Abstract

A novel approach to perform optical vector analysis (OVA) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated with carrier-shifted optical double-sideband (ODSB) modulation based on a dual-drive dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DD-DPMZM). The proposed method has a doubled measurement range as compared with the conventional OVA based on optical single sideband modulation (OSSB), and a much simpler and more robust configuration as compared with the previously-reported ODSB-based OVA. In addition, the proposed scheme does not generate any undesirable spikes in the measurement results. The transmission response of a sampled fiber Bragg grating in a range of 80 GHz is measured with a resolution of less than 667 kHz by using 40-GHz microwave components. The influence of the unideal frequency-shifted optical carrier generation in the DD-DPMZM on the measurement error is also investigated.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, “Overcoming chromatic-dispersion effects in fiber-wireless systems incorporating external modulators,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45(8), 1410–1415 (1997).
    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

2015 (1)

2014 (3)

2013 (4)

2012 (1)

2010 (1)

2006 (2)

T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and M. Izutsu, “Optical filter characterization by using optical frequency sweep technique with a single sideband modulator,” IEICE Electron. Express 3(3), 34–38 (2006).
[Crossref]

I. S. Grudinin, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Ultrahigh optical Q factors of crystalline resonators in the linear regime,” Phys. Rev. A 74(6), 063806 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

G. D. VanWiggeren, A. R. Motamedi, and D. M. Barley, “Single-scan interferometric component analyzer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(2), 263–265 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

T. Niemi, M. Uusimaa, and H. Ludvigsen, “Limitations of phaseshift method in measuring dense group delay ripple of fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13(12), 1334–1336 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, “Overcoming chromatic-dispersion effects in fiber-wireless systems incorporating external modulators,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45(8), 1410–1415 (1997).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

E. Voges, O. Ostwald, B. Schiek, and A. Neyer, “Optical phase and amplitude measurement by single sideband homodyne detection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 124–129 (1982).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, Z.

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, “Overcoming chromatic-dispersion effects in fiber-wireless systems incorporating external modulators,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45(8), 1410–1415 (1997).
[Crossref]

Barley, D. M.

G. D. VanWiggeren, A. R. Motamedi, and D. M. Barley, “Single-scan interferometric component analyzer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(2), 263–265 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chang, J.

Esman, R. D.

Frankel, M. Y.

Grudinin, I. S.

I. S. Grudinin, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Ultrahigh optical Q factors of crystalline resonators in the linear regime,” Phys. Rev. A 74(6), 063806 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gu, X.

Guo, R.

He, C.

Huang, M.

Ilchenko, V. S.

I. S. Grudinin, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Ultrahigh optical Q factors of crystalline resonators in the linear regime,” Phys. Rev. A 74(6), 063806 (2006).
[Crossref]

Izutsu, M.

T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and M. Izutsu, “Optical filter characterization by using optical frequency sweep technique with a single sideband modulator,” IEICE Electron. Express 3(3), 34–38 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kawanishi, T.

T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and M. Izutsu, “Optical filter characterization by using optical frequency sweep technique with a single sideband modulator,” IEICE Electron. Express 3(3), 34–38 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, S.

Li, W.

W. Li, W. T. Wang, L. X. Wang, and N. H. Zhu, “Optical vector network analyzer based on single-sideband modulation and segmental measurement,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(2), 7901108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Loayssa, A.

Ludvigsen, H.

T. Niemi, M. Uusimaa, and H. Ludvigsen, “Limitations of phaseshift method in measuring dense group delay ripple of fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13(12), 1334–1336 (2001).
[Crossref]

Maleki, L.

I. S. Grudinin, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Ultrahigh optical Q factors of crystalline resonators in the linear regime,” Phys. Rev. A 74(6), 063806 (2006).
[Crossref]

Motamedi, A. R.

G. D. VanWiggeren, A. R. Motamedi, and D. M. Barley, “Single-scan interferometric component analyzer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(2), 263–265 (2003).
[Crossref]

Neyer, A.

E. Voges, O. Ostwald, B. Schiek, and A. Neyer, “Optical phase and amplitude measurement by single sideband homodyne detection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 124–129 (1982).
[Crossref]

Niemi, T.

T. Niemi, M. Uusimaa, and H. Ludvigsen, “Limitations of phaseshift method in measuring dense group delay ripple of fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13(12), 1334–1336 (2001).
[Crossref]

Novak, D.

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, “Overcoming chromatic-dispersion effects in fiber-wireless systems incorporating external modulators,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45(8), 1410–1415 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ostwald, O.

E. Voges, O. Ostwald, B. Schiek, and A. Neyer, “Optical phase and amplitude measurement by single sideband homodyne detection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 124–129 (1982).
[Crossref]

Pan, S.

Peng, G.

Qing, T.

Román, J. E.

Sagues, M.

Sakamoto, T.

T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and M. Izutsu, “Optical filter characterization by using optical frequency sweep technique with a single sideband modulator,” IEICE Electron. Express 3(3), 34–38 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schiek, B.

E. Voges, O. Ostwald, B. Schiek, and A. Neyer, “Optical phase and amplitude measurement by single sideband homodyne detection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 124–129 (1982).
[Crossref]

Smith, G. H.

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, “Overcoming chromatic-dispersion effects in fiber-wireless systems incorporating external modulators,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45(8), 1410–1415 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tang, Z.

Uusimaa, M.

T. Niemi, M. Uusimaa, and H. Ludvigsen, “Limitations of phaseshift method in measuring dense group delay ripple of fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13(12), 1334–1336 (2001).
[Crossref]

VanWiggeren, G. D.

G. D. VanWiggeren, A. R. Motamedi, and D. M. Barley, “Single-scan interferometric component analyzer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(2), 263–265 (2003).
[Crossref]

Voges, E.

E. Voges, O. Ostwald, B. Schiek, and A. Neyer, “Optical phase and amplitude measurement by single sideband homodyne detection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 124–129 (1982).
[Crossref]

Wang, L. X.

W. Li, W. T. Wang, L. X. Wang, and N. H. Zhu, “Optical vector network analyzer based on single-sideband modulation and segmental measurement,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(2), 7901108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, M.

M. Wang and J. P. Yao, “Optical vector network analyzer based on unbalanced double-sideband modulation with improved measurement accuracy,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(8), 753–756 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

Wang, W. T.

W. Li, W. T. Wang, L. X. Wang, and N. H. Zhu, “Optical vector network analyzer based on single-sideband modulation and segmental measurement,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(2), 7901108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wei, W.

Xue, M.

Yao, J.

Yao, J. P.

M. Wang and J. P. Yao, “Optical vector network analyzer based on unbalanced double-sideband modulation with improved measurement accuracy,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(8), 753–756 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

Zhao, Y.

Zhu, C.

Zhu, N. H.

W. Li, W. T. Wang, L. X. Wang, and N. H. Zhu, “Optical vector network analyzer based on single-sideband modulation and segmental measurement,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(2), 7901108 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. Voges, O. Ostwald, B. Schiek, and A. Neyer, “Optical phase and amplitude measurement by single sideband homodyne detection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 124–129 (1982).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

W. Li, W. T. Wang, L. X. Wang, and N. H. Zhu, “Optical vector network analyzer based on single-sideband modulation and segmental measurement,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(2), 7901108 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (3)

M. Wang and J. P. Yao, “Optical vector network analyzer based on unbalanced double-sideband modulation with improved measurement accuracy,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(8), 753–756 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Niemi, M. Uusimaa, and H. Ludvigsen, “Limitations of phaseshift method in measuring dense group delay ripple of fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13(12), 1334–1336 (2001).
[Crossref]

G. D. VanWiggeren, A. R. Motamedi, and D. M. Barley, “Single-scan interferometric component analyzer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(2), 263–265 (2003).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, “Overcoming chromatic-dispersion effects in fiber-wireless systems incorporating external modulators,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45(8), 1410–1415 (1997).
[Crossref]

IEICE Electron. Express (1)

T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and M. Izutsu, “Optical filter characterization by using optical frequency sweep technique with a single sideband modulator,” IEICE Electron. Express 3(3), 34–38 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

I. S. Grudinin, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Ultrahigh optical Q factors of crystalline resonators in the linear regime,” Phys. Rev. A 74(6), 063806 (2006).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

P. Yves, A. Maryse, B. Guillaume, and P. Marie-Josée, “Ultra-narrowband notch filtering with highly resonant fiber bragg gratings,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper BTuC3.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The schematic diagram of the proposed ODSB-based OVA; (b) spectra of the signals at different points. TLS, tunable laser source; MZM, Mach-Zehnder modulator; DD-DPMZM, dual-drive dual-parallel MZM; ODUT, optical device under test; PD, photodetector; BPF, band-pass filter; RF, radio frequency; LO, local oscillator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The (a) magnitude and (b) phase responses of the sampled FBG measured by the proposed ODSB-based OVA.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The (a) magnitude and (b) phase responses measured by the proposed ODSB-based OVA at different SSRs.

Equations (6)

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E( ω )= a 1 δ[ ω( ω o ω e ) ]+ a +1 δ[ ω( ω o + ω e ) ] + b 1 δ[ ω( ω o Δω ) ]+ b +1 δ[ ω( ω o +Δω ) ]
E m ( ω )=E( ω )H( ω ) = a 1 H( ω o ω e )δ[  ω( ω o ω e ) ]+ a +1 H( ω o + ω e )δ[ ω( ω o + ω e ) ] + b 1 H( ω o Δω )δ[ ω( ω o Δω ) ]+ b +1 H( ω o +Δω )δ[ ω( ω o +Δω ) ]
i m ( ω e Δω )=η a +1 b +1 H( ω o + ω e ) H ( ω o +Δω )+η a 1 b 1 H ( ω o ω e )H( ω o Δω ), if ω e >Δω i m ( Δω ω e )=η a +1 b +1 H ( ω o + ω e )H( ω o +Δω )+η a 1 b 1 H( ω o ω e ) H ( ω o Δω ), if ω e <Δω i m ( ω e +Δω )=η a 1 b +1 H ( ω o ω e )H( ω o +Δω )+η a +1 b 1 H( ω o + ω e ) H ( ω o Δω )
i cal ( ω e Δω )=η a +1 b +1 H sys ( ω o + ω e ) H sys * ( ω o +Δω ), if ω e >Δω i cal ( Δω ω e )=η a +1 b +1 H sys ( ω o + ω e ) H sys * ( ω o +Δω ), if ω e <Δω i cal ( ω e +Δω )=η a 1 b +1 H sys ( ω o ω e ) H sys * ( ω o +Δω )
H ODUT m ( ω o + ω e )= i m ( ω e Δω ) i cal ( ω e Δω ) H ODUT * ( ω o +Δω ) = H ODUT ( ω o + ω e )+ Δ 1 , if ω e >Δω H ODUT m ( ω o + ω e )= i m ( Δω ω e ) i cal ( Δω ω e ) H ODUT * ( ω o +Δω ) = H ODUT ( ω o + ω e )+ Δ 1 , if ω e <Δω H ODUT m ( ω o ω e )= i m ( ω e +Δω ) i cal ( ω e +Δω ) H ODUT * ( ω o +Δω ) = H ODUT ( ω o ω e )+ Δ 2
Δ 1 = a 1 b 1 H ( ω o ω e )H( ω o Δω ) a +1 b +1 H sys ( ω o + ω e ) H sys * ( ω o +Δω ) H ODUT * ( ω o +Δω ) Δ 2 = a +1 b 1 H ( ω o + ω e )H( ω o Δω ) a 1 b +1 H sys ( ω o ω e ) H sys * ( ω o +Δω ) H ODUT * ( ω o +Δω )

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