Abstract

Due to the rather broad band emission spectrum of the extremely hot plasma in its extreme ultra-violet (EUV) source, an EUV lithography scanner also projects out-of-band vacuum- and deep-UV (OoB V/DUV) light on the photoresist on a wafer. As this type of uncontrolled and undesirable light can activate resist chemistry, it will impair the critical dimension uniformity of the patterns, especially across the borders of the fields. Hence, OoB V/DUV quantification technology is required in the pre-production phase. For this reason, the systematic characterization of the EUV-source emission spectrum and the spatial profile of the light as projected on the wafer is indispensable to sustain stable integrated circuit production with EUV lithography. This paper introduces an in-band EUV and OoB V/DUV dosimetry method that is based on enhanced energy sensitivity by resist contrast (EESRC). This dosimetry method is applied in an EUV lithography tool to quantitatively analyze the spatial distribution the resist activation by in-band EUV and OoB V/DUV light, under several exposure conditions. This pragmatic approach can replace the current best-practice of measuring the full spectrum of an EUV light source.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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2016 (2)

A. Pirati, R. Peeters, D. Smith, S. Lok, M. van Noordenburg, R. van Es, E. Verhoeven, H. Meijer, A. Minnaert, J.-W. van der Horst, H. Meiling, J. Mallmann, C. Wagner, J. Stoeldraijer, G. Fisser, J. Finders, C. Zoldesi, U. Stamm, H. Boom, D. Brandt, D. Brown, I. Fomenkov, and M. Purvis, “EUV lithography performance for manufacturing: status and outlook,” Proc. SPIE 9776, 97760A (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Kim, J. Heo, C. Park, M. Hwang, S.-S. Kim, and J. W. Hahn, “Dose performance characterization of extreme ultraviolet exposure system using enhanced energy sensitivity by resist contrast method,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 34(4), 041602 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

L. K. Nanver, L. Qi, V. Mohammadi, K. R. M. Mok, W. B. d. Boer, N. Golshani, A. Sammak, T. L. M. Scholtes, A. Gottwald, U. Kroth, and F. Scholze, “Robust UV/VUV/EUV PureB Photodiode Detector Technology With High CMOS Compatibility,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3801711 (2014).

N. Davydova, E. van Setten, R. de Kruif, B. Connolly, N. Fukugami, Y. Kodera, H. Morimoto, Y. Sakata, J. Kotani, S. Kondo, T. Imoto, H. Rolff, A. Ullrich, R. K. Jaganatharaja, A. Lammers, D. Oorschot, C.-W. Man, G. Schiffelers, and J. van Dijk, “Black border, mask 3D effects: covering challenges of EUV mask architecture for 22 nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 9231, 923102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Huang, M. de Boer, J. Barreaux, D. M. Paardekooper, T. van den Boogaard, R. van de Kruijs, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, and F. Bijkerk, “Spectral purity enhancement for the EUV lithography systems by suppressing UV reflection from multilayers,” Proc. SPIE 9048, 90480G (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

R. Sakamoto, N. Fujitani, R. Onishi, and T. Nishita, “The Novel Solution for Negative Impact on Out-of-band and Outgassing by Top Coat Materials (OBPL) in EUVL,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 26(5), 685–689 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Hendrickx, R. Gronheid, J. Hermans, G. Lorusso, P. Foubert, I. Pollentier, A.-M. Goethals, R. Jonckheere, G. Vandenberghe, and K. Ronse, “Readiness of EUV Lithography for Insertion into Manufacturing: The IMEC EUV Program,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 26(5), 587–593 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. F. Lorusso, T. Matsumiya, J. Iwashita, T. Hirayama, and E. Hendrickx, “Deep ultraviolet out-of-band characterization of EUVL scanners and resists,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 86792V (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

J. Heo, J. Yeo, and Y. Kim, “Novel focus monitoring using diffraction image of forbidden pitch patterns,” Microelectron. Eng. 98, 595–598 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Fukugami, K. Matsui, G. Watanabe, T. Isogawa, S. Kondo, Y. Kodera, Y. Sakata, S. Akima, J. Kotani, H. Morimoto, and T. Tanaka, “Black border with etched multilayer on EUV mask,” Proc. SPIE 8441, 84411K (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

J. Heo, J.-H. Yeo, and Y. Kim, “Highly sensitive and fast scanner focus monitoring method using forbidden pitch pattern,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 10(4), 043011 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

J. Heo, J. Park, J. Yeo, S. Choi, and W. Han, “Fast mask CD uniformity measurement using zero order diffraction from memory array pattern,” Proc. SPIE 7272, 72721S (2009).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

V. Marriott, “High resolution positive resist developers: a technique for functional evaluation and process optimization,” Proc. SPIE 0394, 8 (1983).

1964 (1)

Akima, S.

N. Fukugami, K. Matsui, G. Watanabe, T. Isogawa, S. Kondo, Y. Kodera, Y. Sakata, S. Akima, J. Kotani, H. Morimoto, and T. Tanaka, “Black border with etched multilayer on EUV mask,” Proc. SPIE 8441, 84411K (2012).
[Crossref]

Barreaux, J.

Q. Huang, M. de Boer, J. Barreaux, D. M. Paardekooper, T. van den Boogaard, R. van de Kruijs, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, and F. Bijkerk, “Spectral purity enhancement for the EUV lithography systems by suppressing UV reflection from multilayers,” Proc. SPIE 9048, 90480G (2014).
[Crossref]

Bijkerk, F.

Q. Huang, M. de Boer, J. Barreaux, D. M. Paardekooper, T. van den Boogaard, R. van de Kruijs, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, and F. Bijkerk, “Spectral purity enhancement for the EUV lithography systems by suppressing UV reflection from multilayers,” Proc. SPIE 9048, 90480G (2014).
[Crossref]

Boer, W. B. d.

L. K. Nanver, L. Qi, V. Mohammadi, K. R. M. Mok, W. B. d. Boer, N. Golshani, A. Sammak, T. L. M. Scholtes, A. Gottwald, U. Kroth, and F. Scholze, “Robust UV/VUV/EUV PureB Photodiode Detector Technology With High CMOS Compatibility,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3801711 (2014).

Boom, H.

A. Pirati, R. Peeters, D. Smith, S. Lok, M. van Noordenburg, R. van Es, E. Verhoeven, H. Meijer, A. Minnaert, J.-W. van der Horst, H. Meiling, J. Mallmann, C. Wagner, J. Stoeldraijer, G. Fisser, J. Finders, C. Zoldesi, U. Stamm, H. Boom, D. Brandt, D. Brown, I. Fomenkov, and M. Purvis, “EUV lithography performance for manufacturing: status and outlook,” Proc. SPIE 9776, 97760A (2016).
[Crossref]

Brandt, D.

A. Pirati, R. Peeters, D. Smith, S. Lok, M. van Noordenburg, R. van Es, E. Verhoeven, H. Meijer, A. Minnaert, J.-W. van der Horst, H. Meiling, J. Mallmann, C. Wagner, J. Stoeldraijer, G. Fisser, J. Finders, C. Zoldesi, U. Stamm, H. Boom, D. Brandt, D. Brown, I. Fomenkov, and M. Purvis, “EUV lithography performance for manufacturing: status and outlook,” Proc. SPIE 9776, 97760A (2016).
[Crossref]

Brown, D.

A. Pirati, R. Peeters, D. Smith, S. Lok, M. van Noordenburg, R. van Es, E. Verhoeven, H. Meijer, A. Minnaert, J.-W. van der Horst, H. Meiling, J. Mallmann, C. Wagner, J. Stoeldraijer, G. Fisser, J. Finders, C. Zoldesi, U. Stamm, H. Boom, D. Brandt, D. Brown, I. Fomenkov, and M. Purvis, “EUV lithography performance for manufacturing: status and outlook,” Proc. SPIE 9776, 97760A (2016).
[Crossref]

Budde, H. W.

Choi, S.

J. Heo, J. Park, J. Yeo, S. Choi, and W. Han, “Fast mask CD uniformity measurement using zero order diffraction from memory array pattern,” Proc. SPIE 7272, 72721S (2009).
[Crossref]

Condit, H. R.

Connolly, B.

N. Davydova, E. van Setten, R. de Kruif, B. Connolly, N. Fukugami, Y. Kodera, H. Morimoto, Y. Sakata, J. Kotani, S. Kondo, T. Imoto, H. Rolff, A. Ullrich, R. K. Jaganatharaja, A. Lammers, D. Oorschot, C.-W. Man, G. Schiffelers, and J. van Dijk, “Black border, mask 3D effects: covering challenges of EUV mask architecture for 22 nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 9231, 923102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Davydova, N.

N. Davydova, E. van Setten, R. de Kruif, B. Connolly, N. Fukugami, Y. Kodera, H. Morimoto, Y. Sakata, J. Kotani, S. Kondo, T. Imoto, H. Rolff, A. Ullrich, R. K. Jaganatharaja, A. Lammers, D. Oorschot, C.-W. Man, G. Schiffelers, and J. van Dijk, “Black border, mask 3D effects: covering challenges of EUV mask architecture for 22 nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 9231, 923102 (2014).
[Crossref]

de Boer, M.

Q. Huang, M. de Boer, J. Barreaux, D. M. Paardekooper, T. van den Boogaard, R. van de Kruijs, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, and F. Bijkerk, “Spectral purity enhancement for the EUV lithography systems by suppressing UV reflection from multilayers,” Proc. SPIE 9048, 90480G (2014).
[Crossref]

de Kruif, R.

N. Davydova, E. van Setten, R. de Kruif, B. Connolly, N. Fukugami, Y. Kodera, H. Morimoto, Y. Sakata, J. Kotani, S. Kondo, T. Imoto, H. Rolff, A. Ullrich, R. K. Jaganatharaja, A. Lammers, D. Oorschot, C.-W. Man, G. Schiffelers, and J. van Dijk, “Black border, mask 3D effects: covering challenges of EUV mask architecture for 22 nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 9231, 923102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Finders, J.

A. Pirati, R. Peeters, D. Smith, S. Lok, M. van Noordenburg, R. van Es, E. Verhoeven, H. Meijer, A. Minnaert, J.-W. van der Horst, H. Meiling, J. Mallmann, C. Wagner, J. Stoeldraijer, G. Fisser, J. Finders, C. Zoldesi, U. Stamm, H. Boom, D. Brandt, D. Brown, I. Fomenkov, and M. Purvis, “EUV lithography performance for manufacturing: status and outlook,” Proc. SPIE 9776, 97760A (2016).
[Crossref]

Fisser, G.

A. Pirati, R. Peeters, D. Smith, S. Lok, M. van Noordenburg, R. van Es, E. Verhoeven, H. Meijer, A. Minnaert, J.-W. van der Horst, H. Meiling, J. Mallmann, C. Wagner, J. Stoeldraijer, G. Fisser, J. Finders, C. Zoldesi, U. Stamm, H. Boom, D. Brandt, D. Brown, I. Fomenkov, and M. Purvis, “EUV lithography performance for manufacturing: status and outlook,” Proc. SPIE 9776, 97760A (2016).
[Crossref]

Fomenkov, I.

A. Pirati, R. Peeters, D. Smith, S. Lok, M. van Noordenburg, R. van Es, E. Verhoeven, H. Meijer, A. Minnaert, J.-W. van der Horst, H. Meiling, J. Mallmann, C. Wagner, J. Stoeldraijer, G. Fisser, J. Finders, C. Zoldesi, U. Stamm, H. Boom, D. Brandt, D. Brown, I. Fomenkov, and M. Purvis, “EUV lithography performance for manufacturing: status and outlook,” Proc. SPIE 9776, 97760A (2016).
[Crossref]

Foubert, P.

E. Hendrickx, R. Gronheid, J. Hermans, G. Lorusso, P. Foubert, I. Pollentier, A.-M. Goethals, R. Jonckheere, G. Vandenberghe, and K. Ronse, “Readiness of EUV Lithography for Insertion into Manufacturing: The IMEC EUV Program,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 26(5), 587–593 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fujitani, N.

R. Sakamoto, N. Fujitani, R. Onishi, and T. Nishita, “The Novel Solution for Negative Impact on Out-of-band and Outgassing by Top Coat Materials (OBPL) in EUVL,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 26(5), 685–689 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fukugami, N.

N. Davydova, E. van Setten, R. de Kruif, B. Connolly, N. Fukugami, Y. Kodera, H. Morimoto, Y. Sakata, J. Kotani, S. Kondo, T. Imoto, H. Rolff, A. Ullrich, R. K. Jaganatharaja, A. Lammers, D. Oorschot, C.-W. Man, G. Schiffelers, and J. van Dijk, “Black border, mask 3D effects: covering challenges of EUV mask architecture for 22 nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 9231, 923102 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Fukugami, K. Matsui, G. Watanabe, T. Isogawa, S. Kondo, Y. Kodera, Y. Sakata, S. Akima, J. Kotani, H. Morimoto, and T. Tanaka, “Black border with etched multilayer on EUV mask,” Proc. SPIE 8441, 84411K (2012).
[Crossref]

Goethals, A.-M.

E. Hendrickx, R. Gronheid, J. Hermans, G. Lorusso, P. Foubert, I. Pollentier, A.-M. Goethals, R. Jonckheere, G. Vandenberghe, and K. Ronse, “Readiness of EUV Lithography for Insertion into Manufacturing: The IMEC EUV Program,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 26(5), 587–593 (2013).
[Crossref]

Golshani, N.

L. K. Nanver, L. Qi, V. Mohammadi, K. R. M. Mok, W. B. d. Boer, N. Golshani, A. Sammak, T. L. M. Scholtes, A. Gottwald, U. Kroth, and F. Scholze, “Robust UV/VUV/EUV PureB Photodiode Detector Technology With High CMOS Compatibility,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3801711 (2014).

Gottwald, A.

L. K. Nanver, L. Qi, V. Mohammadi, K. R. M. Mok, W. B. d. Boer, N. Golshani, A. Sammak, T. L. M. Scholtes, A. Gottwald, U. Kroth, and F. Scholze, “Robust UV/VUV/EUV PureB Photodiode Detector Technology With High CMOS Compatibility,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3801711 (2014).

Gronheid, R.

E. Hendrickx, R. Gronheid, J. Hermans, G. Lorusso, P. Foubert, I. Pollentier, A.-M. Goethals, R. Jonckheere, G. Vandenberghe, and K. Ronse, “Readiness of EUV Lithography for Insertion into Manufacturing: The IMEC EUV Program,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 26(5), 587–593 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hahn, J. W.

I. Kim, J. Heo, C. Park, M. Hwang, S.-S. Kim, and J. W. Hahn, “Dose performance characterization of extreme ultraviolet exposure system using enhanced energy sensitivity by resist contrast method,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 34(4), 041602 (2016).
[Crossref]

Han, W.

J. Heo, J. Park, J. Yeo, S. Choi, and W. Han, “Fast mask CD uniformity measurement using zero order diffraction from memory array pattern,” Proc. SPIE 7272, 72721S (2009).
[Crossref]

Henderson, S. T.

Hendrickx, E.

E. Hendrickx, R. Gronheid, J. Hermans, G. Lorusso, P. Foubert, I. Pollentier, A.-M. Goethals, R. Jonckheere, G. Vandenberghe, and K. Ronse, “Readiness of EUV Lithography for Insertion into Manufacturing: The IMEC EUV Program,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 26(5), 587–593 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. F. Lorusso, T. Matsumiya, J. Iwashita, T. Hirayama, and E. Hendrickx, “Deep ultraviolet out-of-band characterization of EUVL scanners and resists,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 86792V (2013).
[Crossref]

Heo, J.

I. Kim, J. Heo, C. Park, M. Hwang, S.-S. Kim, and J. W. Hahn, “Dose performance characterization of extreme ultraviolet exposure system using enhanced energy sensitivity by resist contrast method,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 34(4), 041602 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Heo, J. Yeo, and Y. Kim, “Novel focus monitoring using diffraction image of forbidden pitch patterns,” Microelectron. Eng. 98, 595–598 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Heo, J.-H. Yeo, and Y. Kim, “Highly sensitive and fast scanner focus monitoring method using forbidden pitch pattern,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 10(4), 043011 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Heo, J. Park, J. Yeo, S. Choi, and W. Han, “Fast mask CD uniformity measurement using zero order diffraction from memory array pattern,” Proc. SPIE 7272, 72721S (2009).
[Crossref]

Hermans, J.

E. Hendrickx, R. Gronheid, J. Hermans, G. Lorusso, P. Foubert, I. Pollentier, A.-M. Goethals, R. Jonckheere, G. Vandenberghe, and K. Ronse, “Readiness of EUV Lithography for Insertion into Manufacturing: The IMEC EUV Program,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 26(5), 587–593 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hirayama, T.

G. F. Lorusso, T. Matsumiya, J. Iwashita, T. Hirayama, and E. Hendrickx, “Deep ultraviolet out-of-band characterization of EUVL scanners and resists,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 86792V (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, Q.

Q. Huang, M. de Boer, J. Barreaux, D. M. Paardekooper, T. van den Boogaard, R. van de Kruijs, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, and F. Bijkerk, “Spectral purity enhancement for the EUV lithography systems by suppressing UV reflection from multilayers,” Proc. SPIE 9048, 90480G (2014).
[Crossref]

Hwang, M.

I. Kim, J. Heo, C. Park, M. Hwang, S.-S. Kim, and J. W. Hahn, “Dose performance characterization of extreme ultraviolet exposure system using enhanced energy sensitivity by resist contrast method,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 34(4), 041602 (2016).
[Crossref]

Imoto, T.

N. Davydova, E. van Setten, R. de Kruif, B. Connolly, N. Fukugami, Y. Kodera, H. Morimoto, Y. Sakata, J. Kotani, S. Kondo, T. Imoto, H. Rolff, A. Ullrich, R. K. Jaganatharaja, A. Lammers, D. Oorschot, C.-W. Man, G. Schiffelers, and J. van Dijk, “Black border, mask 3D effects: covering challenges of EUV mask architecture for 22 nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 9231, 923102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Isogawa, T.

N. Fukugami, K. Matsui, G. Watanabe, T. Isogawa, S. Kondo, Y. Kodera, Y. Sakata, S. Akima, J. Kotani, H. Morimoto, and T. Tanaka, “Black border with etched multilayer on EUV mask,” Proc. SPIE 8441, 84411K (2012).
[Crossref]

Iwashita, J.

G. F. Lorusso, T. Matsumiya, J. Iwashita, T. Hirayama, and E. Hendrickx, “Deep ultraviolet out-of-band characterization of EUVL scanners and resists,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 86792V (2013).
[Crossref]

Jaganatharaja, R. K.

N. Davydova, E. van Setten, R. de Kruif, B. Connolly, N. Fukugami, Y. Kodera, H. Morimoto, Y. Sakata, J. Kotani, S. Kondo, T. Imoto, H. Rolff, A. Ullrich, R. K. Jaganatharaja, A. Lammers, D. Oorschot, C.-W. Man, G. Schiffelers, and J. van Dijk, “Black border, mask 3D effects: covering challenges of EUV mask architecture for 22 nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 9231, 923102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jonckheere, R.

E. Hendrickx, R. Gronheid, J. Hermans, G. Lorusso, P. Foubert, I. Pollentier, A.-M. Goethals, R. Jonckheere, G. Vandenberghe, and K. Ronse, “Readiness of EUV Lithography for Insertion into Manufacturing: The IMEC EUV Program,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 26(5), 587–593 (2013).
[Crossref]

Judd, D. B.

Kim, I.

I. Kim, J. Heo, C. Park, M. Hwang, S.-S. Kim, and J. W. Hahn, “Dose performance characterization of extreme ultraviolet exposure system using enhanced energy sensitivity by resist contrast method,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 34(4), 041602 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.-S.

I. Kim, J. Heo, C. Park, M. Hwang, S.-S. Kim, and J. W. Hahn, “Dose performance characterization of extreme ultraviolet exposure system using enhanced energy sensitivity by resist contrast method,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 34(4), 041602 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.

J. Heo, J. Yeo, and Y. Kim, “Novel focus monitoring using diffraction image of forbidden pitch patterns,” Microelectron. Eng. 98, 595–598 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Heo, J.-H. Yeo, and Y. Kim, “Highly sensitive and fast scanner focus monitoring method using forbidden pitch pattern,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 10(4), 043011 (2011).
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Kodera, Y.

N. Davydova, E. van Setten, R. de Kruif, B. Connolly, N. Fukugami, Y. Kodera, H. Morimoto, Y. Sakata, J. Kotani, S. Kondo, T. Imoto, H. Rolff, A. Ullrich, R. K. Jaganatharaja, A. Lammers, D. Oorschot, C.-W. Man, G. Schiffelers, and J. van Dijk, “Black border, mask 3D effects: covering challenges of EUV mask architecture for 22 nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 9231, 923102 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Fukugami, K. Matsui, G. Watanabe, T. Isogawa, S. Kondo, Y. Kodera, Y. Sakata, S. Akima, J. Kotani, H. Morimoto, and T. Tanaka, “Black border with etched multilayer on EUV mask,” Proc. SPIE 8441, 84411K (2012).
[Crossref]

Kondo, S.

N. Davydova, E. van Setten, R. de Kruif, B. Connolly, N. Fukugami, Y. Kodera, H. Morimoto, Y. Sakata, J. Kotani, S. Kondo, T. Imoto, H. Rolff, A. Ullrich, R. K. Jaganatharaja, A. Lammers, D. Oorschot, C.-W. Man, G. Schiffelers, and J. van Dijk, “Black border, mask 3D effects: covering challenges of EUV mask architecture for 22 nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 9231, 923102 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Fukugami, K. Matsui, G. Watanabe, T. Isogawa, S. Kondo, Y. Kodera, Y. Sakata, S. Akima, J. Kotani, H. Morimoto, and T. Tanaka, “Black border with etched multilayer on EUV mask,” Proc. SPIE 8441, 84411K (2012).
[Crossref]

Kotani, J.

N. Davydova, E. van Setten, R. de Kruif, B. Connolly, N. Fukugami, Y. Kodera, H. Morimoto, Y. Sakata, J. Kotani, S. Kondo, T. Imoto, H. Rolff, A. Ullrich, R. K. Jaganatharaja, A. Lammers, D. Oorschot, C.-W. Man, G. Schiffelers, and J. van Dijk, “Black border, mask 3D effects: covering challenges of EUV mask architecture for 22 nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 9231, 923102 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Fukugami, K. Matsui, G. Watanabe, T. Isogawa, S. Kondo, Y. Kodera, Y. Sakata, S. Akima, J. Kotani, H. Morimoto, and T. Tanaka, “Black border with etched multilayer on EUV mask,” Proc. SPIE 8441, 84411K (2012).
[Crossref]

Kroth, U.

L. K. Nanver, L. Qi, V. Mohammadi, K. R. M. Mok, W. B. d. Boer, N. Golshani, A. Sammak, T. L. M. Scholtes, A. Gottwald, U. Kroth, and F. Scholze, “Robust UV/VUV/EUV PureB Photodiode Detector Technology With High CMOS Compatibility,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3801711 (2014).

Lammers, A.

N. Davydova, E. van Setten, R. de Kruif, B. Connolly, N. Fukugami, Y. Kodera, H. Morimoto, Y. Sakata, J. Kotani, S. Kondo, T. Imoto, H. Rolff, A. Ullrich, R. K. Jaganatharaja, A. Lammers, D. Oorschot, C.-W. Man, G. Schiffelers, and J. van Dijk, “Black border, mask 3D effects: covering challenges of EUV mask architecture for 22 nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 9231, 923102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lok, S.

A. Pirati, R. Peeters, D. Smith, S. Lok, M. van Noordenburg, R. van Es, E. Verhoeven, H. Meijer, A. Minnaert, J.-W. van der Horst, H. Meiling, J. Mallmann, C. Wagner, J. Stoeldraijer, G. Fisser, J. Finders, C. Zoldesi, U. Stamm, H. Boom, D. Brandt, D. Brown, I. Fomenkov, and M. Purvis, “EUV lithography performance for manufacturing: status and outlook,” Proc. SPIE 9776, 97760A (2016).
[Crossref]

Lorusso, G.

E. Hendrickx, R. Gronheid, J. Hermans, G. Lorusso, P. Foubert, I. Pollentier, A.-M. Goethals, R. Jonckheere, G. Vandenberghe, and K. Ronse, “Readiness of EUV Lithography for Insertion into Manufacturing: The IMEC EUV Program,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 26(5), 587–593 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lorusso, G. F.

G. F. Lorusso, T. Matsumiya, J. Iwashita, T. Hirayama, and E. Hendrickx, “Deep ultraviolet out-of-band characterization of EUVL scanners and resists,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 86792V (2013).
[Crossref]

Louis, E.

Q. Huang, M. de Boer, J. Barreaux, D. M. Paardekooper, T. van den Boogaard, R. van de Kruijs, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, and F. Bijkerk, “Spectral purity enhancement for the EUV lithography systems by suppressing UV reflection from multilayers,” Proc. SPIE 9048, 90480G (2014).
[Crossref]

MacAdam, D. L.

Mallmann, J.

A. Pirati, R. Peeters, D. Smith, S. Lok, M. van Noordenburg, R. van Es, E. Verhoeven, H. Meijer, A. Minnaert, J.-W. van der Horst, H. Meiling, J. Mallmann, C. Wagner, J. Stoeldraijer, G. Fisser, J. Finders, C. Zoldesi, U. Stamm, H. Boom, D. Brandt, D. Brown, I. Fomenkov, and M. Purvis, “EUV lithography performance for manufacturing: status and outlook,” Proc. SPIE 9776, 97760A (2016).
[Crossref]

Man, C.-W.

N. Davydova, E. van Setten, R. de Kruif, B. Connolly, N. Fukugami, Y. Kodera, H. Morimoto, Y. Sakata, J. Kotani, S. Kondo, T. Imoto, H. Rolff, A. Ullrich, R. K. Jaganatharaja, A. Lammers, D. Oorschot, C.-W. Man, G. Schiffelers, and J. van Dijk, “Black border, mask 3D effects: covering challenges of EUV mask architecture for 22 nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 9231, 923102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Marriott, V.

V. Marriott, “High resolution positive resist developers: a technique for functional evaluation and process optimization,” Proc. SPIE 0394, 8 (1983).

Matsui, K.

N. Fukugami, K. Matsui, G. Watanabe, T. Isogawa, S. Kondo, Y. Kodera, Y. Sakata, S. Akima, J. Kotani, H. Morimoto, and T. Tanaka, “Black border with etched multilayer on EUV mask,” Proc. SPIE 8441, 84411K (2012).
[Crossref]

Matsumiya, T.

G. F. Lorusso, T. Matsumiya, J. Iwashita, T. Hirayama, and E. Hendrickx, “Deep ultraviolet out-of-band characterization of EUVL scanners and resists,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 86792V (2013).
[Crossref]

Meijer, H.

A. Pirati, R. Peeters, D. Smith, S. Lok, M. van Noordenburg, R. van Es, E. Verhoeven, H. Meijer, A. Minnaert, J.-W. van der Horst, H. Meiling, J. Mallmann, C. Wagner, J. Stoeldraijer, G. Fisser, J. Finders, C. Zoldesi, U. Stamm, H. Boom, D. Brandt, D. Brown, I. Fomenkov, and M. Purvis, “EUV lithography performance for manufacturing: status and outlook,” Proc. SPIE 9776, 97760A (2016).
[Crossref]

Meiling, H.

A. Pirati, R. Peeters, D. Smith, S. Lok, M. van Noordenburg, R. van Es, E. Verhoeven, H. Meijer, A. Minnaert, J.-W. van der Horst, H. Meiling, J. Mallmann, C. Wagner, J. Stoeldraijer, G. Fisser, J. Finders, C. Zoldesi, U. Stamm, H. Boom, D. Brandt, D. Brown, I. Fomenkov, and M. Purvis, “EUV lithography performance for manufacturing: status and outlook,” Proc. SPIE 9776, 97760A (2016).
[Crossref]

Minnaert, A.

A. Pirati, R. Peeters, D. Smith, S. Lok, M. van Noordenburg, R. van Es, E. Verhoeven, H. Meijer, A. Minnaert, J.-W. van der Horst, H. Meiling, J. Mallmann, C. Wagner, J. Stoeldraijer, G. Fisser, J. Finders, C. Zoldesi, U. Stamm, H. Boom, D. Brandt, D. Brown, I. Fomenkov, and M. Purvis, “EUV lithography performance for manufacturing: status and outlook,” Proc. SPIE 9776, 97760A (2016).
[Crossref]

Mohammadi, V.

L. K. Nanver, L. Qi, V. Mohammadi, K. R. M. Mok, W. B. d. Boer, N. Golshani, A. Sammak, T. L. M. Scholtes, A. Gottwald, U. Kroth, and F. Scholze, “Robust UV/VUV/EUV PureB Photodiode Detector Technology With High CMOS Compatibility,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3801711 (2014).

Mok, K. R. M.

L. K. Nanver, L. Qi, V. Mohammadi, K. R. M. Mok, W. B. d. Boer, N. Golshani, A. Sammak, T. L. M. Scholtes, A. Gottwald, U. Kroth, and F. Scholze, “Robust UV/VUV/EUV PureB Photodiode Detector Technology With High CMOS Compatibility,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3801711 (2014).

Morimoto, H.

N. Davydova, E. van Setten, R. de Kruif, B. Connolly, N. Fukugami, Y. Kodera, H. Morimoto, Y. Sakata, J. Kotani, S. Kondo, T. Imoto, H. Rolff, A. Ullrich, R. K. Jaganatharaja, A. Lammers, D. Oorschot, C.-W. Man, G. Schiffelers, and J. van Dijk, “Black border, mask 3D effects: covering challenges of EUV mask architecture for 22 nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 9231, 923102 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Fukugami, K. Matsui, G. Watanabe, T. Isogawa, S. Kondo, Y. Kodera, Y. Sakata, S. Akima, J. Kotani, H. Morimoto, and T. Tanaka, “Black border with etched multilayer on EUV mask,” Proc. SPIE 8441, 84411K (2012).
[Crossref]

Nanver, L. K.

L. K. Nanver, L. Qi, V. Mohammadi, K. R. M. Mok, W. B. d. Boer, N. Golshani, A. Sammak, T. L. M. Scholtes, A. Gottwald, U. Kroth, and F. Scholze, “Robust UV/VUV/EUV PureB Photodiode Detector Technology With High CMOS Compatibility,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3801711 (2014).

Nishita, T.

R. Sakamoto, N. Fujitani, R. Onishi, and T. Nishita, “The Novel Solution for Negative Impact on Out-of-band and Outgassing by Top Coat Materials (OBPL) in EUVL,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 26(5), 685–689 (2013).
[Crossref]

Onishi, R.

R. Sakamoto, N. Fujitani, R. Onishi, and T. Nishita, “The Novel Solution for Negative Impact on Out-of-band and Outgassing by Top Coat Materials (OBPL) in EUVL,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 26(5), 685–689 (2013).
[Crossref]

Oorschot, D.

N. Davydova, E. van Setten, R. de Kruif, B. Connolly, N. Fukugami, Y. Kodera, H. Morimoto, Y. Sakata, J. Kotani, S. Kondo, T. Imoto, H. Rolff, A. Ullrich, R. K. Jaganatharaja, A. Lammers, D. Oorschot, C.-W. Man, G. Schiffelers, and J. van Dijk, “Black border, mask 3D effects: covering challenges of EUV mask architecture for 22 nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 9231, 923102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Paardekooper, D. M.

Q. Huang, M. de Boer, J. Barreaux, D. M. Paardekooper, T. van den Boogaard, R. van de Kruijs, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, and F. Bijkerk, “Spectral purity enhancement for the EUV lithography systems by suppressing UV reflection from multilayers,” Proc. SPIE 9048, 90480G (2014).
[Crossref]

Park, C.

I. Kim, J. Heo, C. Park, M. Hwang, S.-S. Kim, and J. W. Hahn, “Dose performance characterization of extreme ultraviolet exposure system using enhanced energy sensitivity by resist contrast method,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 34(4), 041602 (2016).
[Crossref]

Park, J.

J. Heo, J. Park, J. Yeo, S. Choi, and W. Han, “Fast mask CD uniformity measurement using zero order diffraction from memory array pattern,” Proc. SPIE 7272, 72721S (2009).
[Crossref]

Peeters, R.

A. Pirati, R. Peeters, D. Smith, S. Lok, M. van Noordenburg, R. van Es, E. Verhoeven, H. Meijer, A. Minnaert, J.-W. van der Horst, H. Meiling, J. Mallmann, C. Wagner, J. Stoeldraijer, G. Fisser, J. Finders, C. Zoldesi, U. Stamm, H. Boom, D. Brandt, D. Brown, I. Fomenkov, and M. Purvis, “EUV lithography performance for manufacturing: status and outlook,” Proc. SPIE 9776, 97760A (2016).
[Crossref]

Pirati, A.

A. Pirati, R. Peeters, D. Smith, S. Lok, M. van Noordenburg, R. van Es, E. Verhoeven, H. Meijer, A. Minnaert, J.-W. van der Horst, H. Meiling, J. Mallmann, C. Wagner, J. Stoeldraijer, G. Fisser, J. Finders, C. Zoldesi, U. Stamm, H. Boom, D. Brandt, D. Brown, I. Fomenkov, and M. Purvis, “EUV lithography performance for manufacturing: status and outlook,” Proc. SPIE 9776, 97760A (2016).
[Crossref]

Pollentier, I.

E. Hendrickx, R. Gronheid, J. Hermans, G. Lorusso, P. Foubert, I. Pollentier, A.-M. Goethals, R. Jonckheere, G. Vandenberghe, and K. Ronse, “Readiness of EUV Lithography for Insertion into Manufacturing: The IMEC EUV Program,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 26(5), 587–593 (2013).
[Crossref]

Purvis, M.

A. Pirati, R. Peeters, D. Smith, S. Lok, M. van Noordenburg, R. van Es, E. Verhoeven, H. Meijer, A. Minnaert, J.-W. van der Horst, H. Meiling, J. Mallmann, C. Wagner, J. Stoeldraijer, G. Fisser, J. Finders, C. Zoldesi, U. Stamm, H. Boom, D. Brandt, D. Brown, I. Fomenkov, and M. Purvis, “EUV lithography performance for manufacturing: status and outlook,” Proc. SPIE 9776, 97760A (2016).
[Crossref]

Qi, L.

L. K. Nanver, L. Qi, V. Mohammadi, K. R. M. Mok, W. B. d. Boer, N. Golshani, A. Sammak, T. L. M. Scholtes, A. Gottwald, U. Kroth, and F. Scholze, “Robust UV/VUV/EUV PureB Photodiode Detector Technology With High CMOS Compatibility,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3801711 (2014).

Rolff, H.

N. Davydova, E. van Setten, R. de Kruif, B. Connolly, N. Fukugami, Y. Kodera, H. Morimoto, Y. Sakata, J. Kotani, S. Kondo, T. Imoto, H. Rolff, A. Ullrich, R. K. Jaganatharaja, A. Lammers, D. Oorschot, C.-W. Man, G. Schiffelers, and J. van Dijk, “Black border, mask 3D effects: covering challenges of EUV mask architecture for 22 nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 9231, 923102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ronse, K.

E. Hendrickx, R. Gronheid, J. Hermans, G. Lorusso, P. Foubert, I. Pollentier, A.-M. Goethals, R. Jonckheere, G. Vandenberghe, and K. Ronse, “Readiness of EUV Lithography for Insertion into Manufacturing: The IMEC EUV Program,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 26(5), 587–593 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sakamoto, R.

R. Sakamoto, N. Fujitani, R. Onishi, and T. Nishita, “The Novel Solution for Negative Impact on Out-of-band and Outgassing by Top Coat Materials (OBPL) in EUVL,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 26(5), 685–689 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sakata, Y.

N. Davydova, E. van Setten, R. de Kruif, B. Connolly, N. Fukugami, Y. Kodera, H. Morimoto, Y. Sakata, J. Kotani, S. Kondo, T. Imoto, H. Rolff, A. Ullrich, R. K. Jaganatharaja, A. Lammers, D. Oorschot, C.-W. Man, G. Schiffelers, and J. van Dijk, “Black border, mask 3D effects: covering challenges of EUV mask architecture for 22 nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 9231, 923102 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Fukugami, K. Matsui, G. Watanabe, T. Isogawa, S. Kondo, Y. Kodera, Y. Sakata, S. Akima, J. Kotani, H. Morimoto, and T. Tanaka, “Black border with etched multilayer on EUV mask,” Proc. SPIE 8441, 84411K (2012).
[Crossref]

Sammak, A.

L. K. Nanver, L. Qi, V. Mohammadi, K. R. M. Mok, W. B. d. Boer, N. Golshani, A. Sammak, T. L. M. Scholtes, A. Gottwald, U. Kroth, and F. Scholze, “Robust UV/VUV/EUV PureB Photodiode Detector Technology With High CMOS Compatibility,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3801711 (2014).

Schiffelers, G.

N. Davydova, E. van Setten, R. de Kruif, B. Connolly, N. Fukugami, Y. Kodera, H. Morimoto, Y. Sakata, J. Kotani, S. Kondo, T. Imoto, H. Rolff, A. Ullrich, R. K. Jaganatharaja, A. Lammers, D. Oorschot, C.-W. Man, G. Schiffelers, and J. van Dijk, “Black border, mask 3D effects: covering challenges of EUV mask architecture for 22 nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 9231, 923102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Scholtes, T. L. M.

L. K. Nanver, L. Qi, V. Mohammadi, K. R. M. Mok, W. B. d. Boer, N. Golshani, A. Sammak, T. L. M. Scholtes, A. Gottwald, U. Kroth, and F. Scholze, “Robust UV/VUV/EUV PureB Photodiode Detector Technology With High CMOS Compatibility,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3801711 (2014).

Scholze, F.

L. K. Nanver, L. Qi, V. Mohammadi, K. R. M. Mok, W. B. d. Boer, N. Golshani, A. Sammak, T. L. M. Scholtes, A. Gottwald, U. Kroth, and F. Scholze, “Robust UV/VUV/EUV PureB Photodiode Detector Technology With High CMOS Compatibility,” IEEE J Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3801711 (2014).

Simonds, J. L.

Smith, D.

A. Pirati, R. Peeters, D. Smith, S. Lok, M. van Noordenburg, R. van Es, E. Verhoeven, H. Meijer, A. Minnaert, J.-W. van der Horst, H. Meiling, J. Mallmann, C. Wagner, J. Stoeldraijer, G. Fisser, J. Finders, C. Zoldesi, U. Stamm, H. Boom, D. Brandt, D. Brown, I. Fomenkov, and M. Purvis, “EUV lithography performance for manufacturing: status and outlook,” Proc. SPIE 9776, 97760A (2016).
[Crossref]

Stamm, U.

A. Pirati, R. Peeters, D. Smith, S. Lok, M. van Noordenburg, R. van Es, E. Verhoeven, H. Meijer, A. Minnaert, J.-W. van der Horst, H. Meiling, J. Mallmann, C. Wagner, J. Stoeldraijer, G. Fisser, J. Finders, C. Zoldesi, U. Stamm, H. Boom, D. Brandt, D. Brown, I. Fomenkov, and M. Purvis, “EUV lithography performance for manufacturing: status and outlook,” Proc. SPIE 9776, 97760A (2016).
[Crossref]

Stoeldraijer, J.

A. Pirati, R. Peeters, D. Smith, S. Lok, M. van Noordenburg, R. van Es, E. Verhoeven, H. Meijer, A. Minnaert, J.-W. van der Horst, H. Meiling, J. Mallmann, C. Wagner, J. Stoeldraijer, G. Fisser, J. Finders, C. Zoldesi, U. Stamm, H. Boom, D. Brandt, D. Brown, I. Fomenkov, and M. Purvis, “EUV lithography performance for manufacturing: status and outlook,” Proc. SPIE 9776, 97760A (2016).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, T.

N. Fukugami, K. Matsui, G. Watanabe, T. Isogawa, S. Kondo, Y. Kodera, Y. Sakata, S. Akima, J. Kotani, H. Morimoto, and T. Tanaka, “Black border with etched multilayer on EUV mask,” Proc. SPIE 8441, 84411K (2012).
[Crossref]

Ullrich, A.

N. Davydova, E. van Setten, R. de Kruif, B. Connolly, N. Fukugami, Y. Kodera, H. Morimoto, Y. Sakata, J. Kotani, S. Kondo, T. Imoto, H. Rolff, A. Ullrich, R. K. Jaganatharaja, A. Lammers, D. Oorschot, C.-W. Man, G. Schiffelers, and J. van Dijk, “Black border, mask 3D effects: covering challenges of EUV mask architecture for 22 nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 9231, 923102 (2014).
[Crossref]

van de Kruijs, R.

Q. Huang, M. de Boer, J. Barreaux, D. M. Paardekooper, T. van den Boogaard, R. van de Kruijs, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, and F. Bijkerk, “Spectral purity enhancement for the EUV lithography systems by suppressing UV reflection from multilayers,” Proc. SPIE 9048, 90480G (2014).
[Crossref]

van den Boogaard, T.

Q. Huang, M. de Boer, J. Barreaux, D. M. Paardekooper, T. van den Boogaard, R. van de Kruijs, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, and F. Bijkerk, “Spectral purity enhancement for the EUV lithography systems by suppressing UV reflection from multilayers,” Proc. SPIE 9048, 90480G (2014).
[Crossref]

van der Horst, J.-W.

A. Pirati, R. Peeters, D. Smith, S. Lok, M. van Noordenburg, R. van Es, E. Verhoeven, H. Meijer, A. Minnaert, J.-W. van der Horst, H. Meiling, J. Mallmann, C. Wagner, J. Stoeldraijer, G. Fisser, J. Finders, C. Zoldesi, U. Stamm, H. Boom, D. Brandt, D. Brown, I. Fomenkov, and M. Purvis, “EUV lithography performance for manufacturing: status and outlook,” Proc. SPIE 9776, 97760A (2016).
[Crossref]

van Dijk, J.

N. Davydova, E. van Setten, R. de Kruif, B. Connolly, N. Fukugami, Y. Kodera, H. Morimoto, Y. Sakata, J. Kotani, S. Kondo, T. Imoto, H. Rolff, A. Ullrich, R. K. Jaganatharaja, A. Lammers, D. Oorschot, C.-W. Man, G. Schiffelers, and J. van Dijk, “Black border, mask 3D effects: covering challenges of EUV mask architecture for 22 nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 9231, 923102 (2014).
[Crossref]

van Es, R.

A. Pirati, R. Peeters, D. Smith, S. Lok, M. van Noordenburg, R. van Es, E. Verhoeven, H. Meijer, A. Minnaert, J.-W. van der Horst, H. Meiling, J. Mallmann, C. Wagner, J. Stoeldraijer, G. Fisser, J. Finders, C. Zoldesi, U. Stamm, H. Boom, D. Brandt, D. Brown, I. Fomenkov, and M. Purvis, “EUV lithography performance for manufacturing: status and outlook,” Proc. SPIE 9776, 97760A (2016).
[Crossref]

van Noordenburg, M.

A. Pirati, R. Peeters, D. Smith, S. Lok, M. van Noordenburg, R. van Es, E. Verhoeven, H. Meijer, A. Minnaert, J.-W. van der Horst, H. Meiling, J. Mallmann, C. Wagner, J. Stoeldraijer, G. Fisser, J. Finders, C. Zoldesi, U. Stamm, H. Boom, D. Brandt, D. Brown, I. Fomenkov, and M. Purvis, “EUV lithography performance for manufacturing: status and outlook,” Proc. SPIE 9776, 97760A (2016).
[Crossref]

van Setten, E.

N. Davydova, E. van Setten, R. de Kruif, B. Connolly, N. Fukugami, Y. Kodera, H. Morimoto, Y. Sakata, J. Kotani, S. Kondo, T. Imoto, H. Rolff, A. Ullrich, R. K. Jaganatharaja, A. Lammers, D. Oorschot, C.-W. Man, G. Schiffelers, and J. van Dijk, “Black border, mask 3D effects: covering challenges of EUV mask architecture for 22 nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 9231, 923102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vandenberghe, G.

E. Hendrickx, R. Gronheid, J. Hermans, G. Lorusso, P. Foubert, I. Pollentier, A.-M. Goethals, R. Jonckheere, G. Vandenberghe, and K. Ronse, “Readiness of EUV Lithography for Insertion into Manufacturing: The IMEC EUV Program,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 26(5), 587–593 (2013).
[Crossref]

Verhoeven, E.

A. Pirati, R. Peeters, D. Smith, S. Lok, M. van Noordenburg, R. van Es, E. Verhoeven, H. Meijer, A. Minnaert, J.-W. van der Horst, H. Meiling, J. Mallmann, C. Wagner, J. Stoeldraijer, G. Fisser, J. Finders, C. Zoldesi, U. Stamm, H. Boom, D. Brandt, D. Brown, I. Fomenkov, and M. Purvis, “EUV lithography performance for manufacturing: status and outlook,” Proc. SPIE 9776, 97760A (2016).
[Crossref]

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N. Fukugami, K. Matsui, G. Watanabe, T. Isogawa, S. Kondo, Y. Kodera, Y. Sakata, S. Akima, J. Kotani, H. Morimoto, and T. Tanaka, “Black border with etched multilayer on EUV mask,” Proc. SPIE 8441, 84411K (2012).
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J. Heo, J. Park, J. Yeo, S. Choi, and W. Han, “Fast mask CD uniformity measurement using zero order diffraction from memory array pattern,” Proc. SPIE 7272, 72721S (2009).
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A. Pirati, R. Peeters, D. Smith, S. Lok, M. van Noordenburg, R. van Es, E. Verhoeven, H. Meijer, A. Minnaert, J.-W. van der Horst, H. Meiling, J. Mallmann, C. Wagner, J. Stoeldraijer, G. Fisser, J. Finders, C. Zoldesi, U. Stamm, H. Boom, D. Brandt, D. Brown, I. Fomenkov, and M. Purvis, “EUV lithography performance for manufacturing: status and outlook,” Proc. SPIE 9776, 97760A (2016).
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J. Heo, J.-H. Yeo, and Y. Kim, “Highly sensitive and fast scanner focus monitoring method using forbidden pitch pattern,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 10(4), 043011 (2011).
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G. F. Lorusso, T. Matsumiya, J. Iwashita, T. Hirayama, and E. Hendrickx, “Deep ultraviolet out-of-band characterization of EUVL scanners and resists,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 86792V (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Heo, J. Park, J. Yeo, S. Choi, and W. Han, “Fast mask CD uniformity measurement using zero order diffraction from memory array pattern,” Proc. SPIE 7272, 72721S (2009).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic intensity distribution on the wafer after scanning a reticle over the arc-shaped expose beam slit: (a) for a single image field exposure and (b) when all neighboring fields are exposed. The blue arc in (a) represents the slit. The thick arrows in (a) indicate the Scan and Slit direction.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Simulated color response for the EESRC method applied to a single layer of PMMA with a varying layer thickness from 0 to 600 nm on a Si wafer.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Left panel: graph of RGB color values response, corresponding to Fig. 2. Right panel: illustration of the effect of an additional under-layer between the wafer and PMMA film.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Top panel: resist thickness (blue dots) and the corresponding amount of resist activation (orange dots) as a function of EUV dose. Bottom panel: Experimental and simulated EESRC color-to-EUV-dose response for a uniform resist layer on a flat Si wafer. The bright bands between the experimental fields show the border effects that occur due to the exposure of the neighboring fields.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Experimental in-field RA map for (a) single field exposure without border effects, and (b) for a full wafer exposure, clearly demonstrating border effects in zones 2, 3 and 4.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Uniformity of the resist activation, as measured at a nominal EUV dose of 4.4 mJ cm−2 (a) in the slit direction and (b) in the scan direction. Panel (b) shows significantly lower spatial RA variation, due to the smoothing effect of the continuous scan of the slit over the field.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Experimental analysis of the REMA stray light (a) full-wafer dose map by the EESRC method, showing the test expose pattern (b) cross-section of the RA map in the slit direction, showing significant REMA stray light at the image field edges.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Full-wafer RA maps as obtained with the EESRC method, showing the efficacy of an OBPL (top panel) and of multi-layer etching on the black border (bottom panel).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 EESRC RA field dose maps for five different black border grating design schemes. The reference map (RA = 50%) is obtained using a conventional black border EUV mask with no grating.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 RA per image field zone after a full-wafer exposure, as measured using the EESRC method

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Table 2 RA due to REMA stray light, as measured using the EESRC method

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Table 3 RA uniformity improvement (ΔRA) per image field zone, as measured using the EESRC method, thus quantifying the efficacy of the OBPL and the BB mask OoB V/DUV suppression techniques.

Equations (5)

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X=K 380 780 S(λ) x ¯ (λ)R(λ)dλ, Y=K 380 780 S(λ) y ¯ (λ)R(λ)dλ, Z=K 380 780 S(λ) z ¯ (λ)R(λ)dλ, K= 100 380 780 S(λ) y ¯ (λ)R(λ)dλ .
R A Zone1 Total ( x,y )= S EUV    I EUV ( x,y )+  S DUV   i I DUVi ( x,y ),
R A Zone2 Total ( x,y )= S EUV    I EU V BB ( x,y )+  S DUV   i I DUV i BB ( x,y ),
R A Zone3 =R A Zone1 +R A Zone2 ,
R A Zone4 =R A Zone1 +3R A Zone2 .

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