Abstract

Optical microscopy in complex, inhomogeneous media is challenging due to the presence of multiply scattered light that limits the depths at which diffraction-limited resolution can be achieved. One way to circumvent the degradation in resolution is to use speckle- correlation-based imaging (SCI) techniques, which permit imaging of objects inside scattering media at diffraction-limited resolution. However, SCI methods are currently limited to imaging sparsely tagged objects in a dark-field scenario. In this work, we demonstrate the ability to image hidden, moving objects in a bright-field scenario. By using a deterministic phase modulator to generate a spatially incoherent light source, the background contribution can be kept constant between acquisitions and subtracted out. In this way, the signal arising from the object can be isolated, and the object can be reconstructed with high fidelity. With the ability to effectively isolate the object signal, our work is not limited to imaging bright objects in the dark-field case, but also works in bright-field scenarios, with non-emitting objects.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2016 (3)

2015 (3)

B. Judkewitz, R. Horstmeyer, I. M. Vellekoop, I. N. Papadopoulos, and C. Yang, “Translation correlations in anisotropically scattering media,” Nat. Phys. 11, 684–689 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Schott, J. Bertolotti, J.-F. Léger, L. Bourdieu, and S. Gigan, “Characterization of the angular memory effect of scattered light in biological tissues,” Opt. Express 23, 13505–13516 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q.-H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photon. 9, 253–258 (2015).

2014 (3)

O. Katz, P. Heidmann, M. Fink, and S. Gigan, “Non-invasive single-shot imaging through scattering layers and around corners via speckle correlations,” Nat. Photon. 8, 784–790 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. H. Zhou, H. Ruan, C. Yang, and B. Judkewitz, “Focusing on moving targets through scattering samples,” Optica 1, 227–232 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Ma, X. Xu, Y. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed adapted-perturbation (trap) optical focusing onto dynamic objects inside scattering media,” Nat. Photon. 8, 931–936 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. DiMarzio, and C. Yang, “Deep-tissue focal fluorescence imaging with digitally time-reversed ultrasound-encoded light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 928 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, “Looking around corners and through thin turbid layers in real time with scattered incoherent light,” Nat. Photon. 6, 549–553 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photon. 5, 154–157 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

V. Ntziachristos, “Going deeper than microscopy: the optical imaging frontier in biology,” Nat. Methods 7, 603–614 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2, 932–940 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

G. H. Chapman, M. Trinh, N. Pfeiffer, G. Chu, and D. Lee, “Angular domain imaging of objects within highly scattering media using silicon micromachined collimating arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 257–266 (2003).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

H. Ramachandran and A. Narayanan, “Two-dimensional imaging through turbid media using a continuous wave light source,” Opt. Commun. 154, 255–260 (1998).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

1989 (1)

R. Berkovits, M. Kaveh, and S. Feng, “Memory effect of waves in disordered systems: a real-space approach,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 737 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

S. Feng, C. Kane, P. A. Lee, and A. D. Stone, “Correlations and fluctuations of coherent wave transmission through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. lett. 61, 834 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

1982 (2)

Alouini, M.

S. Sudarsanam, J. Mathew, S. Panigrahi, J. Fade, M. Alouini, and H. Ramachandran, “Real-time imaging through strongly scattering media: seeing through turbid media, instantly,” Sci. Rep. 625033 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andersson-Engels, S.

Berg, R.

Berkovits, R.

R. Berkovits, M. Kaveh, and S. Feng, “Memory effect of waves in disordered systems: a real-space approach,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 737 (1989).
[Crossref]

Bertolotti, J.

S. Schott, J. Bertolotti, J.-F. Léger, L. Bourdieu, and S. Gigan, “Characterization of the angular memory effect of scattered light in biological tissues,” Opt. Express 23, 13505–13516 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Non-invasive imaging through opaque scattering layers,” Nature 491, 232–234 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blum, C.

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Non-invasive imaging through opaque scattering layers,” Nature 491, 232–234 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bourdieu, L.

Brake, J.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chapman, G. H.

G. H. Chapman, M. Trinh, N. Pfeiffer, G. Chu, and D. Lee, “Angular domain imaging of objects within highly scattering media using silicon micromachined collimating arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 257–266 (2003).
[Crossref]

Choi, W.

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q.-H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photon. 9, 253–258 (2015).

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q.-H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photon. 9, 253–258 (2015).

Chu, G.

G. H. Chapman, M. Trinh, N. Pfeiffer, G. Chu, and D. Lee, “Angular domain imaging of objects within highly scattering media using silicon micromachined collimating arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 257–266 (2003).
[Crossref]

Crimmins, T.

Denk, W.

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2, 932–940 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DiMarzio, C. A.

Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. DiMarzio, and C. Yang, “Deep-tissue focal fluorescence imaging with digitally time-reversed ultrasound-encoded light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 928 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fade, J.

S. Sudarsanam, J. Mathew, S. Panigrahi, J. Fade, M. Alouini, and H. Ramachandran, “Real-time imaging through strongly scattering media: seeing through turbid media, instantly,” Sci. Rep. 625033 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, S.

R. Berkovits, M. Kaveh, and S. Feng, “Memory effect of waves in disordered systems: a real-space approach,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 737 (1989).
[Crossref]

S. Feng, C. Kane, P. A. Lee, and A. D. Stone, “Correlations and fluctuations of coherent wave transmission through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. lett. 61, 834 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fienup, J.

Fienup, J. R.

Fink, M.

O. Katz, P. Heidmann, M. Fink, and S. Gigan, “Non-invasive single-shot imaging through scattering layers and around corners via speckle correlations,” Nat. Photon. 8, 784–790 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photon. 6, 283–292 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fleischer, J.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freund, I.

I. Freund, “Looking through walls and around corners,” Phys. A 168, 49–65 (1990).
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gigan, S.

S. Schott, J. Bertolotti, J.-F. Léger, L. Bourdieu, and S. Gigan, “Characterization of the angular memory effect of scattered light in biological tissues,” Opt. Express 23, 13505–13516 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Katz, P. Heidmann, M. Fink, and S. Gigan, “Non-invasive single-shot imaging through scattering layers and around corners via speckle correlations,” Nat. Photon. 8, 784–790 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gong, C.

Gonzalez, R. C.

R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Woods, Digital Image Processing (3rd Edition) (Prentice-Hall, Inc., 2006).

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heidmann, P.

O. Katz, P. Heidmann, M. Fink, and S. Gigan, “Non-invasive single-shot imaging through scattering layers and around corners via speckle correlations,” Nat. Photon. 8, 784–790 (2014).
[Crossref]

Helmchen, F.

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2, 932–940 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holsztynski, W.

Horstmeyer, R.

B. Judkewitz, R. Horstmeyer, I. M. Vellekoop, I. N. Papadopoulos, and C. Yang, “Translation correlations in anisotropically scattering media,” Nat. Phys. 11, 684–689 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jang, M.

Jarlman, O.

Jeong, S.

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q.-H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photon. 9, 253–258 (2015).

Joo, J. H.

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q.-H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photon. 9, 253–258 (2015).

Judkewitz, B.

B. Judkewitz, R. Horstmeyer, I. M. Vellekoop, I. N. Papadopoulos, and C. Yang, “Translation correlations in anisotropically scattering media,” Nat. Phys. 11, 684–689 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. H. Zhou, H. Ruan, C. Yang, and B. Judkewitz, “Focusing on moving targets through scattering samples,” Optica 1, 227–232 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. DiMarzio, and C. Yang, “Deep-tissue focal fluorescence imaging with digitally time-reversed ultrasound-encoded light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 928 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kane, C.

S. Feng, C. Kane, P. A. Lee, and A. D. Stone, “Correlations and fluctuations of coherent wave transmission through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. lett. 61, 834 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, S.

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q.-H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photon. 9, 253–258 (2015).

Katz, O.

O. Katz, P. Heidmann, M. Fink, and S. Gigan, “Non-invasive single-shot imaging through scattering layers and around corners via speckle correlations,” Nat. Photon. 8, 784–790 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, “Looking around corners and through thin turbid layers in real time with scattered incoherent light,” Nat. Photon. 6, 549–553 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kaveh, M.

R. Berkovits, M. Kaveh, and S. Feng, “Memory effect of waves in disordered systems: a real-space approach,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 737 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ko, H.

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q.-H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photon. 9, 253–258 (2015).

Lagendijk, A.

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Non-invasive imaging through opaque scattering layers,” Nature 491, 232–234 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photon. 6, 283–292 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, D.

G. H. Chapman, M. Trinh, N. Pfeiffer, G. Chu, and D. Lee, “Angular domain imaging of objects within highly scattering media using silicon micromachined collimating arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 257–266 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-S.

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q.-H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photon. 9, 253–258 (2015).

Lee, P. A.

S. Feng, C. Kane, P. A. Lee, and A. D. Stone, “Correlations and fluctuations of coherent wave transmission through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. lett. 61, 834 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Léger, J.-F.

Lerosey, G.

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photon. 6, 283–292 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Lim, Y.-S.

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q.-H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photon. 9, 253–258 (2015).

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photon. 5, 154–157 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Liu, Y.

C. Ma, X. Xu, Y. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed adapted-perturbation (trap) optical focusing onto dynamic objects inside scattering media,” Nat. Photon. 8, 931–936 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ma, C.

C. Ma, X. Xu, Y. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed adapted-perturbation (trap) optical focusing onto dynamic objects inside scattering media,” Nat. Photon. 8, 931–936 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mathew, J.

S. Sudarsanam, J. Mathew, S. Panigrahi, J. Fade, M. Alouini, and H. Ramachandran, “Real-time imaging through strongly scattering media: seeing through turbid media, instantly,” Sci. Rep. 625033 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mosk, A.

Mosk, A. P.

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photon. 6, 283–292 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Non-invasive imaging through opaque scattering layers,” Nature 491, 232–234 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Narayanan, A.

H. Ramachandran and A. Narayanan, “Two-dimensional imaging through turbid media using a continuous wave light source,” Opt. Commun. 154, 255–260 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ntziachristos, V.

V. Ntziachristos, “Going deeper than microscopy: the optical imaging frontier in biology,” Nat. Methods 7, 603–614 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Panigrahi, S.

S. Sudarsanam, J. Mathew, S. Panigrahi, J. Fade, M. Alouini, and H. Ramachandran, “Real-time imaging through strongly scattering media: seeing through turbid media, instantly,” Sci. Rep. 625033 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Papadopoulos, I. N.

B. Judkewitz, R. Horstmeyer, I. M. Vellekoop, I. N. Papadopoulos, and C. Yang, “Translation correlations in anisotropically scattering media,” Nat. Phys. 11, 684–689 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, Q.-H.

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q.-H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photon. 9, 253–258 (2015).

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S. Sudarsanam, J. Mathew, S. Panigrahi, J. Fade, M. Alouini, and H. Ramachandran, “Real-time imaging through strongly scattering media: seeing through turbid media, instantly,” Sci. Rep. 625033 (2016).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Silberberg, Y.

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, “Looking around corners and through thin turbid layers in real time with scattered incoherent light,” Nat. Photon. 6, 549–553 (2012).
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Small, E.

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, “Looking around corners and through thin turbid layers in real time with scattered incoherent light,” Nat. Photon. 6, 549–553 (2012).
[Crossref]

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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stone, A. D.

S. Feng, C. Kane, P. A. Lee, and A. D. Stone, “Correlations and fluctuations of coherent wave transmission through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. lett. 61, 834 (1988).
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S. Sudarsanam, J. Mathew, S. Panigrahi, J. Fade, M. Alouini, and H. Ramachandran, “Real-time imaging through strongly scattering media: seeing through turbid media, instantly,” Sci. Rep. 625033 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Svanberg, S.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178 (1991).
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G. H. Chapman, M. Trinh, N. Pfeiffer, G. Chu, and D. Lee, “Angular domain imaging of objects within highly scattering media using silicon micromachined collimating arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 257–266 (2003).
[Crossref]

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J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Non-invasive imaging through opaque scattering layers,” Nature 491, 232–234 (2012).
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B. Judkewitz, R. Horstmeyer, I. M. Vellekoop, I. N. Papadopoulos, and C. Yang, “Translation correlations in anisotropically scattering media,” Nat. Phys. 11, 684–689 (2015).
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J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Non-invasive imaging through opaque scattering layers,” Nature 491, 232–234 (2012).
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Wackerman, C.

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C. Ma, X. Xu, Y. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed adapted-perturbation (trap) optical focusing onto dynamic objects inside scattering media,” Nat. Photon. 8, 931–936 (2014).
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X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photon. 5, 154–157 (2011).
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Wang, Y. M.

Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. DiMarzio, and C. Yang, “Deep-tissue focal fluorescence imaging with digitally time-reversed ultrasound-encoded light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 928 (2012).
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Woods, R. E.

R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Woods, Digital Image Processing (3rd Edition) (Prentice-Hall, Inc., 2006).

Wu, T.

Xu, X.

C. Ma, X. Xu, Y. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed adapted-perturbation (trap) optical focusing onto dynamic objects inside scattering media,” Nat. Photon. 8, 931–936 (2014).
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X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photon. 5, 154–157 (2011).
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B. Judkewitz, R. Horstmeyer, I. M. Vellekoop, I. N. Papadopoulos, and C. Yang, “Translation correlations in anisotropically scattering media,” Nat. Phys. 11, 684–689 (2015).
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E. H. Zhou, H. Ruan, C. Yang, and B. Judkewitz, “Focusing on moving targets through scattering samples,” Optica 1, 227–232 (2014).
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Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. DiMarzio, and C. Yang, “Deep-tissue focal fluorescence imaging with digitally time-reversed ultrasound-encoded light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 928 (2012).
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Yang, T. D.

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q.-H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photon. 9, 253–258 (2015).

Zhou, E. H.

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. H. Chapman, M. Trinh, N. Pfeiffer, G. Chu, and D. Lee, “Angular domain imaging of objects within highly scattering media using silicon micromachined collimating arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 257–266 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Nat. Commun. (1)

Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. DiMarzio, and C. Yang, “Deep-tissue focal fluorescence imaging with digitally time-reversed ultrasound-encoded light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 928 (2012).
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Nat. Methods (2)

V. Ntziachristos, “Going deeper than microscopy: the optical imaging frontier in biology,” Nat. Methods 7, 603–614 (2010).
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F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2, 932–940 (2005).
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A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photon. 6, 283–292 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q.-H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photon. 9, 253–258 (2015).

X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photon. 5, 154–157 (2011).
[Crossref]

O. Katz, P. Heidmann, M. Fink, and S. Gigan, “Non-invasive single-shot imaging through scattering layers and around corners via speckle correlations,” Nat. Photon. 8, 784–790 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, “Looking around corners and through thin turbid layers in real time with scattered incoherent light,” Nat. Photon. 6, 549–553 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Ma, X. Xu, Y. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed adapted-perturbation (trap) optical focusing onto dynamic objects inside scattering media,” Nat. Photon. 8, 931–936 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

B. Judkewitz, R. Horstmeyer, I. M. Vellekoop, I. N. Papadopoulos, and C. Yang, “Translation correlations in anisotropically scattering media,” Nat. Phys. 11, 684–689 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Non-invasive imaging through opaque scattering layers,” Nature 491, 232–234 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Ramachandran and A. Narayanan, “Two-dimensional imaging through turbid media using a continuous wave light source,” Opt. Commun. 154, 255–260 (1998).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optica (1)

Phys. A (1)

I. Freund, “Looking through walls and around corners,” Phys. A 168, 49–65 (1990).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

R. Berkovits, M. Kaveh, and S. Feng, “Memory effect of waves in disordered systems: a real-space approach,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 737 (1989).
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Phys. Rev. lett. (1)

S. Feng, C. Kane, P. A. Lee, and A. D. Stone, “Correlations and fluctuations of coherent wave transmission through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. lett. 61, 834 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

S. Sudarsanam, J. Mathew, S. Panigrahi, J. Fade, M. Alouini, and H. Ramachandran, “Real-time imaging through strongly scattering media: seeing through turbid media, instantly,” Sci. Rep. 625033 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Woods, Digital Image Processing (3rd Edition) (Prentice-Hall, Inc., 2006).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle behind non-invasive imaging of obscured moving objects. A) A spatially incoherent light source illuminates a moving object hidden behind a visually opaque turbid media. The resultant speckle field is captured by a camera sensor. B) Speckle images are acquired by the camera sensor at different times, with the object moving between the captures. The scattering media prevents us from resolving the object. C) The hidden object can be retrieved from the seemingly random speckle images by taking advantage of inherent angular correlations in the scattering pattern. i) Each captured image In consists of a background, B, subtracted by the imaged object, where the imaged object is the convolution of the PSF of the scattering media, S, and the object pattern, O. ii) Although the background signal dominates over the object, it can be subtracted out by taking the difference between the two captured images ΔI. iii) The object autocorrelation OO is approximated by autocorrelating the difference image ΔI. iv) The hidden object can be reconstructed from the object autocorrelation by using phase retrieval techniques.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Impact of object travel distance on the computed speckle autocorrelation (SAC). A) The scattering PSFs experienced by an object have a degree of correlation Cx) that depends on the distance the object traveled. When Cx) ≥ 0.5 (shown in red), the object is considered to have traveled within the memory effect (ME) region. For comparison, the object and its autocorrelation (AC) are displayed. B) When the object travels inside the ME region, the SAC contains three copies of the object autocorrelation (OAC): a centered, positive copy and two negative copies shifted by an amount proportional to the object travel distance. The OAC can be determined by either deconvolving the SAC or by thresholding out the negative portions (negative with reference to the mean, background level). The object can be reconstructed from the estimated OAC using phase retrieval techniques. C) When the object travels a distance where Cx) ≈ 0, only a single copy of the OAC is seen, with additional noise from the cross-correlation between uncorrelated PSFs. The normalized colormap used to display the AC and reconstructed object, with 0 corresponding to the mean background level.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for imaging hidden moving objects. A spatially incoherent source is generated by reflecting an expanded laser beam (λ= 532 nm; 1/e2 diameter of 20 cm) off a spatial light modulator (SLM), which applies a temporally varying set of random phase patterns. The light source is transmitted through the moving object and scattered by the turbid media. The emitted scattered light is collected by a camera. An aperture controls the final object resolution and the speckle size at the camera. Lens focal length = 400 mm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental imaging of moving targets hidden behind a diffuser. A) The “object” is hidden behind a scattering medium and attenuates light transmission. The object was moved 1.5 mm between acquisitions. B) Due to the presence of the scattering medium, the object is obscured, and the camera image I1 is dominated by the scattered light from the background. C) The ideal object autocorrelation (AC). D) The speckle autocorrelation ΔI ★ ΔIOO. E) By applying phase retrieval on the speckle autocorrelation, the hidden object was reconstructed with high fidelity. Scale bar = 500 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental results showing the effect of object motion distance on the speckle autocorrelation (SAC) and object reconstruction. A) A diagram showing the position and shape of the object at both time captures, and the SAC, showing three shifted copies of the object autocorrelation (OAC). The effect of applying B) deconvolution and C) thresholding to retain the positive portion (with respect to the mean level) for estimating the OAC from the SAC was compared in three cases (i–iii). The hidden object was reconstructed by applying Fienup phase retrieval on the estimated OAC. Colormap: green is positive, blue is negative (with respect to the mean value, in black). Scale bar: 500 μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental retrieval of moving targets hidden within a scattering object. A) Schematic of the experimental setup. A spatially incoherent light source is generated by reflecting an expanded laser beam off a spatial light modulator (SLM) that applied a temporally variant random phase pattern. The partially developed speckle field component is blocked, and only the fully-developed speckle field transmits through the moving object and two scattering layers. The emitted scattered light is collected by a camera. An aperture controls the resolution and the speckle size at the camera. B) Experimental result of a moving target. Two speckle intensity images, I1, I2, were captured, with the target present for the first capture, and absent for the second. The background halo from I1 and I2 were removed prior to computing the difference ΔI = I2I1S1 * O. The speckle autocorrelation yielded an estimate of the object autocorrelation, from which the target was retrieved by applying Fienup phase retrieval. Lens focal length = 400 mm.

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I = S * O ,
I = B S * O ,
I n = B S n * O , n = 1 , 2 , N
and Δ I n = I n + 1 I n = ( S n S n + 1 ) * O ,
Δ I n Δ I n 2 × ( O O ) ( S n S n + 1 + S n + 1 S n ) * O = 2 × ( O O ) noise ,
C ( Δ x ) = [ k Θ L sinh ( k Θ L ) ] 2
S 2 ( x i ) S 1 ( x i + Δ x i )
O 2 = O ( x i + Δ x i ) ,
Δ I = S * [ O ( x i ) O ( x i + Δ x i ) ] ,
and Δ I Δ I = 2 A ( x i ) A ( x i + Δ x i ) A ( x i Δ x i ) .
S 2 = C ( Δ x ) S 1 ( x i + Δ x i ) + 1 [ C ( Δ x ) ] 2 S ,
Δ I = ( S 1 C ( Δ x ) S 1 ( x i + Δ x i ) 1 [ C ( Δ x ) ] 2 S ) * O
and Δ I Δ I 2 A ( x i ) C ( Δ x ) A ( x i ± Δ x i ) + 1 [ C ( Δ x ) ] 2 × noise ,
g = Δ I Δ I A * h + n = y + n
( A ) = ( g ) ( h ) | ( h ) | 2 + k ( y ) ( h )

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