Abstract

The in situ tests of first ever autonomous aerosol and cloud backscatter LIDAR (light detection and ranging) systems implemented on buoys for Arctic observations has been achieved in 2015 within the French EQUIPEX IAOOS project. The environmental and operational constraints were met by adopting a concept of a fibered microjoule lidar system using a laser diode. Two systems have been developed with and without polarization analysis capability. A specific optical design was used for polarization discrimination. These systems were integrated in buoys and tested in the Arctic in 2014 and 2015 at latitudes higher than 80°N. Data were transmitted through an Iridium space link. Measurements have been obtained 90% of the time from the non-polarized system in 2014 over 8 months as the first fully equipped buoy drifted from the Barneo Russian camp close to the North Pole toward Svalbard. A polarized system was then tested over a short period in winter 2015 north of Svalbard during the Norwegian campaign N-ICE. In April and May 2014, the unattended lidar measurements showed a large occurrence of aerosols and haze. The average attenuated scattering ratio for non-cloudy profiles during this period was about 2.2. Aerosols could reach an altitude of 5km on average, whereas over the rest of the period low level clouds (below 1000 m) were prevailing with an average attenuated scattering ratio of about 103. The main features of the developed lidar instruments and first results are presented here.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2015 (1)

C. Provost, J. Pelon, N. Sennéchael, M. Calzas, F. Blouzon, A. Desautez, J. Descloitres, J.-C. Gascard, N. Villacieros-Robineau, V. Mariage, J.-P. Pommereau, T. Foujol, C. Drezen, A. Guillot, N. Geyskens, N. Amarouche, A. Sarkissian, N. Pascal, M. Garracio, P. D. Mahé, J. Sayadi, J. J. Correia, P. Genau, N. Wegmüller, and J. L. Maria, “IAOOS (Ice-Atmosphere-Arctic Ocean Observing System, 2011-2019),” Mercator Ocean Quarterly Newsletter 51, 13–15 (2015).

2014 (2)

Y. Blanchard, J. Pelon, E. W. Eloranta, K. P. Moran, J. Delanoë, and G. Sèze, “A synergistic analysis of cloud cover and vertical distribution from A-Train and ground-based sensors over the high arctic station Eureka from 2006 to 2010,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 53(11), 2553–2570 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Wiegner, F. Madonna, I. Binietoglou, R. Forkel, J. Gasteiger, A. Geiß, G. Pappalardo, K. Schäfer, and W. Thomas, “What is the benefit of ceilometers for aerosol remote sensing? an answer from EARLINET,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(7), 1979–1997 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (4)

M. Wiegner and A. Geiß, “Aerosol profiling with the Jenoptik ceilometer CHM15kx,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(8), 1953–1964 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. David, A. Miffre, B. Thomas, and P. Rairoux, “Sensitive and accurate dual-wavelength UV-VIS polarization detector for optical remote sensing of tropospheric aerosols,” Appl. Phys. B 108(1), 197–216 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Sassen, K. Kayetha, and J. Zhu, “Ice cloud depolarization for nadir and off-nadir CALIPSO measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 39(20), L20805 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Emeis, K. Schäfer, C. Münkel, R. Friedl, and P. Suppan, “K. Schäfer C. Münkel, R. Friedl, and P. Suppan, “Evaluation of the interpretation of ceilometer data with RASS and radiosonde data,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 143(1), 25–35 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3D view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. L. Larsen and A. B. Kostinski, “Simple dead-time corrections for discrete time series of non-Poisson data,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(9), 095101 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

K. M. Markowicz, P. J. Flatau, A. E. Kardas, J. Remiszewska, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Ceilometer retrieval of the boundary layer vertical aerosol extinction structure,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25(6), 928–944 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Tanelli, S. L. Durden, E. Im, K. S. Pak, D. G. Reinke, P. Partain, J. M. Haynes, and R. T. Marchand, “CloudSat’s cloud profiling radar after two years in orbit: performance, calibration and processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46(11), 3560–3573 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2004 (2)

M. D. Shupe and J. M. Intrieri, “Cloud radiative forcing of the arctic surface: the influence of cloud properties, surface albedo, and solar zenith angle,” J. Clim. 17(3), 616–628 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. J. O’Connor, A. J. Illingworth, and R. J. Hogan, “A technique for autocalibration of cloud lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21(5), 777–786 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

J. R. Campbell, D. L. Hlavka, E. J. Welton, C. J. Flynn, D. D. Turner, J. D. Spinhirne, V. S. Scott, and I. H. Hwang, “Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observation at atmospheric radiation measurement program sites: instrument and data processing,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19(4), 431–442 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. M. Intrieri, M. D. Shupe, T. Uttal, and B. J. McCarty, “An annual cycle of arctic cloud characteristics observed by radar and lidar at SHEBA,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, (C10), SHE 5–1–SHE 5–15 (2002).

J. M. Intrieri, C. W. Fairall, M. D. Shupe, P. O. G. Persson, E. L. Andreas, P. S. Guest, and R. E. Moritz, “An annual cycle of arctic surface cloud forcing at SHEBA,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, (C10), SHE 13–1–SHE 13–14 (2002).

2001 (1)

1986 (1)

1983 (1)

R. G. Pinnick, S. G. Jennings, P. Chylek, C. Ham, and W. T. Grandy., “Backscatter and extinction in water clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 88(C11), 6787–6796 (1983).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

C. M. R. Platt, “Lidar and radiometric observations of cirrus cloud,” J. Atmos. Sci. 30(6), 1191–1204 (1973).
[Crossref]

Ackerman, S. A.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3D view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[Crossref]

Althausen, D.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
[Crossref]

Amarouche, N.

C. Provost, J. Pelon, N. Sennéchael, M. Calzas, F. Blouzon, A. Desautez, J. Descloitres, J.-C. Gascard, N. Villacieros-Robineau, V. Mariage, J.-P. Pommereau, T. Foujol, C. Drezen, A. Guillot, N. Geyskens, N. Amarouche, A. Sarkissian, N. Pascal, M. Garracio, P. D. Mahé, J. Sayadi, J. J. Correia, P. Genau, N. Wegmüller, and J. L. Maria, “IAOOS (Ice-Atmosphere-Arctic Ocean Observing System, 2011-2019),” Mercator Ocean Quarterly Newsletter 51, 13–15 (2015).

Andreas, E. L.

J. M. Intrieri, C. W. Fairall, M. D. Shupe, P. O. G. Persson, E. L. Andreas, P. S. Guest, and R. E. Moritz, “An annual cycle of arctic surface cloud forcing at SHEBA,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, (C10), SHE 13–1–SHE 13–14 (2002).

Ansmann, A.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
[Crossref]

Binietoglou, I.

M. Wiegner, F. Madonna, I. Binietoglou, R. Forkel, J. Gasteiger, A. Geiß, G. Pappalardo, K. Schäfer, and W. Thomas, “What is the benefit of ceilometers for aerosol remote sensing? an answer from EARLINET,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(7), 1979–1997 (2014).
[Crossref]

Blanchard, Y.

Y. Blanchard, J. Pelon, E. W. Eloranta, K. P. Moran, J. Delanoë, and G. Sèze, “A synergistic analysis of cloud cover and vertical distribution from A-Train and ground-based sensors over the high arctic station Eureka from 2006 to 2010,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 53(11), 2553–2570 (2014).
[Crossref]

Blouzon, F.

C. Provost, J. Pelon, N. Sennéchael, M. Calzas, F. Blouzon, A. Desautez, J. Descloitres, J.-C. Gascard, N. Villacieros-Robineau, V. Mariage, J.-P. Pommereau, T. Foujol, C. Drezen, A. Guillot, N. Geyskens, N. Amarouche, A. Sarkissian, N. Pascal, M. Garracio, P. D. Mahé, J. Sayadi, J. J. Correia, P. Genau, N. Wegmüller, and J. L. Maria, “IAOOS (Ice-Atmosphere-Arctic Ocean Observing System, 2011-2019),” Mercator Ocean Quarterly Newsletter 51, 13–15 (2015).

Calzas, M.

C. Provost, J. Pelon, N. Sennéchael, M. Calzas, F. Blouzon, A. Desautez, J. Descloitres, J.-C. Gascard, N. Villacieros-Robineau, V. Mariage, J.-P. Pommereau, T. Foujol, C. Drezen, A. Guillot, N. Geyskens, N. Amarouche, A. Sarkissian, N. Pascal, M. Garracio, P. D. Mahé, J. Sayadi, J. J. Correia, P. Genau, N. Wegmüller, and J. L. Maria, “IAOOS (Ice-Atmosphere-Arctic Ocean Observing System, 2011-2019),” Mercator Ocean Quarterly Newsletter 51, 13–15 (2015).

Campbell, J. R.

J. R. Campbell, D. L. Hlavka, E. J. Welton, C. J. Flynn, D. D. Turner, J. D. Spinhirne, V. S. Scott, and I. H. Hwang, “Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observation at atmospheric radiation measurement program sites: instrument and data processing,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19(4), 431–442 (2002).
[Crossref]

Charlson, R. J.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3D view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chylek, P.

R. G. Pinnick, S. G. Jennings, P. Chylek, C. Ham, and W. T. Grandy., “Backscatter and extinction in water clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 88(C11), 6787–6796 (1983).
[Crossref]

Coakley, J. A.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3D view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[Crossref]

Colarco, P. R.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3D view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[Crossref]

Correia, J. J.

C. Provost, J. Pelon, N. Sennéchael, M. Calzas, F. Blouzon, A. Desautez, J. Descloitres, J.-C. Gascard, N. Villacieros-Robineau, V. Mariage, J.-P. Pommereau, T. Foujol, C. Drezen, A. Guillot, N. Geyskens, N. Amarouche, A. Sarkissian, N. Pascal, M. Garracio, P. D. Mahé, J. Sayadi, J. J. Correia, P. Genau, N. Wegmüller, and J. L. Maria, “IAOOS (Ice-Atmosphere-Arctic Ocean Observing System, 2011-2019),” Mercator Ocean Quarterly Newsletter 51, 13–15 (2015).

David, G.

G. David, A. Miffre, B. Thomas, and P. Rairoux, “Sensitive and accurate dual-wavelength UV-VIS polarization detector for optical remote sensing of tropospheric aerosols,” Appl. Phys. B 108(1), 197–216 (2012).
[Crossref]

Delanoë, J.

Y. Blanchard, J. Pelon, E. W. Eloranta, K. P. Moran, J. Delanoë, and G. Sèze, “A synergistic analysis of cloud cover and vertical distribution from A-Train and ground-based sensors over the high arctic station Eureka from 2006 to 2010,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 53(11), 2553–2570 (2014).
[Crossref]

Desautez, A.

C. Provost, J. Pelon, N. Sennéchael, M. Calzas, F. Blouzon, A. Desautez, J. Descloitres, J.-C. Gascard, N. Villacieros-Robineau, V. Mariage, J.-P. Pommereau, T. Foujol, C. Drezen, A. Guillot, N. Geyskens, N. Amarouche, A. Sarkissian, N. Pascal, M. Garracio, P. D. Mahé, J. Sayadi, J. J. Correia, P. Genau, N. Wegmüller, and J. L. Maria, “IAOOS (Ice-Atmosphere-Arctic Ocean Observing System, 2011-2019),” Mercator Ocean Quarterly Newsletter 51, 13–15 (2015).

Descloitres, J.

C. Provost, J. Pelon, N. Sennéchael, M. Calzas, F. Blouzon, A. Desautez, J. Descloitres, J.-C. Gascard, N. Villacieros-Robineau, V. Mariage, J.-P. Pommereau, T. Foujol, C. Drezen, A. Guillot, N. Geyskens, N. Amarouche, A. Sarkissian, N. Pascal, M. Garracio, P. D. Mahé, J. Sayadi, J. J. Correia, P. Genau, N. Wegmüller, and J. L. Maria, “IAOOS (Ice-Atmosphere-Arctic Ocean Observing System, 2011-2019),” Mercator Ocean Quarterly Newsletter 51, 13–15 (2015).

Drezen, C.

C. Provost, J. Pelon, N. Sennéchael, M. Calzas, F. Blouzon, A. Desautez, J. Descloitres, J.-C. Gascard, N. Villacieros-Robineau, V. Mariage, J.-P. Pommereau, T. Foujol, C. Drezen, A. Guillot, N. Geyskens, N. Amarouche, A. Sarkissian, N. Pascal, M. Garracio, P. D. Mahé, J. Sayadi, J. J. Correia, P. Genau, N. Wegmüller, and J. L. Maria, “IAOOS (Ice-Atmosphere-Arctic Ocean Observing System, 2011-2019),” Mercator Ocean Quarterly Newsletter 51, 13–15 (2015).

Durden, S. L.

S. Tanelli, S. L. Durden, E. Im, K. S. Pak, D. G. Reinke, P. Partain, J. M. Haynes, and R. T. Marchand, “CloudSat’s cloud profiling radar after two years in orbit: performance, calibration and processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46(11), 3560–3573 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ehret, G.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
[Crossref]

Eloranta, E. W.

Y. Blanchard, J. Pelon, E. W. Eloranta, K. P. Moran, J. Delanoë, and G. Sèze, “A synergistic analysis of cloud cover and vertical distribution from A-Train and ground-based sensors over the high arctic station Eureka from 2006 to 2010,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 53(11), 2553–2570 (2014).
[Crossref]

Emeis, S.

S. Emeis, K. Schäfer, C. Münkel, R. Friedl, and P. Suppan, “K. Schäfer C. Münkel, R. Friedl, and P. Suppan, “Evaluation of the interpretation of ceilometer data with RASS and radiosonde data,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 143(1), 25–35 (2012).
[Crossref]

Esselborn, M.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fairall, C. W.

J. M. Intrieri, C. W. Fairall, M. D. Shupe, P. O. G. Persson, E. L. Andreas, P. S. Guest, and R. E. Moritz, “An annual cycle of arctic surface cloud forcing at SHEBA,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, (C10), SHE 13–1–SHE 13–14 (2002).

Fix, A.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
[Crossref]

Flamant, P.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3D view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[Crossref]

Flatau, P. J.

K. M. Markowicz, P. J. Flatau, A. E. Kardas, J. Remiszewska, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Ceilometer retrieval of the boundary layer vertical aerosol extinction structure,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25(6), 928–944 (2008).
[Crossref]

Flynn, C. J.

J. R. Campbell, D. L. Hlavka, E. J. Welton, C. J. Flynn, D. D. Turner, J. D. Spinhirne, V. S. Scott, and I. H. Hwang, “Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observation at atmospheric radiation measurement program sites: instrument and data processing,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19(4), 431–442 (2002).
[Crossref]

Forkel, R.

M. Wiegner, F. Madonna, I. Binietoglou, R. Forkel, J. Gasteiger, A. Geiß, G. Pappalardo, K. Schäfer, and W. Thomas, “What is the benefit of ceilometers for aerosol remote sensing? an answer from EARLINET,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(7), 1979–1997 (2014).
[Crossref]

Foujol, T.

C. Provost, J. Pelon, N. Sennéchael, M. Calzas, F. Blouzon, A. Desautez, J. Descloitres, J.-C. Gascard, N. Villacieros-Robineau, V. Mariage, J.-P. Pommereau, T. Foujol, C. Drezen, A. Guillot, N. Geyskens, N. Amarouche, A. Sarkissian, N. Pascal, M. Garracio, P. D. Mahé, J. Sayadi, J. J. Correia, P. Genau, N. Wegmüller, and J. L. Maria, “IAOOS (Ice-Atmosphere-Arctic Ocean Observing System, 2011-2019),” Mercator Ocean Quarterly Newsletter 51, 13–15 (2015).

Freudenthaler, V.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
[Crossref]

Friedl, R.

S. Emeis, K. Schäfer, C. Münkel, R. Friedl, and P. Suppan, “K. Schäfer C. Münkel, R. Friedl, and P. Suppan, “Evaluation of the interpretation of ceilometer data with RASS and radiosonde data,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 143(1), 25–35 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fu, Q.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3D view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[Crossref]

Garhammer, M.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
[Crossref]

Garracio, M.

C. Provost, J. Pelon, N. Sennéchael, M. Calzas, F. Blouzon, A. Desautez, J. Descloitres, J.-C. Gascard, N. Villacieros-Robineau, V. Mariage, J.-P. Pommereau, T. Foujol, C. Drezen, A. Guillot, N. Geyskens, N. Amarouche, A. Sarkissian, N. Pascal, M. Garracio, P. D. Mahé, J. Sayadi, J. J. Correia, P. Genau, N. Wegmüller, and J. L. Maria, “IAOOS (Ice-Atmosphere-Arctic Ocean Observing System, 2011-2019),” Mercator Ocean Quarterly Newsletter 51, 13–15 (2015).

Gascard, J.-C.

C. Provost, J. Pelon, N. Sennéchael, M. Calzas, F. Blouzon, A. Desautez, J. Descloitres, J.-C. Gascard, N. Villacieros-Robineau, V. Mariage, J.-P. Pommereau, T. Foujol, C. Drezen, A. Guillot, N. Geyskens, N. Amarouche, A. Sarkissian, N. Pascal, M. Garracio, P. D. Mahé, J. Sayadi, J. J. Correia, P. Genau, N. Wegmüller, and J. L. Maria, “IAOOS (Ice-Atmosphere-Arctic Ocean Observing System, 2011-2019),” Mercator Ocean Quarterly Newsletter 51, 13–15 (2015).

Gasteiger, J.

M. Wiegner, F. Madonna, I. Binietoglou, R. Forkel, J. Gasteiger, A. Geiß, G. Pappalardo, K. Schäfer, and W. Thomas, “What is the benefit of ceilometers for aerosol remote sensing? an answer from EARLINET,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(7), 1979–1997 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
[Crossref]

Geiß, A.

M. Wiegner, F. Madonna, I. Binietoglou, R. Forkel, J. Gasteiger, A. Geiß, G. Pappalardo, K. Schäfer, and W. Thomas, “What is the benefit of ceilometers for aerosol remote sensing? an answer from EARLINET,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(7), 1979–1997 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Wiegner and A. Geiß, “Aerosol profiling with the Jenoptik ceilometer CHM15kx,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(8), 1953–1964 (2012).
[Crossref]

Genau, P.

C. Provost, J. Pelon, N. Sennéchael, M. Calzas, F. Blouzon, A. Desautez, J. Descloitres, J.-C. Gascard, N. Villacieros-Robineau, V. Mariage, J.-P. Pommereau, T. Foujol, C. Drezen, A. Guillot, N. Geyskens, N. Amarouche, A. Sarkissian, N. Pascal, M. Garracio, P. D. Mahé, J. Sayadi, J. J. Correia, P. Genau, N. Wegmüller, and J. L. Maria, “IAOOS (Ice-Atmosphere-Arctic Ocean Observing System, 2011-2019),” Mercator Ocean Quarterly Newsletter 51, 13–15 (2015).

Geyskens, N.

C. Provost, J. Pelon, N. Sennéchael, M. Calzas, F. Blouzon, A. Desautez, J. Descloitres, J.-C. Gascard, N. Villacieros-Robineau, V. Mariage, J.-P. Pommereau, T. Foujol, C. Drezen, A. Guillot, N. Geyskens, N. Amarouche, A. Sarkissian, N. Pascal, M. Garracio, P. D. Mahé, J. Sayadi, J. J. Correia, P. Genau, N. Wegmüller, and J. L. Maria, “IAOOS (Ice-Atmosphere-Arctic Ocean Observing System, 2011-2019),” Mercator Ocean Quarterly Newsletter 51, 13–15 (2015).

Grandy, W. T.

R. G. Pinnick, S. G. Jennings, P. Chylek, C. Ham, and W. T. Grandy., “Backscatter and extinction in water clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 88(C11), 6787–6796 (1983).
[Crossref]

Guest, P. S.

J. M. Intrieri, C. W. Fairall, M. D. Shupe, P. O. G. Persson, E. L. Andreas, P. S. Guest, and R. E. Moritz, “An annual cycle of arctic surface cloud forcing at SHEBA,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, (C10), SHE 13–1–SHE 13–14 (2002).

Guillot, A.

C. Provost, J. Pelon, N. Sennéchael, M. Calzas, F. Blouzon, A. Desautez, J. Descloitres, J.-C. Gascard, N. Villacieros-Robineau, V. Mariage, J.-P. Pommereau, T. Foujol, C. Drezen, A. Guillot, N. Geyskens, N. Amarouche, A. Sarkissian, N. Pascal, M. Garracio, P. D. Mahé, J. Sayadi, J. J. Correia, P. Genau, N. Wegmüller, and J. L. Maria, “IAOOS (Ice-Atmosphere-Arctic Ocean Observing System, 2011-2019),” Mercator Ocean Quarterly Newsletter 51, 13–15 (2015).

Ham, C.

R. G. Pinnick, S. G. Jennings, P. Chylek, C. Ham, and W. T. Grandy., “Backscatter and extinction in water clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 88(C11), 6787–6796 (1983).
[Crossref]

Haynes, J. M.

S. Tanelli, S. L. Durden, E. Im, K. S. Pak, D. G. Reinke, P. Partain, J. M. Haynes, and R. T. Marchand, “CloudSat’s cloud profiling radar after two years in orbit: performance, calibration and processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46(11), 3560–3573 (2008).
[Crossref]

Heese, B.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hlavka, D. L.

J. R. Campbell, D. L. Hlavka, E. J. Welton, C. J. Flynn, D. D. Turner, J. D. Spinhirne, V. S. Scott, and I. H. Hwang, “Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observation at atmospheric radiation measurement program sites: instrument and data processing,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19(4), 431–442 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hoff, R.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3D view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hogan, R. J.

R. J. Hogan, “Fast approximate calculation of multiply scattered lidar returns,” Appl. Opt. 45(23), 5984–5992 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. O’Connor, A. J. Illingworth, and R. J. Hogan, “A technique for autocalibration of cloud lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21(5), 777–786 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hwang, I. H.

J. R. Campbell, D. L. Hlavka, E. J. Welton, C. J. Flynn, D. D. Turner, J. D. Spinhirne, V. S. Scott, and I. H. Hwang, “Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observation at atmospheric radiation measurement program sites: instrument and data processing,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19(4), 431–442 (2002).
[Crossref]

Illingworth, A. J.

E. J. O’Connor, A. J. Illingworth, and R. J. Hogan, “A technique for autocalibration of cloud lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21(5), 777–786 (2004).
[Crossref]

Im, E.

S. Tanelli, S. L. Durden, E. Im, K. S. Pak, D. G. Reinke, P. Partain, J. M. Haynes, and R. T. Marchand, “CloudSat’s cloud profiling radar after two years in orbit: performance, calibration and processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46(11), 3560–3573 (2008).
[Crossref]

Intrieri, J. M.

M. D. Shupe and J. M. Intrieri, “Cloud radiative forcing of the arctic surface: the influence of cloud properties, surface albedo, and solar zenith angle,” J. Clim. 17(3), 616–628 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. M. Intrieri, M. D. Shupe, T. Uttal, and B. J. McCarty, “An annual cycle of arctic cloud characteristics observed by radar and lidar at SHEBA,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, (C10), SHE 5–1–SHE 5–15 (2002).

J. M. Intrieri, C. W. Fairall, M. D. Shupe, P. O. G. Persson, E. L. Andreas, P. S. Guest, and R. E. Moritz, “An annual cycle of arctic surface cloud forcing at SHEBA,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, (C10), SHE 13–1–SHE 13–14 (2002).

Jennings, S. G.

R. G. Pinnick, S. G. Jennings, P. Chylek, C. Ham, and W. T. Grandy., “Backscatter and extinction in water clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 88(C11), 6787–6796 (1983).
[Crossref]

Kardas, A. E.

K. M. Markowicz, P. J. Flatau, A. E. Kardas, J. Remiszewska, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Ceilometer retrieval of the boundary layer vertical aerosol extinction structure,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25(6), 928–944 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kayetha, K.

K. Sassen, K. Kayetha, and J. Zhu, “Ice cloud depolarization for nadir and off-nadir CALIPSO measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 39(20), L20805 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kittaka, C.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3D view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[Crossref]

Knippertz, P.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kostinski, A. B.

M. L. Larsen and A. B. Kostinski, “Simple dead-time corrections for discrete time series of non-Poisson data,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(9), 095101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kubar, T. L.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3D view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[Crossref]

Larsen, M. L.

M. L. Larsen and A. B. Kostinski, “Simple dead-time corrections for discrete time series of non-Poisson data,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(9), 095101 (2009).
[Crossref]

LeTreut, H.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3D view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, B.

Madonna, F.

M. Wiegner, F. Madonna, I. Binietoglou, R. Forkel, J. Gasteiger, A. Geiß, G. Pappalardo, K. Schäfer, and W. Thomas, “What is the benefit of ceilometers for aerosol remote sensing? an answer from EARLINET,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(7), 1979–1997 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mahé, P. D.

C. Provost, J. Pelon, N. Sennéchael, M. Calzas, F. Blouzon, A. Desautez, J. Descloitres, J.-C. Gascard, N. Villacieros-Robineau, V. Mariage, J.-P. Pommereau, T. Foujol, C. Drezen, A. Guillot, N. Geyskens, N. Amarouche, A. Sarkissian, N. Pascal, M. Garracio, P. D. Mahé, J. Sayadi, J. J. Correia, P. Genau, N. Wegmüller, and J. L. Maria, “IAOOS (Ice-Atmosphere-Arctic Ocean Observing System, 2011-2019),” Mercator Ocean Quarterly Newsletter 51, 13–15 (2015).

Marchand, R. T.

S. Tanelli, S. L. Durden, E. Im, K. S. Pak, D. G. Reinke, P. Partain, J. M. Haynes, and R. T. Marchand, “CloudSat’s cloud profiling radar after two years in orbit: performance, calibration and processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46(11), 3560–3573 (2008).
[Crossref]

Maria, J. L.

C. Provost, J. Pelon, N. Sennéchael, M. Calzas, F. Blouzon, A. Desautez, J. Descloitres, J.-C. Gascard, N. Villacieros-Robineau, V. Mariage, J.-P. Pommereau, T. Foujol, C. Drezen, A. Guillot, N. Geyskens, N. Amarouche, A. Sarkissian, N. Pascal, M. Garracio, P. D. Mahé, J. Sayadi, J. J. Correia, P. Genau, N. Wegmüller, and J. L. Maria, “IAOOS (Ice-Atmosphere-Arctic Ocean Observing System, 2011-2019),” Mercator Ocean Quarterly Newsletter 51, 13–15 (2015).

Mariage, V.

C. Provost, J. Pelon, N. Sennéchael, M. Calzas, F. Blouzon, A. Desautez, J. Descloitres, J.-C. Gascard, N. Villacieros-Robineau, V. Mariage, J.-P. Pommereau, T. Foujol, C. Drezen, A. Guillot, N. Geyskens, N. Amarouche, A. Sarkissian, N. Pascal, M. Garracio, P. D. Mahé, J. Sayadi, J. J. Correia, P. Genau, N. Wegmüller, and J. L. Maria, “IAOOS (Ice-Atmosphere-Arctic Ocean Observing System, 2011-2019),” Mercator Ocean Quarterly Newsletter 51, 13–15 (2015).

Markowicz, K. M.

K. M. Markowicz, P. J. Flatau, A. E. Kardas, J. Remiszewska, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Ceilometer retrieval of the boundary layer vertical aerosol extinction structure,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25(6), 928–944 (2008).
[Crossref]

McCarty, B. J.

J. M. Intrieri, M. D. Shupe, T. Uttal, and B. J. McCarty, “An annual cycle of arctic cloud characteristics observed by radar and lidar at SHEBA,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, (C10), SHE 5–1–SHE 5–15 (2002).

McCormick, M. P.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3D view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[Crossref]

Megie, G.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3D view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[Crossref]

Miffre, A.

G. David, A. Miffre, B. Thomas, and P. Rairoux, “Sensitive and accurate dual-wavelength UV-VIS polarization detector for optical remote sensing of tropospheric aerosols,” Appl. Phys. B 108(1), 197–216 (2012).
[Crossref]

Moran, K. P.

Y. Blanchard, J. Pelon, E. W. Eloranta, K. P. Moran, J. Delanoë, and G. Sèze, “A synergistic analysis of cloud cover and vertical distribution from A-Train and ground-based sensors over the high arctic station Eureka from 2006 to 2010,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 53(11), 2553–2570 (2014).
[Crossref]

Moritz, R. E.

J. M. Intrieri, C. W. Fairall, M. D. Shupe, P. O. G. Persson, E. L. Andreas, P. S. Guest, and R. E. Moritz, “An annual cycle of arctic surface cloud forcing at SHEBA,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, (C10), SHE 13–1–SHE 13–14 (2002).

Müller, D.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
[Crossref]

Münkel, C.

S. Emeis, K. Schäfer, C. Münkel, R. Friedl, and P. Suppan, “K. Schäfer C. Münkel, R. Friedl, and P. Suppan, “Evaluation of the interpretation of ceilometer data with RASS and radiosonde data,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 143(1), 25–35 (2012).
[Crossref]

O’Connor, E. J.

E. J. O’Connor, A. J. Illingworth, and R. J. Hogan, “A technique for autocalibration of cloud lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21(5), 777–786 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pak, K. S.

S. Tanelli, S. L. Durden, E. Im, K. S. Pak, D. G. Reinke, P. Partain, J. M. Haynes, and R. T. Marchand, “CloudSat’s cloud profiling radar after two years in orbit: performance, calibration and processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46(11), 3560–3573 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pappalardo, G.

M. Wiegner, F. Madonna, I. Binietoglou, R. Forkel, J. Gasteiger, A. Geiß, G. Pappalardo, K. Schäfer, and W. Thomas, “What is the benefit of ceilometers for aerosol remote sensing? an answer from EARLINET,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(7), 1979–1997 (2014).
[Crossref]

Partain, P.

S. Tanelli, S. L. Durden, E. Im, K. S. Pak, D. G. Reinke, P. Partain, J. M. Haynes, and R. T. Marchand, “CloudSat’s cloud profiling radar after two years in orbit: performance, calibration and processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46(11), 3560–3573 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pascal, N.

C. Provost, J. Pelon, N. Sennéchael, M. Calzas, F. Blouzon, A. Desautez, J. Descloitres, J.-C. Gascard, N. Villacieros-Robineau, V. Mariage, J.-P. Pommereau, T. Foujol, C. Drezen, A. Guillot, N. Geyskens, N. Amarouche, A. Sarkissian, N. Pascal, M. Garracio, P. D. Mahé, J. Sayadi, J. J. Correia, P. Genau, N. Wegmüller, and J. L. Maria, “IAOOS (Ice-Atmosphere-Arctic Ocean Observing System, 2011-2019),” Mercator Ocean Quarterly Newsletter 51, 13–15 (2015).

Pelon, J.

C. Provost, J. Pelon, N. Sennéchael, M. Calzas, F. Blouzon, A. Desautez, J. Descloitres, J.-C. Gascard, N. Villacieros-Robineau, V. Mariage, J.-P. Pommereau, T. Foujol, C. Drezen, A. Guillot, N. Geyskens, N. Amarouche, A. Sarkissian, N. Pascal, M. Garracio, P. D. Mahé, J. Sayadi, J. J. Correia, P. Genau, N. Wegmüller, and J. L. Maria, “IAOOS (Ice-Atmosphere-Arctic Ocean Observing System, 2011-2019),” Mercator Ocean Quarterly Newsletter 51, 13–15 (2015).

Y. Blanchard, J. Pelon, E. W. Eloranta, K. P. Moran, J. Delanoë, and G. Sèze, “A synergistic analysis of cloud cover and vertical distribution from A-Train and ground-based sensors over the high arctic station Eureka from 2006 to 2010,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 53(11), 2553–2570 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3D view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[Crossref]

Persson, P. O. G.

J. M. Intrieri, C. W. Fairall, M. D. Shupe, P. O. G. Persson, E. L. Andreas, P. S. Guest, and R. E. Moritz, “An annual cycle of arctic surface cloud forcing at SHEBA,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, (C10), SHE 13–1–SHE 13–14 (2002).

Petrilla, R. L.

Pinnick, R. G.

R. G. Pinnick, S. G. Jennings, P. Chylek, C. Ham, and W. T. Grandy., “Backscatter and extinction in water clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 88(C11), 6787–6796 (1983).
[Crossref]

Platt, C. M. R.

C. M. R. Platt, “Lidar and radiometric observations of cirrus cloud,” J. Atmos. Sci. 30(6), 1191–1204 (1973).
[Crossref]

Pommereau, J.-P.

C. Provost, J. Pelon, N. Sennéchael, M. Calzas, F. Blouzon, A. Desautez, J. Descloitres, J.-C. Gascard, N. Villacieros-Robineau, V. Mariage, J.-P. Pommereau, T. Foujol, C. Drezen, A. Guillot, N. Geyskens, N. Amarouche, A. Sarkissian, N. Pascal, M. Garracio, P. D. Mahé, J. Sayadi, J. J. Correia, P. Genau, N. Wegmüller, and J. L. Maria, “IAOOS (Ice-Atmosphere-Arctic Ocean Observing System, 2011-2019),” Mercator Ocean Quarterly Newsletter 51, 13–15 (2015).

Poole, L.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3D view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[Crossref]

Powell, K.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3D view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[Crossref]

Provost, C.

C. Provost, J. Pelon, N. Sennéchael, M. Calzas, F. Blouzon, A. Desautez, J. Descloitres, J.-C. Gascard, N. Villacieros-Robineau, V. Mariage, J.-P. Pommereau, T. Foujol, C. Drezen, A. Guillot, N. Geyskens, N. Amarouche, A. Sarkissian, N. Pascal, M. Garracio, P. D. Mahé, J. Sayadi, J. J. Correia, P. Genau, N. Wegmüller, and J. L. Maria, “IAOOS (Ice-Atmosphere-Arctic Ocean Observing System, 2011-2019),” Mercator Ocean Quarterly Newsletter 51, 13–15 (2015).

Rairoux, P.

G. David, A. Miffre, B. Thomas, and P. Rairoux, “Sensitive and accurate dual-wavelength UV-VIS polarization detector for optical remote sensing of tropospheric aerosols,” Appl. Phys. B 108(1), 197–216 (2012).
[Crossref]

Reinke, D. G.

S. Tanelli, S. L. Durden, E. Im, K. S. Pak, D. G. Reinke, P. Partain, J. M. Haynes, and R. T. Marchand, “CloudSat’s cloud profiling radar after two years in orbit: performance, calibration and processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46(11), 3560–3573 (2008).
[Crossref]

Remiszewska, J.

K. M. Markowicz, P. J. Flatau, A. E. Kardas, J. Remiszewska, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Ceilometer retrieval of the boundary layer vertical aerosol extinction structure,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25(6), 928–944 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sarkissian, A.

C. Provost, J. Pelon, N. Sennéchael, M. Calzas, F. Blouzon, A. Desautez, J. Descloitres, J.-C. Gascard, N. Villacieros-Robineau, V. Mariage, J.-P. Pommereau, T. Foujol, C. Drezen, A. Guillot, N. Geyskens, N. Amarouche, A. Sarkissian, N. Pascal, M. Garracio, P. D. Mahé, J. Sayadi, J. J. Correia, P. Genau, N. Wegmüller, and J. L. Maria, “IAOOS (Ice-Atmosphere-Arctic Ocean Observing System, 2011-2019),” Mercator Ocean Quarterly Newsletter 51, 13–15 (2015).

Sassen, K.

K. Sassen, K. Kayetha, and J. Zhu, “Ice cloud depolarization for nadir and off-nadir CALIPSO measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 39(20), L20805 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Sassen and R. L. Petrilla, “Lidar depolarization from multiple scattering in marine stratus clouds,” Appl. Opt. 25(9), 1450–1459 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sayadi, J.

C. Provost, J. Pelon, N. Sennéchael, M. Calzas, F. Blouzon, A. Desautez, J. Descloitres, J.-C. Gascard, N. Villacieros-Robineau, V. Mariage, J.-P. Pommereau, T. Foujol, C. Drezen, A. Guillot, N. Geyskens, N. Amarouche, A. Sarkissian, N. Pascal, M. Garracio, P. D. Mahé, J. Sayadi, J. J. Correia, P. Genau, N. Wegmüller, and J. L. Maria, “IAOOS (Ice-Atmosphere-Arctic Ocean Observing System, 2011-2019),” Mercator Ocean Quarterly Newsletter 51, 13–15 (2015).

Schäfer, K.

M. Wiegner, F. Madonna, I. Binietoglou, R. Forkel, J. Gasteiger, A. Geiß, G. Pappalardo, K. Schäfer, and W. Thomas, “What is the benefit of ceilometers for aerosol remote sensing? an answer from EARLINET,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(7), 1979–1997 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Emeis, K. Schäfer, C. Münkel, R. Friedl, and P. Suppan, “K. Schäfer C. Münkel, R. Friedl, and P. Suppan, “Evaluation of the interpretation of ceilometer data with RASS and radiosonde data,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 143(1), 25–35 (2012).
[Crossref]

Scott, V. S.

J. R. Campbell, D. L. Hlavka, E. J. Welton, C. J. Flynn, D. D. Turner, J. D. Spinhirne, V. S. Scott, and I. H. Hwang, “Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observation at atmospheric radiation measurement program sites: instrument and data processing,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19(4), 431–442 (2002).
[Crossref]

Seefeldner, M.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sennéchael, N.

C. Provost, J. Pelon, N. Sennéchael, M. Calzas, F. Blouzon, A. Desautez, J. Descloitres, J.-C. Gascard, N. Villacieros-Robineau, V. Mariage, J.-P. Pommereau, T. Foujol, C. Drezen, A. Guillot, N. Geyskens, N. Amarouche, A. Sarkissian, N. Pascal, M. Garracio, P. D. Mahé, J. Sayadi, J. J. Correia, P. Genau, N. Wegmüller, and J. L. Maria, “IAOOS (Ice-Atmosphere-Arctic Ocean Observing System, 2011-2019),” Mercator Ocean Quarterly Newsletter 51, 13–15 (2015).

Sèze, G.

Y. Blanchard, J. Pelon, E. W. Eloranta, K. P. Moran, J. Delanoë, and G. Sèze, “A synergistic analysis of cloud cover and vertical distribution from A-Train and ground-based sensors over the high arctic station Eureka from 2006 to 2010,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 53(11), 2553–2570 (2014).
[Crossref]

She, C. Y.

Shupe, M. D.

M. D. Shupe and J. M. Intrieri, “Cloud radiative forcing of the arctic surface: the influence of cloud properties, surface albedo, and solar zenith angle,” J. Clim. 17(3), 616–628 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. M. Intrieri, C. W. Fairall, M. D. Shupe, P. O. G. Persson, E. L. Andreas, P. S. Guest, and R. E. Moritz, “An annual cycle of arctic surface cloud forcing at SHEBA,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, (C10), SHE 13–1–SHE 13–14 (2002).

J. M. Intrieri, M. D. Shupe, T. Uttal, and B. J. McCarty, “An annual cycle of arctic cloud characteristics observed by radar and lidar at SHEBA,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, (C10), SHE 5–1–SHE 5–15 (2002).

Spinhirne, J. D.

J. R. Campbell, D. L. Hlavka, E. J. Welton, C. J. Flynn, D. D. Turner, J. D. Spinhirne, V. S. Scott, and I. H. Hwang, “Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observation at atmospheric radiation measurement program sites: instrument and data processing,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19(4), 431–442 (2002).
[Crossref]

Stelmaszczyk, K.

K. M. Markowicz, P. J. Flatau, A. E. Kardas, J. Remiszewska, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Ceilometer retrieval of the boundary layer vertical aerosol extinction structure,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25(6), 928–944 (2008).
[Crossref]

Suppan, P.

S. Emeis, K. Schäfer, C. Münkel, R. Friedl, and P. Suppan, “K. Schäfer C. Münkel, R. Friedl, and P. Suppan, “Evaluation of the interpretation of ceilometer data with RASS and radiosonde data,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 143(1), 25–35 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tanelli, S.

S. Tanelli, S. L. Durden, E. Im, K. S. Pak, D. G. Reinke, P. Partain, J. M. Haynes, and R. T. Marchand, “CloudSat’s cloud profiling radar after two years in orbit: performance, calibration and processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46(11), 3560–3573 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tesche, M.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
[Crossref]

Thomas, B.

G. David, A. Miffre, B. Thomas, and P. Rairoux, “Sensitive and accurate dual-wavelength UV-VIS polarization detector for optical remote sensing of tropospheric aerosols,” Appl. Phys. B 108(1), 197–216 (2012).
[Crossref]

Thomas, W.

M. Wiegner, F. Madonna, I. Binietoglou, R. Forkel, J. Gasteiger, A. Geiß, G. Pappalardo, K. Schäfer, and W. Thomas, “What is the benefit of ceilometers for aerosol remote sensing? an answer from EARLINET,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(7), 1979–1997 (2014).
[Crossref]

Toledano, C.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
[Crossref]

Trepte, C.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3D view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[Crossref]

Turner, D. D.

J. R. Campbell, D. L. Hlavka, E. J. Welton, C. J. Flynn, D. D. Turner, J. D. Spinhirne, V. S. Scott, and I. H. Hwang, “Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observation at atmospheric radiation measurement program sites: instrument and data processing,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19(4), 431–442 (2002).
[Crossref]

Uttal, T.

J. M. Intrieri, M. D. Shupe, T. Uttal, and B. J. McCarty, “An annual cycle of arctic cloud characteristics observed by radar and lidar at SHEBA,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, (C10), SHE 5–1–SHE 5–15 (2002).

Vaughan, M. A.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3D view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[Crossref]

Villacieros-Robineau, N.

C. Provost, J. Pelon, N. Sennéchael, M. Calzas, F. Blouzon, A. Desautez, J. Descloitres, J.-C. Gascard, N. Villacieros-Robineau, V. Mariage, J.-P. Pommereau, T. Foujol, C. Drezen, A. Guillot, N. Geyskens, N. Amarouche, A. Sarkissian, N. Pascal, M. Garracio, P. D. Mahé, J. Sayadi, J. J. Correia, P. Genau, N. Wegmüller, and J. L. Maria, “IAOOS (Ice-Atmosphere-Arctic Ocean Observing System, 2011-2019),” Mercator Ocean Quarterly Newsletter 51, 13–15 (2015).

Wang, Z.

Wegmüller, N.

C. Provost, J. Pelon, N. Sennéchael, M. Calzas, F. Blouzon, A. Desautez, J. Descloitres, J.-C. Gascard, N. Villacieros-Robineau, V. Mariage, J.-P. Pommereau, T. Foujol, C. Drezen, A. Guillot, N. Geyskens, N. Amarouche, A. Sarkissian, N. Pascal, M. Garracio, P. D. Mahé, J. Sayadi, J. J. Correia, P. Genau, N. Wegmüller, and J. L. Maria, “IAOOS (Ice-Atmosphere-Arctic Ocean Observing System, 2011-2019),” Mercator Ocean Quarterly Newsletter 51, 13–15 (2015).

Welton, E. J.

J. R. Campbell, D. L. Hlavka, E. J. Welton, C. J. Flynn, D. D. Turner, J. D. Spinhirne, V. S. Scott, and I. H. Hwang, “Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observation at atmospheric radiation measurement program sites: instrument and data processing,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19(4), 431–442 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wiegner, M.

M. Wiegner, F. Madonna, I. Binietoglou, R. Forkel, J. Gasteiger, A. Geiß, G. Pappalardo, K. Schäfer, and W. Thomas, “What is the benefit of ceilometers for aerosol remote sensing? an answer from EARLINET,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(7), 1979–1997 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Wiegner and A. Geiß, “Aerosol profiling with the Jenoptik ceilometer CHM15kx,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(8), 1953–1964 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wielicki, B. A.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3D view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[Crossref]

Winker, D. M.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3D view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wirth, M.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wöste, L.

K. M. Markowicz, P. J. Flatau, A. E. Kardas, J. Remiszewska, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Ceilometer retrieval of the boundary layer vertical aerosol extinction structure,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25(6), 928–944 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.

K. Sassen, K. Kayetha, and J. Zhu, “Ice cloud depolarization for nadir and off-nadir CALIPSO measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 39(20), L20805 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

G. David, A. Miffre, B. Thomas, and P. Rairoux, “Sensitive and accurate dual-wavelength UV-VIS polarization detector for optical remote sensing of tropospheric aerosols,” Appl. Phys. B 108(1), 197–216 (2012).
[Crossref]

Atmos. Meas. Tech. (2)

M. Wiegner, F. Madonna, I. Binietoglou, R. Forkel, J. Gasteiger, A. Geiß, G. Pappalardo, K. Schäfer, and W. Thomas, “What is the benefit of ceilometers for aerosol remote sensing? an answer from EARLINET,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(7), 1979–1997 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Wiegner and A. Geiß, “Aerosol profiling with the Jenoptik ceilometer CHM15kx,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(8), 1953–1964 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boundary-Layer Meteorol. (1)

S. Emeis, K. Schäfer, C. Münkel, R. Friedl, and P. Suppan, “K. Schäfer C. Münkel, R. Friedl, and P. Suppan, “Evaluation of the interpretation of ceilometer data with RASS and radiosonde data,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 143(1), 25–35 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. LeTreut, M. P. McCormick, G. Megie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO mission: a global 3D view of aerosols and clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1229 (2010).
[Crossref]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

K. Sassen, K. Kayetha, and J. Zhu, “Ice cloud depolarization for nadir and off-nadir CALIPSO measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 39(20), L20805 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

S. Tanelli, S. L. Durden, E. Im, K. S. Pak, D. G. Reinke, P. Partain, J. M. Haynes, and R. T. Marchand, “CloudSat’s cloud profiling radar after two years in orbit: performance, calibration and processing,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46(11), 3560–3573 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. (1)

Y. Blanchard, J. Pelon, E. W. Eloranta, K. P. Moran, J. Delanoë, and G. Sèze, “A synergistic analysis of cloud cover and vertical distribution from A-Train and ground-based sensors over the high arctic station Eureka from 2006 to 2010,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 53(11), 2553–2570 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (3)

K. M. Markowicz, P. J. Flatau, A. E. Kardas, J. Remiszewska, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Ceilometer retrieval of the boundary layer vertical aerosol extinction structure,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25(6), 928–944 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. R. Campbell, D. L. Hlavka, E. J. Welton, C. J. Flynn, D. D. Turner, J. D. Spinhirne, V. S. Scott, and I. H. Hwang, “Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observation at atmospheric radiation measurement program sites: instrument and data processing,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19(4), 431–442 (2002).
[Crossref]

E. J. O’Connor, A. J. Illingworth, and R. J. Hogan, “A technique for autocalibration of cloud lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21(5), 777–786 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

C. M. R. Platt, “Lidar and radiometric observations of cirrus cloud,” J. Atmos. Sci. 30(6), 1191–1204 (1973).
[Crossref]

J. Clim. (1)

M. D. Shupe and J. M. Intrieri, “Cloud radiative forcing of the arctic surface: the influence of cloud properties, surface albedo, and solar zenith angle,” J. Clim. 17(3), 616–628 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

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Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

M. L. Larsen and A. B. Kostinski, “Simple dead-time corrections for discrete time series of non-Poisson data,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(9), 095101 (2009).
[Crossref]

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C. Provost, J. Pelon, N. Sennéchael, M. Calzas, F. Blouzon, A. Desautez, J. Descloitres, J.-C. Gascard, N. Villacieros-Robineau, V. Mariage, J.-P. Pommereau, T. Foujol, C. Drezen, A. Guillot, N. Geyskens, N. Amarouche, A. Sarkissian, N. Pascal, M. Garracio, P. D. Mahé, J. Sayadi, J. J. Correia, P. Genau, N. Wegmüller, and J. L. Maria, “IAOOS (Ice-Atmosphere-Arctic Ocean Observing System, 2011-2019),” Mercator Ocean Quarterly Newsletter 51, 13–15 (2015).

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V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematics and pictures of the polarized version of the IAOOS microlidar tube containing all the refractive optics and electronics. The sensitive parts are located in the bottom of the 3m long tube (right side) whose total weight when loaded is about 120kg. The optical connections to the lower part are made through the use of 2 meters optical fibers. The upper part of the tube is emerging 1 m above the buoy platform so that 1m of snow fall would not recover the window. Li stands for “Lens i”, OFi for “Optical Fiber i” OFD for “Optical fiber to detector ” and F for “Filter”.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Daytime (left) and nighttime (right) range corrected signals obtained after deployment of the buoy at Barneo in April 2014 (IAOOS 2). Solid black line is indicative of the overlap range.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Evolution of the calibration correction factor to be applied on the system constant as a function of the non-icing index using selected profiles with a molecular scattering zone near the surface (blue dots and black stars) and dense liquid water clouds (red dots) from 2014 campaign. The solid line shows the best exponential fit to the observations. The vertical dashed line shows the chosen limit of the applied correction (N-IcI > 0.05). Error bars are indicative of uncertainty in the correction.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 a) System constants calculated for profiles from the first period of Barneo campaign, including icing correction. The line of points at the bottom represents measurements with a limited correction factor (N-IcI < 0.05). These points are removed in the analysis but kept in the probability density figure to show their distribution. b) Probability density function of system constants for the first period of the Barneo campaign. The peak on the left corresponds to the limitation of the correction factor. The dashed line corresponds to a fit of the maximum calibration values excepting the few clear window values.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Temporal and vertical variation of the attenuated scattering ratio derived over the whole drifting period of the 2014 campaign (IAOOS 2) obtained with calibration correction based on the measured window icing index. Dashed lines delimit the different periods depending on the tilt of the buoy, as reported in the upper part of the figure. The different tilts are due to the motion of ice and more particularly compression and deformation of ice floes where they are weaker. Trustful values are obtained over the whole data set, except where icing is too strong (for example between day 278 and 299).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 a. Probablity density functions (Pdf) of altitudes of the maximum values of attenuated scattering ratio. b. Pdf of the maximum values of the attenuated scattering ratio of the detected clouds. This was obtained for the period 1 of the 2014 campaign (IAOOS 2).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 left: total attenuated backscatter coefficient measured in both co- and cross-polarizations during the N-ICE2015 campaign (IAOOS 6), assuming a similar system constant, with theoretical normalized molecular signal as dashed lines (assuming a 0.36% depolarization for the red), and right: depolarization ratio obtained with calibration by polarization rotation method, and with convolution over 200m for the red dashed curve. See text for discussion of uncertainties and biases.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Platforms deployed during the 2014 and 2015 campaigns

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Table 2 Main characteristics of IAOOS 2 (and following plateforms) deployed during Barneo 2014

Equations (5)

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RCS(r)=C.O(r).( β m + β p )(r) T m 2 (r) T p 2 (r)
S R att =(1+ β p β m ). T 2
IRCS=C T a 2 cloudbase cloudtop ( β c + β m ). T c 2 dz
IRCS C T a 2 2η S c (1 T c 2 )
IRCS C 2η S c

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