Abstract

A fully stabilized mid-infrared optical frequency comb spanning from 2.9 to 3.4 µm is described in this article. The comb is based on half-harmonic generation in a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator, which transfers the high phase coherence of a fully stabilized near-infrared Er-doped fiber laser comb to the mid-infrared region. The method is simple, as no phase-locked loops or reference lasers are needed. Precise locking of optical frequencies of the mid-infrared comb to the pump comb is experimentally verified at sub-20 mHz level, which corresponds to a fractional statistical uncertainty of 2 × 10−16 at the center frequency of the mid-infrared comb. The fully stabilized mid-infrared comb is an ideal tool for high-precision molecular spectroscopy, as well as for optical frequency metrology in the mid-infrared region, which is difficult to access with other stabilized frequency comb techniques.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (3)

2015 (2)

K. F. Lee, C. Mohr, J. Jiang, P. G. Schunemann, K. L. Vodopyanov, and M. E. Fermann, “Midinfrared frequency comb from self-stable degenerate GaAs optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26596–26603 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Manzoni, O. D. Mücke, G. Cirmi, S. Fang, J. Moses, S.-W. Huang, K.-H. Hong, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kärtner, “Coherent pulse synthesis: towards sub-cycle optical waveforms,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(2), 129–171 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

2013 (5)

M. W. Haakestad, T. P. Lamour, N. Leindecker, A. Marandi, and K. L. Vodopyanov, “Intracavity trace molecular detection with a broadband mid-IR frequency comb source,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(3), 631–640 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Abe, K. Iwakuni, S. Okubo, and H. Sasada, “Accurate transition frequency list of the ν3 band of methane from sub-Doppler resolution comb-referenced spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(4), 1027–1035 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Zhu, H. Hundertmark, A. A. Kolomenskii, J. Strohaber, R. Holzwarth, and H. A. Schuessler, “High-power mid-infrared frequency comb source based on a femtosecond Er:fiber oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 38(13), 2360–2362 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Galli, M. Siciliani de Cumis, F. Cappelli, S. Bartalini, D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, A. Montori, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, and P. De Natale, “Comb-assisted subkilohertz linewidth quantum cascade laser for high-precision mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121117 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. W. Haakestad, A. Marandi, N. Leindecker, and K. L. Vodopyanov, “Five-cycle pulses near λ = 3 μm produced in a subharmonic optical parametric oscillator via fine dispersion management,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), L93–L97 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2011 (4)

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

F. Adler, K. C. Cossel, M. J. Thorpe, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Phase-stabilized, 1.5 W frequency comb at 2.8-4.8 microm,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1330–1332 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Albert, S. Bauerecker, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Champion, M. Loëte, A. Nikitin, and M. Quack, “Global analysis of the high resolution infrared spectrum of methane 12CH4 in the region from 0 to 4800 cm−1,” Chem. Phys. 356(1-3), 131–146 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

2007 (1)

2002 (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

J. Vanderauwera, D. Hurtmans, M. Carleer, and M. Herman, “The ν3 Fundamental in C2H2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 157(2), 337–357 (1993).
[Crossref]

Abe, M.

Adler, F.

A. Foltynowicz, T. Ban, P. Masłowski, F. Adler, and J. Ye, “Quantum-noise-limited optical frequency comb spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(23), 233002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Adler, K. C. Cossel, M. J. Thorpe, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Phase-stabilized, 1.5 W frequency comb at 2.8-4.8 microm,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1330–1332 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akikusa, N.

I. Galli, M. Siciliani de Cumis, F. Cappelli, S. Bartalini, D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, A. Montori, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, and P. De Natale, “Comb-assisted subkilohertz linewidth quantum cascade laser for high-precision mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Albert, S.

S. Albert, S. Bauerecker, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Champion, M. Loëte, A. Nikitin, and M. Quack, “Global analysis of the high resolution infrared spectrum of methane 12CH4 in the region from 0 to 4800 cm−1,” Chem. Phys. 356(1-3), 131–146 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ban, T.

A. Foltynowicz, T. Ban, P. Masłowski, F. Adler, and J. Ye, “Quantum-noise-limited optical frequency comb spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(23), 233002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartalini, S.

I. Galli, M. Siciliani de Cumis, F. Cappelli, S. Bartalini, D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, A. Montori, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, and P. De Natale, “Comb-assisted subkilohertz linewidth quantum cascade laser for high-precision mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bartels, A.

Bauerecker, S.

S. Albert, S. Bauerecker, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Champion, M. Loëte, A. Nikitin, and M. Quack, “Global analysis of the high resolution infrared spectrum of methane 12CH4 in the region from 0 to 4800 cm−1,” Chem. Phys. 356(1-3), 131–146 (2009).
[Crossref]

Borri, S.

I. Galli, M. Siciliani de Cumis, F. Cappelli, S. Bartalini, D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, A. Montori, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, and P. De Natale, “Comb-assisted subkilohertz linewidth quantum cascade laser for high-precision mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boudon, V.

S. Albert, S. Bauerecker, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Champion, M. Loëte, A. Nikitin, and M. Quack, “Global analysis of the high resolution infrared spectrum of methane 12CH4 in the region from 0 to 4800 cm−1,” Chem. Phys. 356(1-3), 131–146 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brown, L. R.

S. Albert, S. Bauerecker, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Champion, M. Loëte, A. Nikitin, and M. Quack, “Global analysis of the high resolution infrared spectrum of methane 12CH4 in the region from 0 to 4800 cm−1,” Chem. Phys. 356(1-3), 131–146 (2009).
[Crossref]

Byer, R. L.

Cancio, P.

I. Galli, M. Siciliani de Cumis, F. Cappelli, S. Bartalini, D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, A. Montori, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, and P. De Natale, “Comb-assisted subkilohertz linewidth quantum cascade laser for high-precision mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cappelli, F.

I. Galli, M. Siciliani de Cumis, F. Cappelli, S. Bartalini, D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, A. Montori, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, and P. De Natale, “Comb-assisted subkilohertz linewidth quantum cascade laser for high-precision mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Carleer, M.

J. Vanderauwera, D. Hurtmans, M. Carleer, and M. Herman, “The ν3 Fundamental in C2H2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 157(2), 337–357 (1993).
[Crossref]

Cerullo, G.

C. Manzoni, O. D. Mücke, G. Cirmi, S. Fang, J. Moses, S.-W. Huang, K.-H. Hong, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kärtner, “Coherent pulse synthesis: towards sub-cycle optical waveforms,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(2), 129–171 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chaitanya Kumar, S.

S. Chaitanya Kumar, A. Esteban-Martin, T. Ideguchi, M. Yan, S. Holzner, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Few-cycle, broadband, mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator pumped by a 20-fs Ti:sapphire laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), L86–L91 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Champion, J. P.

S. Albert, S. Bauerecker, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Champion, M. Loëte, A. Nikitin, and M. Quack, “Global analysis of the high resolution infrared spectrum of methane 12CH4 in the region from 0 to 4800 cm−1,” Chem. Phys. 356(1-3), 131–146 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.

Cirmi, G.

C. Manzoni, O. D. Mücke, G. Cirmi, S. Fang, J. Moses, S.-W. Huang, K.-H. Hong, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kärtner, “Coherent pulse synthesis: towards sub-cycle optical waveforms,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(2), 129–171 (2015).
[Crossref]

Coddington, I.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent dual-comb spectroscopy at high signal-to-noise ratio,” Phys. Rev. A 82(4), 043817 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cossel, K. C.

Cundiff, S. T.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Natale, P.

I. Galli, M. Siciliani de Cumis, F. Cappelli, S. Bartalini, D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, A. Montori, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, and P. De Natale, “Comb-assisted subkilohertz linewidth quantum cascade laser for high-precision mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dekorsy, T.

Diddams, S. A.

Digonnet, M.

Ebrahim-Zadeh, M.

S. Chaitanya Kumar, A. Esteban-Martin, T. Ideguchi, M. Yan, S. Holzner, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Few-cycle, broadband, mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator pumped by a 20-fs Ti:sapphire laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), L86–L91 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Esteban-Martin, A.

S. Chaitanya Kumar, A. Esteban-Martin, T. Ideguchi, M. Yan, S. Holzner, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Few-cycle, broadband, mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator pumped by a 20-fs Ti:sapphire laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), L86–L91 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, S.

C. Manzoni, O. D. Mücke, G. Cirmi, S. Fang, J. Moses, S.-W. Huang, K.-H. Hong, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kärtner, “Coherent pulse synthesis: towards sub-cycle optical waveforms,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(2), 129–171 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fermann, M. E.

Foltynowicz, A.

A. Foltynowicz, T. Ban, P. Masłowski, F. Adler, and J. Ye, “Quantum-noise-limited optical frequency comb spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(23), 233002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fordell, T.

Gale, B. J. S.

Galli, I.

I. Galli, M. Siciliani de Cumis, F. Cappelli, S. Bartalini, D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, A. Montori, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, and P. De Natale, “Comb-assisted subkilohertz linewidth quantum cascade laser for high-precision mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gebs, R.

Giusfredi, G.

I. Galli, M. Siciliani de Cumis, F. Cappelli, S. Bartalini, D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, A. Montori, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, and P. De Natale, “Comb-assisted subkilohertz linewidth quantum cascade laser for high-precision mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gorelov, S. D.

Haakestad, M. W.

M. W. Haakestad, A. Marandi, N. Leindecker, and K. L. Vodopyanov, “Five-cycle pulses near λ = 3 μm produced in a subharmonic optical parametric oscillator via fine dispersion management,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), L93–L97 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. W. Haakestad, T. P. Lamour, N. Leindecker, A. Marandi, and K. L. Vodopyanov, “Intracavity trace molecular detection with a broadband mid-IR frequency comb source,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(3), 631–640 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hall, J. L.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halonen, L.

Hansch, T. W.

A. Schliesser, N. Picque, and T. W. Hansch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hänsch, T. W.

S. Chaitanya Kumar, A. Esteban-Martin, T. Ideguchi, M. Yan, S. Holzner, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Few-cycle, broadband, mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator pumped by a 20-fs Ti:sapphire laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), L86–L91 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harren, F. J. M.

M. Vainio, J. Peltola, S. Persijn, F. J. M. Harren, and L. Halonen, “Thermal effects in singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B 94(3), 411–427 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hartl, I.

Herman, M.

J. Vanderauwera, D. Hurtmans, M. Carleer, and M. Herman, “The ν3 Fundamental in C2H2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 157(2), 337–357 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hieta, T.

Holzner, S.

S. Chaitanya Kumar, A. Esteban-Martin, T. Ideguchi, M. Yan, S. Holzner, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Few-cycle, broadband, mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator pumped by a 20-fs Ti:sapphire laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), L86–L91 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

F. Zhu, H. Hundertmark, A. A. Kolomenskii, J. Strohaber, R. Holzwarth, and H. A. Schuessler, “High-power mid-infrared frequency comb source based on a femtosecond Er:fiber oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 38(13), 2360–2362 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, K.-H.

C. Manzoni, O. D. Mücke, G. Cirmi, S. Fang, J. Moses, S.-W. Huang, K.-H. Hong, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kärtner, “Coherent pulse synthesis: towards sub-cycle optical waveforms,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(2), 129–171 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, S.-W.

C. Manzoni, O. D. Mücke, G. Cirmi, S. Fang, J. Moses, S.-W. Huang, K.-H. Hong, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kärtner, “Coherent pulse synthesis: towards sub-cycle optical waveforms,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(2), 129–171 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hundertmark, H.

Hurtmans, D.

J. Vanderauwera, D. Hurtmans, M. Carleer, and M. Herman, “The ν3 Fundamental in C2H2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 157(2), 337–357 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ideguchi, T.

S. Chaitanya Kumar, A. Esteban-Martin, T. Ideguchi, M. Yan, S. Holzner, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Few-cycle, broadband, mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator pumped by a 20-fs Ti:sapphire laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), L86–L91 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ingold, K. A.

Iwakuni, K.

Jiang, J.

Johnson, T. A.

Jones, D. J.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kärtner, F. X.

C. Manzoni, O. D. Mücke, G. Cirmi, S. Fang, J. Moses, S.-W. Huang, K.-H. Hong, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kärtner, “Coherent pulse synthesis: towards sub-cycle optical waveforms,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(2), 129–171 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, Y.

Kolomenskii, A. A.

Lamour, T. P.

Lee, K. F.

Leindecker, N.

Leindecker, N. C.

Li, Y.

Loëte, M.

S. Albert, S. Bauerecker, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Champion, M. Loëte, A. Nikitin, and M. Quack, “Global analysis of the high resolution infrared spectrum of methane 12CH4 in the region from 0 to 4800 cm−1,” Chem. Phys. 356(1-3), 131–146 (2009).
[Crossref]

Manzoni, C.

C. Manzoni, O. D. Mücke, G. Cirmi, S. Fang, J. Moses, S.-W. Huang, K.-H. Hong, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kärtner, “Coherent pulse synthesis: towards sub-cycle optical waveforms,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(2), 129–171 (2015).
[Crossref]

Marandi, A.

Maslowski, P.

A. Foltynowicz, T. Ban, P. Masłowski, F. Adler, and J. Ye, “Quantum-noise-limited optical frequency comb spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(23), 233002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mazzotti, D.

I. Galli, M. Siciliani de Cumis, F. Cappelli, S. Bartalini, D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, A. Montori, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, and P. De Natale, “Comb-assisted subkilohertz linewidth quantum cascade laser for high-precision mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Merimaa, M.

Mohr, C.

Montori, A.

I. Galli, M. Siciliani de Cumis, F. Cappelli, S. Bartalini, D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, A. Montori, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, and P. De Natale, “Comb-assisted subkilohertz linewidth quantum cascade laser for high-precision mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Moses, J.

C. Manzoni, O. D. Mücke, G. Cirmi, S. Fang, J. Moses, S.-W. Huang, K.-H. Hong, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kärtner, “Coherent pulse synthesis: towards sub-cycle optical waveforms,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(2), 129–171 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mücke, O. D.

C. Manzoni, O. D. Mücke, G. Cirmi, S. Fang, J. Moses, S.-W. Huang, K.-H. Hong, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kärtner, “Coherent pulse synthesis: towards sub-cycle optical waveforms,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(2), 129–171 (2015).
[Crossref]

Neely, T. W.

Newbury, N. R.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent dual-comb spectroscopy at high signal-to-noise ratio,” Phys. Rev. A 82(4), 043817 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nikitin, A.

S. Albert, S. Bauerecker, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Champion, M. Loëte, A. Nikitin, and M. Quack, “Global analysis of the high resolution infrared spectrum of methane 12CH4 in the region from 0 to 4800 cm−1,” Chem. Phys. 356(1-3), 131–146 (2009).
[Crossref]

Okubo, S.

Peltola, J.

J. Peltola, M. Vainio, T. Fordell, T. Hieta, M. Merimaa, and L. Halonen, “Frequency-comb-referenced mid-infrared source for high-precision spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 22(26), 32429–32439 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Vainio, J. Peltola, S. Persijn, F. J. M. Harren, and L. Halonen, “Thermal effects in singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B 94(3), 411–427 (2008).
[Crossref]

Persijn, S.

M. Vainio, J. Peltola, S. Persijn, F. J. M. Harren, and L. Halonen, “Thermal effects in singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B 94(3), 411–427 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pervak, V.

Picque, N.

A. Schliesser, N. Picque, and T. W. Hansch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

Picqué, N.

S. Chaitanya Kumar, A. Esteban-Martin, T. Ideguchi, M. Yan, S. Holzner, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Few-cycle, broadband, mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator pumped by a 20-fs Ti:sapphire laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), L86–L91 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plettner, T.

Quack, M.

S. Albert, S. Bauerecker, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Champion, M. Loëte, A. Nikitin, and M. Quack, “Global analysis of the high resolution infrared spectrum of methane 12CH4 in the region from 0 to 4800 cm−1,” Chem. Phys. 356(1-3), 131–146 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ranka, J. K.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reid, D. T.

Rudy, C. W.

Sasada, H.

Schliesser, A.

A. Schliesser, N. Picque, and T. W. Hansch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schuessler, H. A.

Schunemann, P. G.

Siciliani de Cumis, M.

I. Galli, M. Siciliani de Cumis, F. Cappelli, S. Bartalini, D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, A. Montori, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, and P. De Natale, “Comb-assisted subkilohertz linewidth quantum cascade laser for high-precision mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Siltanen, M.

Smolski, V. O.

Strohaber, J.

Sun, J. H.

Swann, W. C.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent dual-comb spectroscopy at high signal-to-noise ratio,” Phys. Rev. A 82(4), 043817 (2010).
[Crossref]

Thorpe, M. J.

Torizuka, K.

Udem, T.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urbanek, K.

Vainio, M.

Vanderauwera, J.

J. Vanderauwera, D. Hurtmans, M. Carleer, and M. Herman, “The ν3 Fundamental in C2H2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 157(2), 337–357 (1993).
[Crossref]

Vodopyanov, K.

Vodopyanov, K. L.

V. O. Smolski, H. Yang, S. D. Gorelov, P. G. Schunemann, and K. L. Vodopyanov, “Coherence properties of a 2.6-7.5 μm frequency comb produced as a subharmonic of a Tm-fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 41(7), 1388–1391 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yang, H. Wei, H. Zhang, K. Chen, Y. Li, V. O. Smolski, and K. L. Vodopyanov, “Performance estimation of dual-comb spectroscopy in different frequency-control schemes,” Appl. Opt. 55(23), 6321–6330 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. F. Lee, C. Mohr, J. Jiang, P. G. Schunemann, K. L. Vodopyanov, and M. E. Fermann, “Midinfrared frequency comb from self-stable degenerate GaAs optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26596–26603 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Ingold, A. Marandi, C. W. Rudy, K. L. Vodopyanov, and R. L. Byer, “Fractional-length sync-pumped degenerate optical parametric oscillator for 500-MHz 3-μm mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Opt. Lett. 39(4), 900–903 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Haakestad, T. P. Lamour, N. Leindecker, A. Marandi, and K. L. Vodopyanov, “Intracavity trace molecular detection with a broadband mid-IR frequency comb source,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(3), 631–640 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. W. Haakestad, A. Marandi, N. Leindecker, and K. L. Vodopyanov, “Five-cycle pulses near λ = 3 μm produced in a subharmonic optical parametric oscillator via fine dispersion management,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), L93–L97 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Marandi, N. C. Leindecker, V. Pervak, R. L. Byer, and K. L. Vodopyanov, “Coherence properties of a broadband femtosecond mid-IR optical parametric oscillator operating at degeneracy,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7255–7262 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Leindecker, A. Marandi, R. L. Byer, and K. L. Vodopyanov, “Broadband degenerate OPO for mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6296–6302 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Wong, K. L. Vodopyanov, and R. L. Byer, “Self-phase-locked divide-by-2 optical parametric oscillator as a broadband frequency comb source,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(5), 876–882 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. T. Wong, T. Plettner, K. L. Vodopyanov, K. Urbanek, M. Digonnet, and R. L. Byer, “Self-phase-locked degenerate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 33(16), 1896–1898 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, H.

Windeler, R. S.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, S. T.

Yamanishi, M.

I. Galli, M. Siciliani de Cumis, F. Cappelli, S. Bartalini, D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, A. Montori, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, and P. De Natale, “Comb-assisted subkilohertz linewidth quantum cascade laser for high-precision mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yan, M.

S. Chaitanya Kumar, A. Esteban-Martin, T. Ideguchi, M. Yan, S. Holzner, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Few-cycle, broadband, mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator pumped by a 20-fs Ti:sapphire laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), L86–L91 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

Ye, J.

A. Foltynowicz, T. Ban, P. Masłowski, F. Adler, and J. Ye, “Quantum-noise-limited optical frequency comb spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(23), 233002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Adler, K. C. Cossel, M. J. Thorpe, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Phase-stabilized, 1.5 W frequency comb at 2.8-4.8 microm,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1330–1332 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

Zhu, F.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Vainio, J. Peltola, S. Persijn, F. J. M. Harren, and L. Halonen, “Thermal effects in singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B 94(3), 411–427 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

I. Galli, M. Siciliani de Cumis, F. Cappelli, S. Bartalini, D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, A. Montori, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Giusfredi, P. Cancio, and P. De Natale, “Comb-assisted subkilohertz linewidth quantum cascade laser for high-precision mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. (1)

S. Albert, S. Bauerecker, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, J. P. Champion, M. Loëte, A. Nikitin, and M. Quack, “Global analysis of the high resolution infrared spectrum of methane 12CH4 in the region from 0 to 4800 cm−1,” Chem. Phys. 356(1-3), 131–146 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (1)

J. Vanderauwera, D. Hurtmans, M. Carleer, and M. Herman, “The ν3 Fundamental in C2H2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 157(2), 337–357 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Laser Photonics Rev. (3)

M. W. Haakestad, A. Marandi, N. Leindecker, and K. L. Vodopyanov, “Five-cycle pulses near λ = 3 μm produced in a subharmonic optical parametric oscillator via fine dispersion management,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), L93–L97 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Manzoni, O. D. Mücke, G. Cirmi, S. Fang, J. Moses, S.-W. Huang, K.-H. Hong, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kärtner, “Coherent pulse synthesis: towards sub-cycle optical waveforms,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(2), 129–171 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Chaitanya Kumar, A. Esteban-Martin, T. Ideguchi, M. Yan, S. Holzner, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Few-cycle, broadband, mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator pumped by a 20-fs Ti:sapphire laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), L86–L91 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

A. Schliesser, N. Picque, and T. W. Hansch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (10)

M. Vainio, M. Merimaa, L. Halonen, and K. Vodopyanov, “Degenerate 1 GHz repetition rate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 37(21), 4561–4563 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Ingold, A. Marandi, C. W. Rudy, K. L. Vodopyanov, and R. L. Byer, “Fractional-length sync-pumped degenerate optical parametric oscillator for 500-MHz 3-μm mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Opt. Lett. 39(4), 900–903 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Adler, K. C. Cossel, M. J. Thorpe, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Phase-stabilized, 1.5 W frequency comb at 2.8-4.8 microm,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1330–1332 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Sun, B. J. S. Gale, and D. T. Reid, “Composite frequency comb spanning 0.4-2.4 µm from a phase-controlled femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser and synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1414–1416 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. O. Smolski, H. Yang, S. D. Gorelov, P. G. Schunemann, and K. L. Vodopyanov, “Coherence properties of a 2.6-7.5 μm frequency comb produced as a subharmonic of a Tm-fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 41(7), 1388–1391 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Wong, T. Plettner, K. L. Vodopyanov, K. Urbanek, M. Digonnet, and R. L. Byer, “Self-phase-locked degenerate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 33(16), 1896–1898 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kobayashi and K. Torizuka, “Carrier-phase control among subharmonic pulses in a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 26(16), 1295–1297 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Vainio, M. Merimaa, and L. Halonen, “Frequency-comb-referenced molecular spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region,” Opt. Lett. 36(21), 4122–4124 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Zhu, H. Hundertmark, A. A. Kolomenskii, J. Strohaber, R. Holzwarth, and H. A. Schuessler, “High-power mid-infrared frequency comb source based on a femtosecond Er:fiber oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 38(13), 2360–2362 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. W. Neely, T. A. Johnson, and S. A. Diddams, “High-power broadband laser source tunable from 3.0 μm to 4.4 μm based on a femtosecond Yb:fiber oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 36(20), 4020–4022 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. Vainio and L. Halonen, “Mid-infrared optical parametric oscillators and frequency combs for molecular spectroscopy,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18(6), 4266–4294 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent dual-comb spectroscopy at high signal-to-noise ratio,” Phys. Rev. A 82(4), 043817 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. Foltynowicz, T. Ban, P. Masłowski, F. Adler, and J. Ye, “Quantum-noise-limited optical frequency comb spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(23), 233002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Principle of mid-infrared (λi ~3 µm) frequency comb generation by singly-resonant OPO. The OPO is typically pumped with a mode-locked femtosecond laser (frequency comb source) at 1064 nm. The photon energy is conserved in the OPO process, such that νi = νp – νs. (b) Mid-infrared comb generation by doubly-resonant degenerate OPO, which is pumped at 1560 nm. The pump frequency is halved (half-harmonic generation), such that νi = νp/2.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic illustration of the degenerate SP-OPO used for mid-infrared comb generation. BS = beam splitter, PZT = piezoelectric actuator. No enclosure around the SP-OPO cavity was used during the experiments reported here. The radii of curvature of the concave cavity mirrors are 24 mm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Envelope spectrum of the degenerate SP-OPO frequency comb. The absorption peaks are mostly due to water and methane in the laboratory air, see Fig. 4. The inset shows oscillation peaks (in black) when tuning the SP-OPO cavity length. The associated 1f-signal used for cavity-length locking is shown by the red trace (see text for details).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Detail of Fig. 3, showing absorption lines of water and methane for an absorption path length of 13.2 m. HITRAN 2012 database was used for the simulations. The lines are pressure broadened, with full-width-at-half-maximum linewidths of >5 GHz.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Stability of the average output power of the degenerate SP-OPO mid-infrared frequency comb over 1 h. The sampling interval is 1 s.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Difference of the measured repetition frequency fr from the mean value as a function of measurement time. Solid black dots: Frequency-doubled MIR comb. Open red circles: NIR pump comb. A counter gate time of 1 s was used in the measurements. (b) The Allan deviation plots calculated from the time traces of panel (a).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Principle of frequency comparison of the MIR comb with the NIR pump comb. (b) Schematic of the setup used for the comparison. A portion of the MIR comb is frequency-doubled in an MgO:PPLN crystal to ~1552 nm. The frequency-doubled light is amplified in an Erbium:doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) and sent to a photodetector (PD) together with light from an external-cavity diode laser (ECDL), which is phase-locked to the NIR pump comb with a 21 MHz offset. The inset shows the resulting beat note measured with a 1 Hz resolution bandwidth. PLL = phase-locked loop. For simplicity, optical and RF filters etc. are not shown.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Difference of the measured beat frequency from the mean value as a function of measurement time. Solid black dots: Frequency-doubled MIR comb vs. ECDL. Open red circles: NIR pump comb vs. ECDL. A counter gate time of 1 s was used in the measurements. The gaps in the data are due to occasional interruptions of phase locking between the ECDL and the pump comb. (b) The Allan deviation plots calculated from the time traces of panel (a).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Setup of the saturation spectroscopy experiment carried out with a tunable CW OPO, which was locked to the fully stabilized MIR comb. BS = beam splitter. The inset shows a 1f-signal of the lock-in detected Lamb dip of methane at 3.25 µm. The measured signal is shown by the thin red trace. The thick black line is the same signal after low-pass filtering.

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