Abstract

Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs), are a promising candidate material for realizing colored and semitransparent solar cells, due to their band gap tunability, near infrared responsivity and solution-based processing flexibility. CQD solar cells are typically comprised of several optically thin active and electrode layers that are optimized for their electrical properties; however, their spectral tunability beyond the absorption onset of the CQD layer itself has been relatively unexplored. In this study, we design, optimize and fabricate multicolored and transparent CQD devices by means of thin film interference engineering. We develop an optimization algorithm to produce devices with controlled color characteristics. We quantify the tradeoffs between attainable color or transparency and available photocurrent, calculate the effects of non-ideal interference patterns on apparent device color, and apply our optimization method to tandem solar cell design. Experimentally, we fabricate blue, green, yellow, red and semitransparent devices and achieve photocurrents ranging from 10 to 15.2 mA/cm2 for the colored devices. We demonstrate semitransparent devices with average visible transparencies ranging from 27% to 32%, which match our design simulation results. We discuss how our optimization method provides a general platform for custom-design of optoelectronic devices with arbitrary spectral profiles.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (10)

K.-T. Lee, L. J. Guo, and H. J. Park, “Neutral- and Multi-Colored Semitransparent Perovskite Solar Cells,” Molecules 21(4), 475 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, J. Sleppy, N. Dhasmana, M. Soliman, L. Tetard, and J. Thomas, “A PCBM-assisted perovskite growth process to fabricate high efficiency semitransparent solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 4(30), 11648–11655 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, K. Shoyama, W. Sato, and E. Nakamura, “Polymer Stabilization of Lead(II) Perovskite Cubic Nanocrystals for Semitransparent Solar Cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 6, 2317 (2016).

C. O. Ramírez Quiroz, C. Bronnbauer, I. Levchuk, Y. Hou, C. J. Brabec, and K. Forberich, “Coloring Semitransparent Perovskite Solar Cells via Dielectric Mirrors,” ACS Nano 10(5), 5104–5112 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, C. Hägglund, M. B. Johansson, K. Sveinbjörnsson, and E. M. J. Johansson, “Fine Tuned Nanolayered Metal/Metal Oxide Electrode for Semitransparent Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(12), 1921–1929 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang and E. M. J. Johansson, “Utilizing light trapping interference effects in microcavity structured colloidal quantum dot solar cells: A combined theoretical and experimental approach,” Nano Energy 28, 71–77 (2016).
[Crossref]

O. Ouellette, N. Hossain, B. R. Sutherland, A. Kiani, F. P. García de Arquer, H. Tan, M. Chaker, S. Hoogland, and E. H. Sargent, “Optical Resonance Engineering for Infrared Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics,” ACS Energy Lett. 1(4), 852–857 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, G. E. Eperon, J. Liu, and E. M. J. Johansson, “Semitransparent quantum dot solar cell,” Nano Energy 22, 70–78 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. K. Jagadamma, H. Hu, T. Kim, G. O. N. Ndjawa, A. E. Mansour, A. El Labban, J. C. D. Faria, R. Munir, D. H. Anjum, M. A. McLachlan, and A. Amassian, “Solution-processable MoOx nanocrystals enable highly efficient reflective and semitransparent polymer solar cells,” Nano Energy 28, 277–287 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Lan, O. Voznyy, A. Kiani, F. P. García de Arquer, A. S. Abbas, G.-H. Kim, M. Liu, Z. Yang, G. Walters, J. Xu, M. Yuan, Z. Ning, F. Fan, P. Kanjanaboos, I. Kramer, D. Zhitomirsky, P. Lee, A. Perelgut, S. Hoogland, and E. H. Sargent, “Passivation Using Molecular Halides Increases Quantum Dot Solar Cell Performance,” Adv. Mater. 28(2), 299–304 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (7)

A. J. Labelle, S. M. Thon, J. Y. Kim, X. Lan, D. Zhitomirsky, K. W. Kemp, and E. H. Sargent, “Conformal Fabrication of Colloidal Quantum Dot Solids for Optically Enhanced Photovoltaics,” ACS Nano 9(5), 5447–5453 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kim, Y. Gao, H. Hu, B. Yan, Z. Ning, L. K. Jagadamma, K. Zhao, A. R. Kirmani, J. Eid, M. M. Adachi, E. H. Sargent, P. M. Beaujuge, and A. Amassian, “Hybrid tandem solar cells with depleted-heterojunction quantum dot and polymer bulk heterojunction subcells,” Nano Energy 17, 196–205 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. H. Carey, A. L. Abdelhady, Z. Ning, S. M. Thon, O. M. Bakr, and E. H. Sargent, “Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells,” Chem. Rev. 115(23), 12732–12763 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, M. Anaya, G. Lozano, M. E. Calvo, M. B. Johnston, H. Míguez, and H. J. Snaith, “Highly efficient perovskite solar cells with tunable structural color,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1698–1702 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K.-T. Lee, M. Fukuda, S. Joglekar, and L. J. Guo, “Colored, see-through perovskite solar cells employing an optical cavity,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(21), 5377–5382 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Kim, H. Cho, J. H. Heo, T.-S. Kim, N. Myoung, C.-L. Lee, S. H. Im, and T.-W. Lee, “Multicolored organic/inorganic hybrid perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1248–1254 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Jung, C.-C. Chueh, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “High-Performance Semitransparent Perovskite Solar Cells with 10% Power Conversion Efficiency and 25% Average Visible Transmittance Based on Transparent CuSCN as the Hole-Transporting Material,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5, 486 (2015).

2014 (4)

G. E. Eperon, V. M. Burlakov, A. Goriely, and H. J. Snaith, “Neutral color semitransparent microstructured perovskite solar cells,” ACS Nano 8(1), 591–598 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Roldán-Carmona, O. Malinkiewicz, R. Betancur, G. Longo, C. Momblona, F. Jaramillo, L. Camacho, and H. J. Bolink, “High efficiency single-junction semitransparent perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2968–2973 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Speirs, B. G. H. M. Groeneveld, L. Protesescu, C. Piliego, M. V. Kovalenko, and M. A. Loi, “Hybrid inorganic-organic tandem solar cells for broad absorption of the solar spectrum,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16(17), 7672–7676 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G.-H. Kim, B. Walker, H.-B. Kim, J. Y. Kim, E. H. Sargent, J. Park, and J. Y. Kim, “Inverted colloidal quantum dot solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(20), 3321–3327 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

P. K. Santra and P. V. Kamat, “Tandem-Layered Quantum Dot Solar Cells: Tuning the Photovoltaic Response with Luminescent Ternary Cadmium Chalcogenides,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(2), 877–885 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Paz-Soldan, A. Lee, S. M. Thon, M. M. Adachi, H. Dong, P. Maraghechi, M. Yuan, A. J. Labelle, S. Hoogland, K. Liu, E. Kumacheva, and E. H. Sargent, “Jointly tuned plasmonic-excitonic photovoltaics using nanoshells,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1502–1508 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-C. Chueh, S.-C. Chien, H.-L. Yip, J. F. Salinas, C.-Z. Li, K.-S. Chen, F.-C. Chen, W.-C. Chen, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Toward High-Performance Semi-Transparent Polymer Solar Cells: Optimization of Ultra-Thin Light Absorbing Layer and Transparent Cathode Architecture,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(4), 417–423 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Krantz, T. Stubhan, M. Richter, S. Spallek, I. Litzov, G. J. Matt, E. Spiecker, and C. J. Brabec, “Spray-Coated Silver Nanowires as Top Electrode Layer in Semitransparent P3HT:PCBM-Based Organic Solar Cell Devices,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(13), 1711–1717 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

S. Akhavan, B. Guzelturk, V. K. Sharma, and H. V. Demir, “Large-area semi-transparent light-sensitive nanocrystal skins,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25255–25266 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. L. Wang, G. Zhu, Y. Yang, S. Wang, and C. Pan, “Progress in nanogenerators for portable electronics,” Mater. Today 15(12), 532–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. H. Sargent, “Colloidal quantum dot solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 133–135 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (6)

S. Emin, S. P. Singh, L. Han, N. Satoh, and A. Islam, “Colloidal quantum dot solar cells,” Sol. Energy 85(6), 1264–1282 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, G. I. Koleilat, J. Tang, H. Liu, I. J. Kramer, R. Debnath, L. Brzozowski, D. A. R. Barkhouse, L. Levina, S. Hoogland, and E. H. Sargent, “Tandem colloidal quantum dot solar cells employing a graded recombination layer,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 480–484 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. J. Choi, W. N. Wenger, R. S. Hoffman, Y.-F. Lim, J. Luria, J. Jasieniak, J. A. Marohn, and T. Hanrath, “Solution-processed nanocrystal quantum dot tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3144–3148 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Park, T. Xu, J. Y. Lee, A. Ledbetter, and L. J. Guo, “Photonic color filters integrated with organic solar cells for energy harvesting,” ACS Nano 5(9), 7055–7060 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Galagan, M. G. Debije, and P. W. M. Blom, “Semitransparent organic solar cells with organic wavelength dependent reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(4), 043302 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y.-Y. Lee, K.-H. Tu, C.-C. Yu, S.-S. Li, J.-Y. Hwang, C.-C. Lin, K.-H. Chen, L.-C. Chen, H.-L. Chen, and C.-W. Chen, “Top Laminated Graphene Electrode in a Semitransparent Polymer Solar Cell by Simultaneous Thermal Annealing/Releasing Method,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6564–6570 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

G. F. Burkhard, E. T. Hoke, and M. D. McGehee, “Accounting for Interference, Scattering, and Electrode Absorption To Make Accurate Internal Quantum Efficiency Measurements in Organic and Other Thin Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 22(30), 3293–3297 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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2009 (2)

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2005 (1)

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G. H. Carey, A. L. Abdelhady, Z. Ning, S. M. Thon, O. M. Bakr, and E. H. Sargent, “Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells,” Chem. Rev. 115(23), 12732–12763 (2015).
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T. Kim, Y. Gao, H. Hu, B. Yan, Z. Ning, L. K. Jagadamma, K. Zhao, A. R. Kirmani, J. Eid, M. M. Adachi, E. H. Sargent, P. M. Beaujuge, and A. Amassian, “Hybrid tandem solar cells with depleted-heterojunction quantum dot and polymer bulk heterojunction subcells,” Nano Energy 17, 196–205 (2015).
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T. Miyazaki, A. Akisawa, and T. Kashiwagi, “Energy savings of office buildings by the use of semi-transparent solar cells for windows,” Renew. Energy 30(3), 281–304 (2005).
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L. K. Jagadamma, H. Hu, T. Kim, G. O. N. Ndjawa, A. E. Mansour, A. El Labban, J. C. D. Faria, R. Munir, D. H. Anjum, M. A. McLachlan, and A. Amassian, “Solution-processable MoOx nanocrystals enable highly efficient reflective and semitransparent polymer solar cells,” Nano Energy 28, 277–287 (2016).
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T. Kim, Y. Gao, H. Hu, B. Yan, Z. Ning, L. K. Jagadamma, K. Zhao, A. R. Kirmani, J. Eid, M. M. Adachi, E. H. Sargent, P. M. Beaujuge, and A. Amassian, “Hybrid tandem solar cells with depleted-heterojunction quantum dot and polymer bulk heterojunction subcells,” Nano Energy 17, 196–205 (2015).
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M. Liu, O. Voznyy, R. Sabatini, F. P. García de Arquer, R. Munir, A. H. Balawi, X. Lan, F. Fan, G. Walters, A. R. Kirmani, S. Hoogland, F. Laquai, A. Amassian, and E. H. Sargent, “Hybrid organic-inorganic inks flatten the energy landscape in colloidal quantum dot solids,” Nat. Mater.; advance online publication (2016).

Anaya, M.

W. Zhang, M. Anaya, G. Lozano, M. E. Calvo, M. B. Johnston, H. Míguez, and H. J. Snaith, “Highly efficient perovskite solar cells with tunable structural color,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1698–1702 (2015).
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L. K. Jagadamma, H. Hu, T. Kim, G. O. N. Ndjawa, A. E. Mansour, A. El Labban, J. C. D. Faria, R. Munir, D. H. Anjum, M. A. McLachlan, and A. Amassian, “Solution-processable MoOx nanocrystals enable highly efficient reflective and semitransparent polymer solar cells,” Nano Energy 28, 277–287 (2016).
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Bakr, O. M.

G. H. Carey, A. L. Abdelhady, Z. Ning, S. M. Thon, O. M. Bakr, and E. H. Sargent, “Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells,” Chem. Rev. 115(23), 12732–12763 (2015).
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M. Liu, O. Voznyy, R. Sabatini, F. P. García de Arquer, R. Munir, A. H. Balawi, X. Lan, F. Fan, G. Walters, A. R. Kirmani, S. Hoogland, F. Laquai, A. Amassian, and E. H. Sargent, “Hybrid organic-inorganic inks flatten the energy landscape in colloidal quantum dot solids,” Nat. Mater.; advance online publication (2016).

Barkhouse, A. R.

A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, I. J. Kramer, A. R. Barkhouse, X. Wang, G. Konstantatos, R. Debnath, L. Levina, I. Raabe, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and E. H. Sargent, “Depleted-Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3374–3380 (2010).
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Barkhouse, D. A. R.

X. Wang, G. I. Koleilat, J. Tang, H. Liu, I. J. Kramer, R. Debnath, L. Brzozowski, D. A. R. Barkhouse, L. Levina, S. Hoogland, and E. H. Sargent, “Tandem colloidal quantum dot solar cells employing a graded recombination layer,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 480–484 (2011).
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T. Kim, Y. Gao, H. Hu, B. Yan, Z. Ning, L. K. Jagadamma, K. Zhao, A. R. Kirmani, J. Eid, M. M. Adachi, E. H. Sargent, P. M. Beaujuge, and A. Amassian, “Hybrid tandem solar cells with depleted-heterojunction quantum dot and polymer bulk heterojunction subcells,” Nano Energy 17, 196–205 (2015).
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Y. Galagan, M. G. Debije, and P. W. M. Blom, “Semitransparent organic solar cells with organic wavelength dependent reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(4), 043302 (2011).
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C. Roldán-Carmona, O. Malinkiewicz, R. Betancur, G. Longo, C. Momblona, F. Jaramillo, L. Camacho, and H. J. Bolink, “High efficiency single-junction semitransparent perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2968–2973 (2014).
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Brabec, C. J.

C. O. Ramírez Quiroz, C. Bronnbauer, I. Levchuk, Y. Hou, C. J. Brabec, and K. Forberich, “Coloring Semitransparent Perovskite Solar Cells via Dielectric Mirrors,” ACS Nano 10(5), 5104–5112 (2016).
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J. Krantz, T. Stubhan, M. Richter, S. Spallek, I. Litzov, G. J. Matt, E. Spiecker, and C. J. Brabec, “Spray-Coated Silver Nanowires as Top Electrode Layer in Semitransparent P3HT:PCBM-Based Organic Solar Cell Devices,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(13), 1711–1717 (2013).
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C. O. Ramírez Quiroz, C. Bronnbauer, I. Levchuk, Y. Hou, C. J. Brabec, and K. Forberich, “Coloring Semitransparent Perovskite Solar Cells via Dielectric Mirrors,” ACS Nano 10(5), 5104–5112 (2016).
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Brown, A. S.

A. S. Brown and M. A. Green, “Detailed balance limit for the series constrained two terminal tandem solar cell,” Phys. E Low-Dimens. Syst. Nanostructures 14(1-2), 96–100 (2002).
[Crossref]

Brzozowski, L.

X. Wang, G. I. Koleilat, J. Tang, H. Liu, I. J. Kramer, R. Debnath, L. Brzozowski, D. A. R. Barkhouse, L. Levina, S. Hoogland, and E. H. Sargent, “Tandem colloidal quantum dot solar cells employing a graded recombination layer,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 480–484 (2011).
[Crossref]

Burkhard, G. F.

G. F. Burkhard, E. T. Hoke, and M. D. McGehee, “Accounting for Interference, Scattering, and Electrode Absorption To Make Accurate Internal Quantum Efficiency Measurements in Organic and Other Thin Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 22(30), 3293–3297 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burlakov, V. M.

G. E. Eperon, V. M. Burlakov, A. Goriely, and H. J. Snaith, “Neutral color semitransparent microstructured perovskite solar cells,” ACS Nano 8(1), 591–598 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calvo, M. E.

W. Zhang, M. Anaya, G. Lozano, M. E. Calvo, M. B. Johnston, H. Míguez, and H. J. Snaith, “Highly efficient perovskite solar cells with tunable structural color,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1698–1702 (2015).
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Camacho, L.

C. Roldán-Carmona, O. Malinkiewicz, R. Betancur, G. Longo, C. Momblona, F. Jaramillo, L. Camacho, and H. J. Bolink, “High efficiency single-junction semitransparent perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 2968–2973 (2014).
[Crossref]

Carey, G. H.

G. H. Carey, A. L. Abdelhady, Z. Ning, S. M. Thon, O. M. Bakr, and E. H. Sargent, “Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells,” Chem. Rev. 115(23), 12732–12763 (2015).
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Chaker, M.

O. Ouellette, N. Hossain, B. R. Sutherland, A. Kiani, F. P. García de Arquer, H. Tan, M. Chaker, S. Hoogland, and E. H. Sargent, “Optical Resonance Engineering for Infrared Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics,” ACS Energy Lett. 1(4), 852–857 (2016).
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Chen, C.-W.

Y.-Y. Lee, K.-H. Tu, C.-C. Yu, S.-S. Li, J.-Y. Hwang, C.-C. Lin, K.-H. Chen, L.-C. Chen, H.-L. Chen, and C.-W. Chen, “Top Laminated Graphene Electrode in a Semitransparent Polymer Solar Cell by Simultaneous Thermal Annealing/Releasing Method,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6564–6570 (2011).
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Chen, F.-C.

C.-C. Chueh, S.-C. Chien, H.-L. Yip, J. F. Salinas, C.-Z. Li, K.-S. Chen, F.-C. Chen, W.-C. Chen, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Toward High-Performance Semi-Transparent Polymer Solar Cells: Optimization of Ultra-Thin Light Absorbing Layer and Transparent Cathode Architecture,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(4), 417–423 (2013).
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Y.-Y. Lee, K.-H. Tu, C.-C. Yu, S.-S. Li, J.-Y. Hwang, C.-C. Lin, K.-H. Chen, L.-C. Chen, H.-L. Chen, and C.-W. Chen, “Top Laminated Graphene Electrode in a Semitransparent Polymer Solar Cell by Simultaneous Thermal Annealing/Releasing Method,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6564–6570 (2011).
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Chen, K.-H.

Y.-Y. Lee, K.-H. Tu, C.-C. Yu, S.-S. Li, J.-Y. Hwang, C.-C. Lin, K.-H. Chen, L.-C. Chen, H.-L. Chen, and C.-W. Chen, “Top Laminated Graphene Electrode in a Semitransparent Polymer Solar Cell by Simultaneous Thermal Annealing/Releasing Method,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6564–6570 (2011).
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Chen, K.-S.

C.-C. Chueh, S.-C. Chien, H.-L. Yip, J. F. Salinas, C.-Z. Li, K.-S. Chen, F.-C. Chen, W.-C. Chen, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Toward High-Performance Semi-Transparent Polymer Solar Cells: Optimization of Ultra-Thin Light Absorbing Layer and Transparent Cathode Architecture,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(4), 417–423 (2013).
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Chen, L.-C.

Y.-Y. Lee, K.-H. Tu, C.-C. Yu, S.-S. Li, J.-Y. Hwang, C.-C. Lin, K.-H. Chen, L.-C. Chen, H.-L. Chen, and C.-W. Chen, “Top Laminated Graphene Electrode in a Semitransparent Polymer Solar Cell by Simultaneous Thermal Annealing/Releasing Method,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6564–6570 (2011).
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Chen, W.-C.

C.-C. Chueh, S.-C. Chien, H.-L. Yip, J. F. Salinas, C.-Z. Li, K.-S. Chen, F.-C. Chen, W.-C. Chen, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Toward High-Performance Semi-Transparent Polymer Solar Cells: Optimization of Ultra-Thin Light Absorbing Layer and Transparent Cathode Architecture,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(4), 417–423 (2013).
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C.-C. Chueh, S.-C. Chien, H.-L. Yip, J. F. Salinas, C.-Z. Li, K.-S. Chen, F.-C. Chen, W.-C. Chen, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Toward High-Performance Semi-Transparent Polymer Solar Cells: Optimization of Ultra-Thin Light Absorbing Layer and Transparent Cathode Architecture,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(4), 417–423 (2013).
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Y.-H. Kim, H. Cho, J. H. Heo, T.-S. Kim, N. Myoung, C.-L. Lee, S. H. Im, and T.-W. Lee, “Multicolored organic/inorganic hybrid perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1248–1254 (2015).
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J. J. Choi, W. N. Wenger, R. S. Hoffman, Y.-F. Lim, J. Luria, J. Jasieniak, J. A. Marohn, and T. Hanrath, “Solution-processed nanocrystal quantum dot tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3144–3148 (2011).
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J. W. Jung, C.-C. Chueh, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “High-Performance Semitransparent Perovskite Solar Cells with 10% Power Conversion Efficiency and 25% Average Visible Transmittance Based on Transparent CuSCN as the Hole-Transporting Material,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5, 486 (2015).

C.-C. Chueh, S.-C. Chien, H.-L. Yip, J. F. Salinas, C.-Z. Li, K.-S. Chen, F.-C. Chen, W.-C. Chen, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Toward High-Performance Semi-Transparent Polymer Solar Cells: Optimization of Ultra-Thin Light Absorbing Layer and Transparent Cathode Architecture,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(4), 417–423 (2013).
[Crossref]

Davidsson, H.

H. Davidsson, B. Perers, and B. Karlsson, “Performance of a multifunctional PV/T hybrid solar window,” Sol. Energy 84(3), 365–372 (2010).
[Crossref]

Debije, M. G.

Y. Galagan, M. G. Debije, and P. W. M. Blom, “Semitransparent organic solar cells with organic wavelength dependent reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(4), 043302 (2011).
[Crossref]

Debnath, R.

X. Wang, G. I. Koleilat, J. Tang, H. Liu, I. J. Kramer, R. Debnath, L. Brzozowski, D. A. R. Barkhouse, L. Levina, S. Hoogland, and E. H. Sargent, “Tandem colloidal quantum dot solar cells employing a graded recombination layer,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 480–484 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, I. J. Kramer, A. R. Barkhouse, X. Wang, G. Konstantatos, R. Debnath, L. Levina, I. Raabe, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and E. H. Sargent, “Depleted-Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3374–3380 (2010).
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Demir, H. V.

Dhasmana, N.

C. Li, J. Sleppy, N. Dhasmana, M. Soliman, L. Tetard, and J. Thomas, “A PCBM-assisted perovskite growth process to fabricate high efficiency semitransparent solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 4(30), 11648–11655 (2016).
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Dong, H.

D. Paz-Soldan, A. Lee, S. M. Thon, M. M. Adachi, H. Dong, P. Maraghechi, M. Yuan, A. J. Labelle, S. Hoogland, K. Liu, E. Kumacheva, and E. H. Sargent, “Jointly tuned plasmonic-excitonic photovoltaics using nanoshells,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1502–1508 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eid, J.

T. Kim, Y. Gao, H. Hu, B. Yan, Z. Ning, L. K. Jagadamma, K. Zhao, A. R. Kirmani, J. Eid, M. M. Adachi, E. H. Sargent, P. M. Beaujuge, and A. Amassian, “Hybrid tandem solar cells with depleted-heterojunction quantum dot and polymer bulk heterojunction subcells,” Nano Energy 17, 196–205 (2015).
[Crossref]

El Labban, A.

L. K. Jagadamma, H. Hu, T. Kim, G. O. N. Ndjawa, A. E. Mansour, A. El Labban, J. C. D. Faria, R. Munir, D. H. Anjum, M. A. McLachlan, and A. Amassian, “Solution-processable MoOx nanocrystals enable highly efficient reflective and semitransparent polymer solar cells,” Nano Energy 28, 277–287 (2016).
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S. Emin, S. P. Singh, L. Han, N. Satoh, and A. Islam, “Colloidal quantum dot solar cells,” Sol. Energy 85(6), 1264–1282 (2011).
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Eperon, G. E.

X. Zhang, G. E. Eperon, J. Liu, and E. M. J. Johansson, “Semitransparent quantum dot solar cell,” Nano Energy 22, 70–78 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. E. Eperon, V. M. Burlakov, A. Goriely, and H. J. Snaith, “Neutral color semitransparent microstructured perovskite solar cells,” ACS Nano 8(1), 591–598 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, F.

X. Lan, O. Voznyy, A. Kiani, F. P. García de Arquer, A. S. Abbas, G.-H. Kim, M. Liu, Z. Yang, G. Walters, J. Xu, M. Yuan, Z. Ning, F. Fan, P. Kanjanaboos, I. Kramer, D. Zhitomirsky, P. Lee, A. Perelgut, S. Hoogland, and E. H. Sargent, “Passivation Using Molecular Halides Increases Quantum Dot Solar Cell Performance,” Adv. Mater. 28(2), 299–304 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, O. Voznyy, R. Sabatini, F. P. García de Arquer, R. Munir, A. H. Balawi, X. Lan, F. Fan, G. Walters, A. R. Kirmani, S. Hoogland, F. Laquai, A. Amassian, and E. H. Sargent, “Hybrid organic-inorganic inks flatten the energy landscape in colloidal quantum dot solids,” Nat. Mater.; advance online publication (2016).

Faria, J. C. D.

L. K. Jagadamma, H. Hu, T. Kim, G. O. N. Ndjawa, A. E. Mansour, A. El Labban, J. C. D. Faria, R. Munir, D. H. Anjum, M. A. McLachlan, and A. Amassian, “Solution-processable MoOx nanocrystals enable highly efficient reflective and semitransparent polymer solar cells,” Nano Energy 28, 277–287 (2016).
[Crossref]

Forberich, K.

C. O. Ramírez Quiroz, C. Bronnbauer, I. Levchuk, Y. Hou, C. J. Brabec, and K. Forberich, “Coloring Semitransparent Perovskite Solar Cells via Dielectric Mirrors,” ACS Nano 10(5), 5104–5112 (2016).
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K.-T. Lee, M. Fukuda, S. Joglekar, and L. J. Guo, “Colored, see-through perovskite solar cells employing an optical cavity,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(21), 5377–5382 (2015).
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Galagan, Y.

Y. Galagan, M. G. Debije, and P. W. M. Blom, “Semitransparent organic solar cells with organic wavelength dependent reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(4), 043302 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gao, Y.

T. Kim, Y. Gao, H. Hu, B. Yan, Z. Ning, L. K. Jagadamma, K. Zhao, A. R. Kirmani, J. Eid, M. M. Adachi, E. H. Sargent, P. M. Beaujuge, and A. Amassian, “Hybrid tandem solar cells with depleted-heterojunction quantum dot and polymer bulk heterojunction subcells,” Nano Energy 17, 196–205 (2015).
[Crossref]

García de Arquer, F. P.

X. Lan, O. Voznyy, A. Kiani, F. P. García de Arquer, A. S. Abbas, G.-H. Kim, M. Liu, Z. Yang, G. Walters, J. Xu, M. Yuan, Z. Ning, F. Fan, P. Kanjanaboos, I. Kramer, D. Zhitomirsky, P. Lee, A. Perelgut, S. Hoogland, and E. H. Sargent, “Passivation Using Molecular Halides Increases Quantum Dot Solar Cell Performance,” Adv. Mater. 28(2), 299–304 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Ouellette, N. Hossain, B. R. Sutherland, A. Kiani, F. P. García de Arquer, H. Tan, M. Chaker, S. Hoogland, and E. H. Sargent, “Optical Resonance Engineering for Infrared Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics,” ACS Energy Lett. 1(4), 852–857 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, O. Voznyy, R. Sabatini, F. P. García de Arquer, R. Munir, A. H. Balawi, X. Lan, F. Fan, G. Walters, A. R. Kirmani, S. Hoogland, F. Laquai, A. Amassian, and E. H. Sargent, “Hybrid organic-inorganic inks flatten the energy landscape in colloidal quantum dot solids,” Nat. Mater.; advance online publication (2016).

Goriely, A.

G. E. Eperon, V. M. Burlakov, A. Goriely, and H. J. Snaith, “Neutral color semitransparent microstructured perovskite solar cells,” ACS Nano 8(1), 591–598 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grätzel, M.

A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, I. J. Kramer, A. R. Barkhouse, X. Wang, G. Konstantatos, R. Debnath, L. Levina, I. Raabe, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and E. H. Sargent, “Depleted-Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3374–3380 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Green, M. A.

A. S. Brown and M. A. Green, “Detailed balance limit for the series constrained two terminal tandem solar cell,” Phys. E Low-Dimens. Syst. Nanostructures 14(1-2), 96–100 (2002).
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[Crossref]

G. H. Carey, A. L. Abdelhady, Z. Ning, S. M. Thon, O. M. Bakr, and E. H. Sargent, “Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells,” Chem. Rev. 115(23), 12732–12763 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G.-H. Kim, B. Walker, H.-B. Kim, J. Y. Kim, E. H. Sargent, J. Park, and J. Y. Kim, “Inverted colloidal quantum dot solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(20), 3321–3327 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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E. H. Sargent, “Colloidal quantum dot solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 133–135 (2012).
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R. Koeppe, D. Hoeglinger, P. A. Troshin, R. N. Lyubovskaya, V. F. Razumov, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Organic Solar Cells with Semitransparent Metal Back Contacts for Power Window Applications,” ChemSusChem 2(4), 309–313 (2009).
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G. H. Carey, A. L. Abdelhady, Z. Ning, S. M. Thon, O. M. Bakr, and E. H. Sargent, “Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells,” Chem. Rev. 115(23), 12732–12763 (2015).
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Walker, B.

G.-H. Kim, B. Walker, H.-B. Kim, J. Y. Kim, E. H. Sargent, J. Park, and J. Y. Kim, “Inverted colloidal quantum dot solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(20), 3321–3327 (2014).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Zemel, J. N.

J. N. Zemel, J. D. Jensen, and R. B. Schoolar, “Electrical and Optical Properties of Epitaxial Films of PbS, PbSe, PbTe, and SnTe,” Phys. Rev. 140(1A), A330–A342 (1965).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, M. Anaya, G. Lozano, M. E. Calvo, M. B. Johnston, H. Míguez, and H. J. Snaith, “Highly efficient perovskite solar cells with tunable structural color,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1698–1702 (2015).
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X. Zhang, G. E. Eperon, J. Liu, and E. M. J. Johansson, “Semitransparent quantum dot solar cell,” Nano Energy 22, 70–78 (2016).
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Zhao, K.

T. Kim, Y. Gao, H. Hu, B. Yan, Z. Ning, L. K. Jagadamma, K. Zhao, A. R. Kirmani, J. Eid, M. M. Adachi, E. H. Sargent, P. M. Beaujuge, and A. Amassian, “Hybrid tandem solar cells with depleted-heterojunction quantum dot and polymer bulk heterojunction subcells,” Nano Energy 17, 196–205 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhitomirsky, D.

X. Lan, O. Voznyy, A. Kiani, F. P. García de Arquer, A. S. Abbas, G.-H. Kim, M. Liu, Z. Yang, G. Walters, J. Xu, M. Yuan, Z. Ning, F. Fan, P. Kanjanaboos, I. Kramer, D. Zhitomirsky, P. Lee, A. Perelgut, S. Hoogland, and E. H. Sargent, “Passivation Using Molecular Halides Increases Quantum Dot Solar Cell Performance,” Adv. Mater. 28(2), 299–304 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Labelle, S. M. Thon, J. Y. Kim, X. Lan, D. Zhitomirsky, K. W. Kemp, and E. H. Sargent, “Conformal Fabrication of Colloidal Quantum Dot Solids for Optically Enhanced Photovoltaics,” ACS Nano 9(5), 5447–5453 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, G.

Z. L. Wang, G. Zhu, Y. Yang, S. Wang, and C. Pan, “Progress in nanogenerators for portable electronics,” Mater. Today 15(12), 532–543 (2012).
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ACS Energy Lett. (1)

O. Ouellette, N. Hossain, B. R. Sutherland, A. Kiani, F. P. García de Arquer, H. Tan, M. Chaker, S. Hoogland, and E. H. Sargent, “Optical Resonance Engineering for Infrared Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics,” ACS Energy Lett. 1(4), 852–857 (2016).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (6)

Y.-Y. Lee, K.-H. Tu, C.-C. Yu, S.-S. Li, J.-Y. Hwang, C.-C. Lin, K.-H. Chen, L.-C. Chen, H.-L. Chen, and C.-W. Chen, “Top Laminated Graphene Electrode in a Semitransparent Polymer Solar Cell by Simultaneous Thermal Annealing/Releasing Method,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6564–6570 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. O. Ramírez Quiroz, C. Bronnbauer, I. Levchuk, Y. Hou, C. J. Brabec, and K. Forberich, “Coloring Semitransparent Perovskite Solar Cells via Dielectric Mirrors,” ACS Nano 10(5), 5104–5112 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Park, T. Xu, J. Y. Lee, A. Ledbetter, and L. J. Guo, “Photonic color filters integrated with organic solar cells for energy harvesting,” ACS Nano 5(9), 7055–7060 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. E. Eperon, V. M. Burlakov, A. Goriely, and H. J. Snaith, “Neutral color semitransparent microstructured perovskite solar cells,” ACS Nano 8(1), 591–598 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, I. J. Kramer, A. R. Barkhouse, X. Wang, G. Konstantatos, R. Debnath, L. Levina, I. Raabe, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and E. H. Sargent, “Depleted-Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3374–3380 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Labelle, S. M. Thon, J. Y. Kim, X. Lan, D. Zhitomirsky, K. W. Kemp, and E. H. Sargent, “Conformal Fabrication of Colloidal Quantum Dot Solids for Optically Enhanced Photovoltaics,” ACS Nano 9(5), 5447–5453 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Energy Mater. (3)

J. W. Jung, C.-C. Chueh, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “High-Performance Semitransparent Perovskite Solar Cells with 10% Power Conversion Efficiency and 25% Average Visible Transmittance Based on Transparent CuSCN as the Hole-Transporting Material,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5, 486 (2015).

Y. Guo, K. Shoyama, W. Sato, and E. Nakamura, “Polymer Stabilization of Lead(II) Perovskite Cubic Nanocrystals for Semitransparent Solar Cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 6, 2317 (2016).

C.-C. Chueh, S.-C. Chien, H.-L. Yip, J. F. Salinas, C.-Z. Li, K.-S. Chen, F.-C. Chen, W.-C. Chen, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Toward High-Performance Semi-Transparent Polymer Solar Cells: Optimization of Ultra-Thin Light Absorbing Layer and Transparent Cathode Architecture,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(4), 417–423 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

J. Krantz, T. Stubhan, M. Richter, S. Spallek, I. Litzov, G. J. Matt, E. Spiecker, and C. J. Brabec, “Spray-Coated Silver Nanowires as Top Electrode Layer in Semitransparent P3HT:PCBM-Based Organic Solar Cell Devices,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(13), 1711–1717 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, C. Hägglund, M. B. Johansson, K. Sveinbjörnsson, and E. M. J. Johansson, “Fine Tuned Nanolayered Metal/Metal Oxide Electrode for Semitransparent Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(12), 1921–1929 (2016).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of a CQD-based solar cell illustrating the spectrally-dependent optical interference patterns that can result from tuning the thicknesses of the different cell layers. As incident broadband sunlight passes through the device, constructive or destructive interference occurs at certain wavelengths, resulting in wavelength-dependent reflectivity and transmission, giving the cell its apparent color or semitransparency. (b) Cross-sectional scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the structure shown in (a) with the layers labeled. (c) Graphic representation of the optimization technique to produce cells with defined color characteristics. Space set of thickness combinations is (i) initialized and each combination is transformed to (ii) a reflection spectrum via TMM. These spectra in combination with incident (iii) AM1.5G and color matching functions are translated to rgb colors on (iv) chromaticity plots where the distance to the intended color is (v) minimized. This optimization cycle repeats until a global minimum is realized.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Calculated average transparency (%) and corresponding available photocurrent density (mA/cm2, color bar) versus PbS CQD film thickness (nm). Top curve: optimized for maximum average visible transparency. Middle curve: optimized for maximum available photocurrent density. Bottom curve: calculated for minimum average transparency. Calculated electric field intensity as a function of wavelength and position in the transparent device structure (ITO back contact) with a PbS CQD layer thickness of 200 nm for: (b) transparency-optimized case; (c) photocurrent-optimized case.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Chromaticity plot showing achievable colors given minimum photocurrent requirements (J > 10 mA/cm2, J > 15 mA/cm2, and J > 20 mA/cm2). Calculated Transmittance plots showing: (b) trade-off between transparency and photocurrent (for CQDs with 950 nm exciton peak wavelength), and (c) achievable transparency given minimum photocurrent requirements for different CQD excitonic peak wavelengths.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Simulated reflectance curves for a specific color objective with and without an effective optical roughness of 10% for the ITO/TiO2 layers and 10% for the CQD layer. (b) Effects of different levels of roughness on the chromaticity of a “blue” device. Percentages refer to the ratio of the standard deviation to the ideal thickness of the ITO/TiO2 layer. The white point of the standard illuminant is also plotted as a reference point. (c) Roughness (10%) has the effect of moving the vertices on the largest achievable triangle of color profiles closer to the white point.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Experimental reflectance and transmittance spectra for colored and semi-transparent solar cells, respectively. (b) Chromaticity plot showing the calculated coordinates for different colored devices. Crosses indicate design points while corresponding colored shapes indicate experimental points. (c) J-V characteristics taken under simulated solar illumination for colored and semi-transparent devices. (d) Photographs of blue (upper left), green (lower left), red (center), yellow (upper right), and semi-transparent (lower right) CQD solar cells.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Average performance characteristics of colored and transparent solar cell devices showing open-circuit voltage (VOC), short-circuit current (JSC), fill factor (FF) and power conversion efficiency (PCE). All measurements are for at least 6 devices.

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