 26743 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

A. M. Perelomov, V. S. Popov, and M. V. Terent’ev, “Ionization of atoms in an alternating electric field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 23, 924–934 (1966).

Other (2)

P. González de Alaiza Martínez, “Generation of intense terahertz sources by ultrashort laser pulses,” PhD Dissertation Thesis, Université Paris-Saclay NNT # 2016SACLS350, Chap. 3 (2016).

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics (Pergamon Press, 1965).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Transverse and (b) longitudinal fields computed at z = 1 cm from Eqs. (6) and (7) (1D model), and filtered in a 80-THz window for a 800+400-nm pulse with I0 = 100 TW/cm2, φ = π/2 and r = 15%. The red dashed curve displays the THz field computed with the plasma response only (P); the solid curve corresponds to both Kerr (instantaneous) and plasma responses (K+P). Inset in (b) details the THz spectrum of the longitudinal field.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 1D simulations [Eq. (6)]: (a) Transverse THz field for two-color 800+400-nm pulses (r = 15%) at z = 1 cm by plasma alone (P, red dashed curves), the Kerr response alone (K, blue dash-dotted curves) and both nonlinearities (K+P, black solid curves) at 25 TW/cm2 with φ = 0. (b) Corresponding spectra. (c) Transverse THz field at z = 1 cm by two-color pulses with 100 TW/cm2 intensity and φ = π/2. These fields are filtered in the frequency window ν < 80 THz. (d) Corresponding spectra. (e,f) Evolution of the relative phase φ versus z in the forward component of the electric field for (e) I0 = 25 TW/cm2 and (f) I0 = 100 TW/cm2, including or not linear dispersion (D, see legend). The phase jump near z = 1 and 7 mm is due to sharp distortions of the pulse profile induced by plasma generation.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Eq. (8) including PNL and discarding the z-derivatives: (a) THz spectra as functions of the fraction xk of Raman nonlinearity with no ionization. (b) Corresponding local fields produced by four-wave mixing and filtered in a 80-THz-wide window. (c,d) THz spectra computed by plugging the temporal profiles of two-color pulses obtained from the 3D unidirectional propagator Eq. (33) into the source terms t J and/or t 2 P NL, isolated or summed up with (R) or without the Raman contribution (see legend) for the 800-nm pump pulses simulated in (c) Fig. 6 at the distance z = 2.5 cm and (d) Fig. 7(a) at the distance z = 20 cm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The LC phase space: Velocity of free electrons created from t = −∞ as function of their position. Dots locate the minima (red dots) and maxima (black dots) of the laser field. (a) Single color. (b) Two colors with zero relative phase. (c) Two colors with a relative phase of π/4. (d) Two colors with a relative phase of π/2. Squares indicate the location of the strongest extrema for which δNn exceeds the others by more than one order of magnitude.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 LC computations: (a,b) Ratio of THz field strengths emitted by a two-color pulse with a 1600-nm pump over that emitted with a 800-nm pump, function of the relative phase between the fundamental and second harmonic in a 80-THz-wide window. (a) Gain factor for Gaussian pulses with various intensity ratios r a 2 ω 0 2 / a ω 0 2 and laser intensities I0 (see legend). Blue dotted lines show the gain factor for two different pulse durations at the same intensity. The black solid line shows the gain factor using the analytical model Eq. (30). (b) Same quantity for 4th-order super-Gaussian envelopes with different ratios r and intensities I0. (c,d) Evolution of the THz yield with the pump wavelength for the three relative phases 0, π/4 and π/2 using (c) Gaussian pulses and (d) 4th-order super-Gaussian pulses.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 3D UPPE simulations of focused two-color Gaussian pulses in ratio r = 7.4%. (a) Maximum electron density (left-hand side axis, solid curves) and relative phase between the two pulse components (right-hand side axis, dashed curves), (b) THz energy yield (ν ≤ 80 THz) for the pump wavelengths 800 nm (blue/cyan curves) and 1600 nm (red/magenta curves), with and without the Raman nonlinearity. (c) THz energy vs pump wavelength. Cyan diamonds: no Raman; blue squares: With Raman. Green crosses × report THz gain factors in filamentation regime with no Raman nonlinearity as promoted in Fig. 7; Green symbols + report gain factors in filamentation regime with Raman nonlinearity as given by Fig. 9. The red dots recall the experimental data of [21]. (d) Normalized on-axis THz spectral intensities [arb. u.] computed near focus.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 3D UPPE simulations of two-color filaments. (a) Top: Maximum intensity (solid curves, left-hand side axis) and peak electron density (dashed curves, right-hand side axis) of a meter-long two-color filament with 800-nm (blue/cyan curves) and 1600-nm pump component (red/magenta curves) (r = 3.4%). Colored curves refer to wave propagation without (cyan/magenta curves) and with (blue/red curves) Raman-delayed Kerr nonlinearity. Bottom: Corresponding THz pulse energy yield accumulated along z inside a 80-THz-large frequency window. (c,d) On-axis THz fields and spectral intensities [arb. u.] near the distance of maximum THz energy yield.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 3D UPPE simulations of focused two-color Gaussian pulses in ratio r = 5.2% for QST ionization (dashed curves) and PPT ionization (solid curves) of O2 and N2 molecules. (a) Peak electron density. The selected pump wavelengths are 0.8, 1.6 and 2 μm (see legend). (b) Maximum THz energy yield for ν ≤ 80 THz as a function of the pump wavelength for a focused beam and two species ionized with the QST rate (black curves) and with an instantaneous PPT rate (violet curves). Scaling curves in λα shown as dashed curves are evaluated through least-square fitting (see legend). The red dots recall the experimental data points of [21]. (c) On-axis THz spectral intensities [arb. u.] computed at focus. Inset shows maximum THz fields.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 3D UPPE computations of two-color filaments simulated with the Kerr indices and fractions of delayed nonlinearity reported in [45,47] for 800-nm (blue curves) and 1600-nm (red curves) pump pulses. (a) Peak intensities (left-hand side axis, solid curves) and maximum plasma densities (right-hand side axis, dashed curves). (b) THz energy in a 80-THz frequency window. (c) On-axis THz fields at z = 20 cm and z = 40 cm, and (d) corresponding spectral intensities [arb. u.].

Equations (33)

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( t + ν c ) J = e 2 m e N e E + Π ,
Π = e m e J × B + ( J ) ( J e N e ) + J e N e ( J ) ,
t N e = W ( E ) ( N a N e ) ,
W [ E ( t ) ] = 4 ( U i / U H ) 5 2 ν a | E ( t ) / E a | exp ( 2 ( U i / U H ) 3 2 3 | E ( t ) / E a | ) ,
( t 2 + c 2 × × + ω pe 2 ) E + ν c ( t E + c 2 t × × E ( t ) d t ) = Π ε 0 ,
ν c ( t 2 c 2 z 2 ) E x ( t ) d t + ( t 2 c 2 z 2 + ω pe 2 ) E x = Π x ε 0 ,
( t 2 + ν c t + ω pe 2 ) E ˜ z = Π z ε 0 .
[ t 2 c 2 z 2 + t ( t + ν c ) 1 ω pe 2 ] E ˜ x = 1 ε 0 t J L .
( t 2 + ν c t + ω pe 2 ) E ˜ z = e m e ε 0 c J L E L .
P NL ( t ) = ( 1 x k ) 0 χ ( 3 ) E x 3 ( t ) + x k 3 2 0 χ ( 3 ) ( h * E x 2 ) ( t ) E x ( t ) ,
h ( t ) = Θ ( t ) τ 1 2 + τ 2 2 τ 1 τ 2 2 sin ( t / τ 1 ) e t / τ 2 .
E L ( t , z = 0 ) = 2 I 0 c ε 0 [ 1 r e 2 ln 2 ( t τ p ) 2 cos ( ω 0 t ) + r e 8 ln 2 ( t τ p ) 2 cos ( 2 ω 0 t + φ ) ] ,
E ( t ) = ω 0 ( t ) a ω 0 cos ( ω 0 t ) + 2 ω 0 ( t ) a 2 ω 0 cos ( 2 ω 0 t + φ ) ,
P inst dc = ( 1 x k ) 3 4 0 χ ( 3 ) a ω 0 2 a 2 ω 0 cos φ .
P Raman = x k 3 2 0 χ ( 3 ) E ( t ) 0 + τ 1 2 + τ 2 2 τ 1 τ 2 2 e τ / τ 2 sin ( τ τ 1 ) E 2 ( t τ ) d τ .
P Raman dc = x k 3 2 0 χ ( 3 ) a ω 0 2 a 2 ω 0 [ T 1 cos φ + T 2 sin φ ] ,
T 1 = τ 1 2 + τ 2 2 4 ( τ 2 2 + τ 1 2 ( 1 4 τ 2 2 ω 0 2 ) α ( τ 1 , τ 2 , ω 0 ) + 2 τ 1 ω 0 ( τ 2 2 τ 1 2 ( 1 + τ 2 2 ω 0 2 ) ) β ( τ 1 , τ 2 , ω 0 ) ) ,
T 2 = τ 1 2 + τ 2 2 4 ( 4 τ 1 2 τ 2 ω 0 α ( τ 1 , τ 2 , ω 0 ) + 2 τ 1 τ 2 1 ( τ 2 2 + τ 1 2 ( 1 + τ 2 2 ω 0 2 ) ) β ( τ 1 , τ 2 , ω 0 ) ) ,
α ( τ 1 , τ 2 , ω 0 ) = ( τ 1 2 + τ 2 2 ) 2 + ( 2 τ 1 τ 2 ω 0 ) 2 ( 2 τ 1 2 2 τ 2 2 + 4 τ 1 2 τ 2 2 ω 0 2 ) ,
β ( τ 1 , τ 2 , ω 0 ) = ( τ 1 2 + τ 2 2 ) 2 + ( τ 1 τ 2 ω 0 ) 2 ( 2 τ 1 2 2 τ 2 2 + τ 1 2 τ 2 2 ω 0 2 ) .
P NL dc 3 4 0 χ ( 3 ) a ω 0 2 a 2 ω 0 [ 1 x k ( 1 2 T 1 ) ] cos φ .
ν f ( t ) = e m e e t τ c t E ( t ) e t τ c d t
J A ( t ) = e n δ N n ν f ( t ) H n ( t t n ) , J B ( t ) = e n δ N n e t t n τ c ν f ( t n ) H n ( t t n ) .
[ t J A ] ( ω ) i e 2 2 π m e n δ N n [ E ω 0 ( t n ) + 1 4 E 2 ω 0 ( t n ) ] ω ω 0 2 ,
[ t J B ] ( ω ) e 2 π n δ N n ν f ( t n ) e i ω t n ,
ω 0 t n n π 2 a 2 ω 0 a ω 0 ( 1 ) n sin φ
δ N n N a ( 1 e π W [ E ( t 1 ) ] τ 1 ) δ N ,
[ t J A ] ( ω ) i e 2 a 2 ω 0 4 2 π m e N δ N ω ω 0 2 cos φ ,
[ t J B ] ( ω ) 3 e 2 a 2 ω 0 2 π m e δ N ω 0 sin ( N ω π / 2 ω 0 ) sin ( ω π / ω 0 ) sin φ .
[ t J ] ( λ ) e 2 a 2 ω 0 ( 2 π ) 3 / 2 m e c δ N [ i 4 N λ 0 2 4 cos φ + 3 λ 0 sin ( N λ 0 π / 2 λ ) sin ( λ 0 π / λ ) sin φ ] .
[ t J A ] ( ω ) i ω e 2 π n δ N n r f ( t n ) ,
r f ( t ) = t ν f ( t ) d t .
z E ^ = i k 2 ( ω ) k x 2 k y 2 E ^ + i μ 0 ω 2 2 k ( ω ) ^ NL ,

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