Abstract

Nitrogen molecular ions (N2+) in air plasma pumped by femtosecond laser pulses give rise to superradiant emission at 391.4 nm in the presence of an external seed pulse at proper wavelength. Due to the transient alignment of the nitrogen molecular ions, the superradiance signal presents a strong modulation as a function of the temporal delay between the pump and the seed pulses. Through Fourier transformation with high frequency resolution, we distinguished the contribution of the finely separated rotation levels of the upper and lower states. It was found that the population density of certain rotational levels in the upper state is higher than that in the lower one, indicating that population inversion of the rotation levels of the two involved states is a key enabling factor for this superradiant emission.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (1)

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(14), 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

P. Wang, C. Wu, M. Lei, B. Dai, H. Yang, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, “Population dynamics of molecular nitrogen initiated by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 92(6), 063412 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. N. Malevich, R. Maurer, D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, A. A. Lanin, A. M. Zheltikov, M. Marangoni, G. Cerullo, A. Baltuška, and A. Pugžlys, “Stimulated Raman gas sensing by backward UV lasing from a femtosecond filament,” Opt. Lett. 40(11), 2469–2472 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Mitryukovskiy, Y. Liu, P. Ding, A. Houard, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Plasma luminescence from femtosecond filaments in air: evidence for impact excitation with circularly polarized light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(6), 063003 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, P. Ding, G. Lambert, A. Houard, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Recollision-induced superradiance of ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133203 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xu, E. Lötstedt, A. Iwasaki, and K. Yamanouchi, “Sub-10-fs population inversion in N2+ in air lasing through multiple state coupling,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8347 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (8)

B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Zhang, J. Ni, C. Jing, H. Xie, and Y. Cheng, “Real-time observation of dynamics in rotational molecular wave packets by use of air-laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 89(4), 042508 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Xie, B. Zeng, G. Li, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, J. Ni, Z. Wang, Z. Li, and Y. Cheng, “Coupling of N2+ rotational states in an air laser from tunnel-ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90(4), 042504 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Wang, S. Xu, D. Li, H. Yang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and C. Wu, “Spectroscopic study of laser-induced tunneling ionization of nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90(3), 033407 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Laurain, M. Scheller, and P. Polynkin, “Low-threshold bidirectional air lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(25), 253901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Mitryukovskiy, Y. Liu, P. Ding, A. Houard, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Backward stimulated radiation from filaments in nitrogen gas and air pumped by circularly polarized 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(11), 12750–12759 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, H. Xie, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Ni, H. Zhang, C. Jing, C. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Gain dynamics of a free-space nitrogen laser pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19005–19013 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Ding, S. Mitryukovskiy, A. Houard, E. Oliva, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, and Y. Liu, “Backward Lasing of Air plasma pumped by Circularly polarized femtosecond pulses for the saKe of remote sensing (BLACK),” Opt. Express 22(24), 29964–29977 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

Y. Liu, Y. Brelet, G. Point, A. Houard, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-seeded lasing in ionized air pumped by 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22791–22798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “air-laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, C. Wu, Y. Liu, S. Xu, and Q. Gong, “Fluorescence emission from excited molecular ions in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Front. Phys. 8(1), 34–38 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, G. Andiukaitis, A. Pugžlys, M. Shneider, A. Zheltikov, S. L. Chin, and A. Baltuška, “Free-space nitrogen gas laser driven by a femtosecond filament,” Phys. Rev. A 86(3), 033831 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. N. Malevich, D. Kartashov, Z. Pu, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, L. Giniūnas, R. Danielius, A. A. Lanin, A. M. Zheltikov, M. Marangoni, and G. Cerullo, “Ultrafast-laser-induced backward stimulated Raman scattering for tracing atmospheric gases,” Opt. Express 20(17), 18784–18794 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Traverso, R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, L. Yuan, K. Wang, D. V. Voronine, A. M. Zheltikov, Y. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, S. W. North, and M. O. Scully, “Coherence brightened laser source for atmospheric remote sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(38), 15185–15190 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Yuan, K. E. Dorfman, A. M. Zheltikov, and M. O. Scully, “Plasma-assisted coherent backscattering for standoff spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37(5), 987–989 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

A. Dogariu, J. B. Michael, M. O. Scully, and R. B. Miles, “High-gain backward lasing in air,” Science 331(6016), 442–445 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multi-wavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 051802 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

S. Petretti, Y. V. Vanne, A. Saenz, A. Castro, and P. Decleva, “Alignment-dependent ionization of N2, O2, and CO2 in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 223001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

N. Xu, C. Wu, Y. Gao, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Measurement of the field-free alignment of diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112(4), 612–617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2003 (1)

Q. Luo, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Lasing action in air induced by ultra-fast laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 76(3), 337–340 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. Ortigoso, M. Rodríguez, M. Gupta, and B. Friedrich, “Time evolution of pendular states created by the interaction of molecular polarizability with a pulsed nonresonant laser field,” J. Chem. Phys. 110(8), 3870–3875 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ališauskas, S.

Andiukaitis, G.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, G. Andiukaitis, A. Pugžlys, M. Shneider, A. Zheltikov, S. L. Chin, and A. Baltuška, “Free-space nitrogen gas laser driven by a femtosecond filament,” Phys. Rev. A 86(3), 033831 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baltuška, A.

Brelet, Y.

Castro, A.

S. Petretti, Y. V. Vanne, A. Saenz, A. Castro, and P. Decleva, “Alignment-dependent ionization of N2, O2, and CO2 in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 223001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cerullo, G.

Cheng, Y.

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(14), 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Xie, B. Zeng, G. Li, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, J. Ni, Z. Wang, Z. Li, and Y. Cheng, “Coupling of N2+ rotational states in an air laser from tunnel-ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90(4), 042504 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Zhang, J. Ni, C. Jing, H. Xie, and Y. Cheng, “Real-time observation of dynamics in rotational molecular wave packets by use of air-laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 89(4), 042508 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, H. Xie, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Ni, H. Zhang, C. Jing, C. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Gain dynamics of a free-space nitrogen laser pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19005–19013 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “air-laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multi-wavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 051802 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chin, S. L.

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “air-laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, G. Andiukaitis, A. Pugžlys, M. Shneider, A. Zheltikov, S. L. Chin, and A. Baltuška, “Free-space nitrogen gas laser driven by a femtosecond filament,” Phys. Rev. A 86(3), 033831 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multi-wavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 051802 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. Luo, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Lasing action in air induced by ultra-fast laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 76(3), 337–340 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chu, W.

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(14), 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Zhang, J. Ni, C. Jing, H. Xie, and Y. Cheng, “Real-time observation of dynamics in rotational molecular wave packets by use of air-laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 89(4), 042508 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Xie, B. Zeng, G. Li, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, J. Ni, Z. Wang, Z. Li, and Y. Cheng, “Coupling of N2+ rotational states in an air laser from tunnel-ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90(4), 042504 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, H. Xie, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Ni, H. Zhang, C. Jing, C. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Gain dynamics of a free-space nitrogen laser pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19005–19013 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “air-laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multi-wavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 051802 (2011).
[Crossref]

Couairon, A.

S. Mitryukovskiy, Y. Liu, P. Ding, A. Houard, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Plasma luminescence from femtosecond filaments in air: evidence for impact excitation with circularly polarized light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(6), 063003 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Ding, S. Mitryukovskiy, A. Houard, E. Oliva, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, and Y. Liu, “Backward Lasing of Air plasma pumped by Circularly polarized femtosecond pulses for the saKe of remote sensing (BLACK),” Opt. Express 22(24), 29964–29977 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, B.

P. Wang, C. Wu, M. Lei, B. Dai, H. Yang, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, “Population dynamics of molecular nitrogen initiated by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 92(6), 063412 (2015).
[Crossref]

Danielius, R.

Decleva, P.

S. Petretti, Y. V. Vanne, A. Saenz, A. Castro, and P. Decleva, “Alignment-dependent ionization of N2, O2, and CO2 in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 223001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, P.

S. Mitryukovskiy, Y. Liu, P. Ding, A. Houard, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Plasma luminescence from femtosecond filaments in air: evidence for impact excitation with circularly polarized light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(6), 063003 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, P. Ding, G. Lambert, A. Houard, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Recollision-induced superradiance of ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133203 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Mitryukovskiy, Y. Liu, P. Ding, A. Houard, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Backward stimulated radiation from filaments in nitrogen gas and air pumped by circularly polarized 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(11), 12750–12759 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Ding, S. Mitryukovskiy, A. Houard, E. Oliva, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, and Y. Liu, “Backward Lasing of Air plasma pumped by Circularly polarized femtosecond pulses for the saKe of remote sensing (BLACK),” Opt. Express 22(24), 29964–29977 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dogariu, A.

A. Dogariu, J. B. Michael, M. O. Scully, and R. B. Miles, “High-gain backward lasing in air,” Science 331(6016), 442–445 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dorfman, K. E.

Friedrich, B.

J. Ortigoso, M. Rodríguez, M. Gupta, and B. Friedrich, “Time evolution of pendular states created by the interaction of molecular polarizability with a pulsed nonresonant laser field,” J. Chem. Phys. 110(8), 3870–3875 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gao, Y.

N. Xu, C. Wu, Y. Gao, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Measurement of the field-free alignment of diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112(4), 612–617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giniunas, L.

Gong, Q.

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(14), 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wang, C. Wu, M. Lei, B. Dai, H. Yang, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, “Population dynamics of molecular nitrogen initiated by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 92(6), 063412 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Wang, S. Xu, D. Li, H. Yang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and C. Wu, “Spectroscopic study of laser-induced tunneling ionization of nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90(3), 033407 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, C. Wu, Y. Liu, S. Xu, and Q. Gong, “Fluorescence emission from excited molecular ions in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Front. Phys. 8(1), 34–38 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Xu, C. Wu, Y. Gao, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Measurement of the field-free alignment of diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112(4), 612–617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Xu, C. Wu, J. Huang, Z. Wu, Q. Liang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Field-free alignment of molecules at room temperature,” Opt. Express 14(12), 4992–4997 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gupta, M.

J. Ortigoso, M. Rodríguez, M. Gupta, and B. Friedrich, “Time evolution of pendular states created by the interaction of molecular polarizability with a pulsed nonresonant laser field,” J. Chem. Phys. 110(8), 3870–3875 (1999).
[Crossref]

Houard, A.

Huang, J.

Iwasaki, A.

H. Xu, E. Lötstedt, A. Iwasaki, and K. Yamanouchi, “Sub-10-fs population inversion in N2+ in air lasing through multiple state coupling,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8347 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(14), 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wang, C. Wu, M. Lei, B. Dai, H. Yang, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, “Population dynamics of molecular nitrogen initiated by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 92(6), 063412 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Wang, S. Xu, D. Li, H. Yang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and C. Wu, “Spectroscopic study of laser-induced tunneling ionization of nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90(3), 033407 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Xu, C. Wu, Y. Gao, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Measurement of the field-free alignment of diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112(4), 612–617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, S.

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(14), 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jing, C.

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Xie, B. Zeng, G. Li, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, J. Ni, Z. Wang, Z. Li, and Y. Cheng, “Coupling of N2+ rotational states in an air laser from tunnel-ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90(4), 042504 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Zhang, J. Ni, C. Jing, H. Xie, and Y. Cheng, “Real-time observation of dynamics in rotational molecular wave packets by use of air-laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 89(4), 042508 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, H. Xie, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Ni, H. Zhang, C. Jing, C. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Gain dynamics of a free-space nitrogen laser pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19005–19013 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “air-laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kartashov, D.

Lambert, G.

Y. Liu, P. Ding, G. Lambert, A. Houard, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Recollision-induced superradiance of ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133203 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lanin, A. A.

Laurain, A.

A. Laurain, M. Scheller, and P. Polynkin, “Low-threshold bidirectional air lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(25), 253901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lei, M.

P. Wang, C. Wu, M. Lei, B. Dai, H. Yang, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, “Population dynamics of molecular nitrogen initiated by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 92(6), 063412 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, D.

P. Wang, S. Xu, D. Li, H. Yang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and C. Wu, “Spectroscopic study of laser-induced tunneling ionization of nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90(3), 033407 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(14), 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Xie, B. Zeng, G. Li, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, J. Ni, Z. Wang, Z. Li, and Y. Cheng, “Coupling of N2+ rotational states in an air laser from tunnel-ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90(4), 042504 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Zhang, J. Ni, C. Jing, H. Xie, and Y. Cheng, “Real-time observation of dynamics in rotational molecular wave packets by use of air-laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 89(4), 042508 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, H. Xie, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Ni, H. Zhang, C. Jing, C. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Gain dynamics of a free-space nitrogen laser pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19005–19013 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “air-laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multi-wavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 051802 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(14), 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xie, B. Zeng, G. Li, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, J. Ni, Z. Wang, Z. Li, and Y. Cheng, “Coupling of N2+ rotational states in an air laser from tunnel-ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90(4), 042504 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liang, Q.

Liu, W.

Q. Luo, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Lasing action in air induced by ultra-fast laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 76(3), 337–340 (2003).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

S. Mitryukovskiy, Y. Liu, P. Ding, A. Houard, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Plasma luminescence from femtosecond filaments in air: evidence for impact excitation with circularly polarized light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(6), 063003 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, P. Ding, G. Lambert, A. Houard, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Recollision-induced superradiance of ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133203 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Mitryukovskiy, Y. Liu, P. Ding, A. Houard, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Backward stimulated radiation from filaments in nitrogen gas and air pumped by circularly polarized 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(11), 12750–12759 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Ding, S. Mitryukovskiy, A. Houard, E. Oliva, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, and Y. Liu, “Backward Lasing of Air plasma pumped by Circularly polarized femtosecond pulses for the saKe of remote sensing (BLACK),” Opt. Express 22(24), 29964–29977 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, Y. Brelet, G. Point, A. Houard, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-seeded lasing in ionized air pumped by 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22791–22798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, C. Wu, Y. Liu, S. Xu, and Q. Gong, “Fluorescence emission from excited molecular ions in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Front. Phys. 8(1), 34–38 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lötstedt, E.

H. Xu, E. Lötstedt, A. Iwasaki, and K. Yamanouchi, “Sub-10-fs population inversion in N2+ in air lasing through multiple state coupling,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8347 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, R.

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(14), 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, Q.

Q. Luo, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Lasing action in air induced by ultra-fast laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 76(3), 337–340 (2003).
[Crossref]

Malevich, P. N.

Marangoni, M.

Maurer, R.

Michael, J. B.

A. Dogariu, J. B. Michael, M. O. Scully, and R. B. Miles, “High-gain backward lasing in air,” Science 331(6016), 442–445 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miles, R. B.

A. Dogariu, J. B. Michael, M. O. Scully, and R. B. Miles, “High-gain backward lasing in air,” Science 331(6016), 442–445 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mitryukovskiy, S.

Mysyrowicz, A.

Ni, J.

J. Yao, H. Xie, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Ni, H. Zhang, C. Jing, C. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Gain dynamics of a free-space nitrogen laser pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19005–19013 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Zhang, J. Ni, C. Jing, H. Xie, and Y. Cheng, “Real-time observation of dynamics in rotational molecular wave packets by use of air-laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 89(4), 042508 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Xie, B. Zeng, G. Li, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, J. Ni, Z. Wang, Z. Li, and Y. Cheng, “Coupling of N2+ rotational states in an air laser from tunnel-ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90(4), 042504 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “air-laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multi-wavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 051802 (2011).
[Crossref]

North, S. W.

A. J. Traverso, R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, L. Yuan, K. Wang, D. V. Voronine, A. M. Zheltikov, Y. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, S. W. North, and M. O. Scully, “Coherence brightened laser source for atmospheric remote sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(38), 15185–15190 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oliva, E.

Ortigoso, J.

J. Ortigoso, M. Rodríguez, M. Gupta, and B. Friedrich, “Time evolution of pendular states created by the interaction of molecular polarizability with a pulsed nonresonant laser field,” J. Chem. Phys. 110(8), 3870–3875 (1999).
[Crossref]

Petretti, S.

S. Petretti, Y. V. Vanne, A. Saenz, A. Castro, and P. Decleva, “Alignment-dependent ionization of N2, O2, and CO2 in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 223001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Point, G.

Polynkin, P.

A. Laurain, M. Scheller, and P. Polynkin, “Low-threshold bidirectional air lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(25), 253901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pu, Z.

Pugžlys, A.

Rodríguez, M.

J. Ortigoso, M. Rodríguez, M. Gupta, and B. Friedrich, “Time evolution of pendular states created by the interaction of molecular polarizability with a pulsed nonresonant laser field,” J. Chem. Phys. 110(8), 3870–3875 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rostovtsev, Y.

A. J. Traverso, R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, L. Yuan, K. Wang, D. V. Voronine, A. M. Zheltikov, Y. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, S. W. North, and M. O. Scully, “Coherence brightened laser source for atmospheric remote sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(38), 15185–15190 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saenz, A.

S. Petretti, Y. V. Vanne, A. Saenz, A. Castro, and P. Decleva, “Alignment-dependent ionization of N2, O2, and CO2 in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 223001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanchez-Gonzalez, R.

A. J. Traverso, R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, L. Yuan, K. Wang, D. V. Voronine, A. M. Zheltikov, Y. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, S. W. North, and M. O. Scully, “Coherence brightened laser source for atmospheric remote sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(38), 15185–15190 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sautenkov, V. A.

A. J. Traverso, R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, L. Yuan, K. Wang, D. V. Voronine, A. M. Zheltikov, Y. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, S. W. North, and M. O. Scully, “Coherence brightened laser source for atmospheric remote sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(38), 15185–15190 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scheller, M.

A. Laurain, M. Scheller, and P. Polynkin, “Low-threshold bidirectional air lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(25), 253901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scully, M. O.

A. J. Traverso, R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, L. Yuan, K. Wang, D. V. Voronine, A. M. Zheltikov, Y. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, S. W. North, and M. O. Scully, “Coherence brightened laser source for atmospheric remote sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(38), 15185–15190 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Yuan, K. E. Dorfman, A. M. Zheltikov, and M. O. Scully, “Plasma-assisted coherent backscattering for standoff spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37(5), 987–989 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dogariu, J. B. Michael, M. O. Scully, and R. B. Miles, “High-gain backward lasing in air,” Science 331(6016), 442–445 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shneider, M.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, G. Andiukaitis, A. Pugžlys, M. Shneider, A. Zheltikov, S. L. Chin, and A. Baltuška, “Free-space nitrogen gas laser driven by a femtosecond filament,” Phys. Rev. A 86(3), 033831 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sokolov, A. V.

A. J. Traverso, R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, L. Yuan, K. Wang, D. V. Voronine, A. M. Zheltikov, Y. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, S. W. North, and M. O. Scully, “Coherence brightened laser source for atmospheric remote sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(38), 15185–15190 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tikhonchuk, V.

Y. Liu, P. Ding, G. Lambert, A. Houard, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Recollision-induced superradiance of ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133203 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Traverso, A. J.

A. J. Traverso, R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, L. Yuan, K. Wang, D. V. Voronine, A. M. Zheltikov, Y. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, S. W. North, and M. O. Scully, “Coherence brightened laser source for atmospheric remote sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(38), 15185–15190 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vanne, Y. V.

S. Petretti, Y. V. Vanne, A. Saenz, A. Castro, and P. Decleva, “Alignment-dependent ionization of N2, O2, and CO2 in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 223001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Voronine, D. V.

A. J. Traverso, R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, L. Yuan, K. Wang, D. V. Voronine, A. M. Zheltikov, Y. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, S. W. North, and M. O. Scully, “Coherence brightened laser source for atmospheric remote sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(38), 15185–15190 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

A. J. Traverso, R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, L. Yuan, K. Wang, D. V. Voronine, A. M. Zheltikov, Y. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, S. W. North, and M. O. Scully, “Coherence brightened laser source for atmospheric remote sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(38), 15185–15190 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, P.

P. Wang, C. Wu, M. Lei, B. Dai, H. Yang, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, “Population dynamics of molecular nitrogen initiated by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 92(6), 063412 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Wang, S. Xu, D. Li, H. Yang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and C. Wu, “Spectroscopic study of laser-induced tunneling ionization of nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90(3), 033407 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, C. Wu, Y. Liu, S. Xu, and Q. Gong, “Fluorescence emission from excited molecular ions in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Front. Phys. 8(1), 34–38 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(14), 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xie, B. Zeng, G. Li, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, J. Ni, Z. Wang, Z. Li, and Y. Cheng, “Coupling of N2+ rotational states in an air laser from tunnel-ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90(4), 042504 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(14), 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wang, C. Wu, M. Lei, B. Dai, H. Yang, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, “Population dynamics of molecular nitrogen initiated by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 92(6), 063412 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Wang, S. Xu, D. Li, H. Yang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and C. Wu, “Spectroscopic study of laser-induced tunneling ionization of nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90(3), 033407 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, C. Wu, Y. Liu, S. Xu, and Q. Gong, “Fluorescence emission from excited molecular ions in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Front. Phys. 8(1), 34–38 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Xu, C. Wu, Y. Gao, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Measurement of the field-free alignment of diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112(4), 612–617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Xu, C. Wu, J. Huang, Z. Wu, Q. Liang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Field-free alignment of molecules at room temperature,” Opt. Express 14(12), 4992–4997 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Z.

Xie, H.

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(14), 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Xie, B. Zeng, G. Li, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, J. Ni, Z. Wang, Z. Li, and Y. Cheng, “Coupling of N2+ rotational states in an air laser from tunnel-ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90(4), 042504 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Zhang, J. Ni, C. Jing, H. Xie, and Y. Cheng, “Real-time observation of dynamics in rotational molecular wave packets by use of air-laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 89(4), 042508 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, H. Xie, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Ni, H. Zhang, C. Jing, C. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Gain dynamics of a free-space nitrogen laser pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19005–19013 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “air-laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, H.

H. Xu, E. Lötstedt, A. Iwasaki, and K. Yamanouchi, “Sub-10-fs population inversion in N2+ in air lasing through multiple state coupling,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8347 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, H. Xie, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Ni, H. Zhang, C. Jing, C. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Gain dynamics of a free-space nitrogen laser pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19005–19013 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “air-laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multi-wavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 051802 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xu, N.

N. Xu, C. Wu, Y. Gao, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Measurement of the field-free alignment of diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112(4), 612–617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Xu, C. Wu, J. Huang, Z. Wu, Q. Liang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Field-free alignment of molecules at room temperature,” Opt. Express 14(12), 4992–4997 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, S.

P. Wang, S. Xu, D. Li, H. Yang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and C. Wu, “Spectroscopic study of laser-induced tunneling ionization of nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90(3), 033407 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, C. Wu, Y. Liu, S. Xu, and Q. Gong, “Fluorescence emission from excited molecular ions in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Front. Phys. 8(1), 34–38 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, H. Xie, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Ni, H. Zhang, C. Jing, C. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Gain dynamics of a free-space nitrogen laser pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19005–19013 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “air-laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multi-wavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 051802 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yamanouchi, K.

H. Xu, E. Lötstedt, A. Iwasaki, and K. Yamanouchi, “Sub-10-fs population inversion in N2+ in air lasing through multiple state coupling,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8347 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “air-laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

P. Wang, C. Wu, M. Lei, B. Dai, H. Yang, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, “Population dynamics of molecular nitrogen initiated by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 92(6), 063412 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Wang, S. Xu, D. Li, H. Yang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and C. Wu, “Spectroscopic study of laser-induced tunneling ionization of nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90(3), 033407 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Xu, C. Wu, Y. Gao, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Measurement of the field-free alignment of diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112(4), 612–617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Xu, C. Wu, J. Huang, Z. Wu, Q. Liang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Field-free alignment of molecules at room temperature,” Opt. Express 14(12), 4992–4997 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(14), 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Zhang, J. Ni, C. Jing, H. Xie, and Y. Cheng, “Real-time observation of dynamics in rotational molecular wave packets by use of air-laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 89(4), 042508 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Xie, B. Zeng, G. Li, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, J. Ni, Z. Wang, Z. Li, and Y. Cheng, “Coupling of N2+ rotational states in an air laser from tunnel-ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90(4), 042504 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, H. Xie, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Ni, H. Zhang, C. Jing, C. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Gain dynamics of a free-space nitrogen laser pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19005–19013 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “air-laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multi-wavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 051802 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yu, C.

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(14), 143007 (2016).
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Yuan, L.

L. Yuan, K. E. Dorfman, A. M. Zheltikov, and M. O. Scully, “Plasma-assisted coherent backscattering for standoff spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37(5), 987–989 (2012).
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A. J. Traverso, R. Sanchez-Gonzalez, L. Yuan, K. Wang, D. V. Voronine, A. M. Zheltikov, Y. Rostovtsev, V. A. Sautenkov, A. V. Sokolov, S. W. North, and M. O. Scully, “Coherence brightened laser source for atmospheric remote sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(38), 15185–15190 (2012).
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Zeng, B.

J. Yao, S. Jiang, W. Chu, B. Zeng, C. Wu, R. Lu, Z. Li, H. Xie, G. Li, C. Yu, Z. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and Y. Cheng, “Population redistribution among multiple electronic states of molecular nitrogen ions in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(14), 143007 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Zhang, J. Ni, C. Jing, H. Xie, and Y. Cheng, “Real-time observation of dynamics in rotational molecular wave packets by use of air-laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 89(4), 042508 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Xie, B. Zeng, G. Li, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, J. Ni, Z. Wang, Z. Li, and Y. Cheng, “Coupling of N2+ rotational states in an air laser from tunnel-ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90(4), 042504 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, H. Xie, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Ni, H. Zhang, C. Jing, C. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Gain dynamics of a free-space nitrogen laser pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19005–19013 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “air-laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multi-wavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 051802 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

J. Yao, H. Xie, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Ni, H. Zhang, C. Jing, C. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Gain dynamics of a free-space nitrogen laser pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19005–19013 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

H. Xie, B. Zeng, G. Li, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, J. Ni, Z. Wang, Z. Li, and Y. Cheng, “Coupling of N2+ rotational states in an air laser from tunnel-ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90(4), 042504 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Zhang, J. Ni, C. Jing, H. Xie, and Y. Cheng, “Real-time observation of dynamics in rotational molecular wave packets by use of air-laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 89(4), 042508 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, H. Xie, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Ni, H. Zhang, C. Jing, C. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Gain dynamics of a free-space nitrogen laser pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19005–19013 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “air-laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041009 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multi-wavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 051802 (2011).
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D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, G. Andiukaitis, A. Pugžlys, M. Shneider, A. Zheltikov, S. L. Chin, and A. Baltuška, “Free-space nitrogen gas laser driven by a femtosecond filament,” Phys. Rev. A 86(3), 033831 (2012).
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Zheltikov, A. M.

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Y. Wang, C. Wu, Y. Liu, S. Xu, and Q. Gong, “Fluorescence emission from excited molecular ions in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Front. Phys. 8(1), 34–38 (2013).
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J. Ortigoso, M. Rodríguez, M. Gupta, and B. Friedrich, “Time evolution of pendular states created by the interaction of molecular polarizability with a pulsed nonresonant laser field,” J. Chem. Phys. 110(8), 3870–3875 (1999).
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N. Xu, C. Wu, Y. Gao, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Measurement of the field-free alignment of diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112(4), 612–617 (2008).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

H. Xu, E. Lötstedt, A. Iwasaki, and K. Yamanouchi, “Sub-10-fs population inversion in N2+ in air lasing through multiple state coupling,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8347 (2015).
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J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
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Opt. Express (6)

Y. Liu, Y. Brelet, G. Point, A. Houard, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-seeded lasing in ionized air pumped by 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22791–22798 (2013).
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N. Xu, C. Wu, J. Huang, Z. Wu, Q. Liang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Field-free alignment of molecules at room temperature,” Opt. Express 14(12), 4992–4997 (2006).
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S. Mitryukovskiy, Y. Liu, P. Ding, A. Houard, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Backward stimulated radiation from filaments in nitrogen gas and air pumped by circularly polarized 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(11), 12750–12759 (2014).
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J. Yao, H. Xie, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Ni, H. Zhang, C. Jing, C. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Gain dynamics of a free-space nitrogen laser pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19005–19013 (2014).
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P. N. Malevich, D. Kartashov, Z. Pu, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, L. Giniūnas, R. Danielius, A. A. Lanin, A. M. Zheltikov, M. Marangoni, and G. Cerullo, “Ultrafast-laser-induced backward stimulated Raman scattering for tracing atmospheric gases,” Opt. Express 20(17), 18784–18794 (2012).
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Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (7)

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multi-wavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 051802 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, G. Andiukaitis, A. Pugžlys, M. Shneider, A. Zheltikov, S. L. Chin, and A. Baltuška, “Free-space nitrogen gas laser driven by a femtosecond filament,” Phys. Rev. A 86(3), 033831 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Wang, C. Wu, M. Lei, B. Dai, H. Yang, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, “Population dynamics of molecular nitrogen initiated by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 92(6), 063412 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Yao, H. Zhang, J. Ni, C. Jing, H. Xie, and Y. Cheng, “Real-time observation of dynamics in rotational molecular wave packets by use of air-laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 89(4), 042508 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Xie, B. Zeng, G. Li, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, J. Ni, Z. Wang, Z. Li, and Y. Cheng, “Coupling of N2+ rotational states in an air laser from tunnel-ionized nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90(4), 042504 (2014).
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P. Wang, S. Xu, D. Li, H. Yang, H. Jiang, Q. Gong, and C. Wu, “Spectroscopic study of laser-induced tunneling ionization of nitrogen molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 90(3), 033407 (2014).
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S. Petretti, Y. V. Vanne, A. Saenz, A. Castro, and P. Decleva, “Alignment-dependent ionization of N2, O2, and CO2 in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 223001 (2010).
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Phys. Rev. X (1)

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[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup. DL: delay line; BBO: β-barium borate crystal; BPF: Band-pass filter; DM: dichroic mirror; BS: beam splitter; M: reflective mirror; HWP: half wave plate; Lens: fused silica lenses.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Typical spectrum of the coherent emission around 391 nm (red line) recorded in the presence of both the pump laser and the external seed with an optimized delay. For comparison, the spectra of the seed pulse (blue line) and pump pulse (green line) are also presented. (b) Superradiance intensity around 391 nm as a function of the time delay between the pump laser and the seed for the gas pressure of 4 mbar (red line), 2 mbar (green line) and 1 mbar (blue line).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Superradiance intensity as a function of the time delay between the pump laser and the seed with the polarization of the pump laser being parallel (red line) or perpendicular (blue line) to that of the seed.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Fourier transformation of the time-dependent superradiance around 391 nm. Here J' and J are the rotation quantum number of the upper and lower states of the transition. The rotational coherence was clearly exhibited for both the excited state and the ground state of nitrogen molecular ions.

Equations (1)

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ω= E J+2 E J =( 4J+6 ) B 0

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