Abstract

In this paper, we demonstrate 67 fs pulse emitting with tungsten disulfide (WS2) in mode-locked erbium-doped fiber (EDF) lasers. Using the pulsed laser deposition method, WS2 is deposited on the surface of the tapered fiber to form the evanescent field. The fiber-taper WS2 saturable absorber (SA) with the large modulation depth is fabricated to support the ultrashort pulse generation. The influences of the WS2 SA are analyzed through contrastive experiments on fiber lasers with or without the WS2 SA. The pulse duration is measured to be 67 fs, which is the shortest pulse duration obtained in the mode-locked fiber lasers with two dimensional (2D) material SAs. Compared to graphene, topological insulator, and other transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) SAs, results in this paper indicate that the fiber-taper WS2 SA with large modulation depth is a more promising photonic device in mode-locked fiber lasers with the wide spectrum and ultrashort pulse duration.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (9)

Z. P. Sun, A. Martinez, and F. Wang, “Optical modulators with 2D layered materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(4), 227–238 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, L. Pang, H. Han, W. Tian, H. Chen, M. Lei, P. Yan, and Z. Wei, “70-fs mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser with topological insulator,” Sci. Rep. 5, 19997 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. G. Yan, H. Chen, K. Y. Li, C. Y. Guo, S. C. Ruan, J. Z. Wang, J. F. Ding, X. J. Zhang, and T. Guo, “Q-switched fiber laser using a fiber-tip-integrated TI saturable absorption mirror,” IEEE Photonics J. 8, 1500506 (2016).

L. Gao, T. Zhu, Y. J. Li, W. Huang, and M. Liu, “Watt-level ultrafast fiber laser based on weak evanescent interaction with reduced graphene oxide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(11), 1245–1248 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, X. She, B. Du, D. Yang, W. Zhang, K. Song, X. Cui, B. Jiang, T. Peng, and J. Zhao, “Erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked with few-layer WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23583 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Guo, Y. Yao, P. G. Yan, K. Xu, J. J. Liu, S. G. Wang, and Y. Li, “Dual-wavelength soliton mode-locked fiber laser with a WS2-based fiber taper,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(3), 323–326 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1066–1072 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12(11), 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Yin, X. Zhang, T. Guo, and P. Yan, “High-damage-resistant tungsten disulfide saturable absorber mirror for passively Q-switched fiber laser,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16287–16296 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (21)

X. Zhang, X. F. Qiao, W. Shi, J. B. Wu, D. S. Jiang, and P. H. Tan, “Phonon and Raman scattering of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides from monolayer, multilayer to bulk material,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(9), 2757–2785 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Y. Li, M. Zhong, Y. Z. Huang, X. J. Wan, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Nonlinear optical absorption of few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for passively mode-locked soliton fiber laser,” Photon. Res. 3(3), A79–A86 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Yan, A. Liu, Y. Chen, J. Wang, S. Ruan, H. Chen, and J. Ding, “Passively mode-locked fiber laser by a cell-type WS2 nanosheets saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12587 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Z. Wang, S. F. Zhang, X. Y. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. Cheng, D. Fox, H. Z. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Tunable nonlinear refractive index of two-dimensional MoS2, WS2, and MoSe2 nanosheet dispersions,” Photon. Res. 3(2), A51–A55 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. P. Luo, M. Liu, X. D. Wang, Q. Y. Ning, W. C. Xu, and Z. C. Luo, “Few-layer MoS2-deposited microfiber as highly nonlinear photonic device for pulse shaping in a fiber laser,” Photon. Res. 3(2), A69–A78 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. G. Yan, A. J. Liu, Y. S. Chen, H. Chen, S. C. Ruan, C. Y. Guo, S. F. Chen, I. L. Li, H. P. Yang, J. G. Hu, and G. Z. Cao, “Microfiber-based WS2-film saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(3), 479–489 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Wu, X. Zhang, J. Wang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “WS2 as a saturable absorber for ultrafast photonic applications of mode-locked and Q-switched lasers,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11453–11461 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Wu, H. Wang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “Q-switched fiber laser based on transition metal dichalcogenides MoS(2), MoSe(2), WS(2), and WSe(2).,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26723–26737 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. X. Li, Y. R. Song, Z. H. Yu, R. Q. Xu, Z. Y. Dou, and J. R. Tian, “L-band femtosecond fibre laser based on Bi2Se3 topological insulator,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(10), 105103 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Wu, X. Zhang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “463-MHz fundamental mode-locked fiber laser based on few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 40(7), 1374–1377 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Yan, R. Lin, S. Ruan, A. Liu, and H. Chen, “A 2.95 GHz, femtosecond passive harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on evanescent field interaction with topological insulator film,” Opt. Express 23(1), 154–164 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, A. Krajewska, W. Strupinski, and G. Sobon, “Sub-90 fs a stretched-pulse mode-locked fiber laser based on a graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 23(21), 27503–27508 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Boguslawski, J. Sotor, G. Sobon, R. Kozinski, K. Librant, M. Aksienionek, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Graphene oxide paper as a saturable absorber for Er- and Tm-doped fiber lasers,” Photon. Res. 3(4), 119–124 (2015).
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H. R. Mu, Z. T. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Y. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. C. Song, Y. S. Wang, Y. Z. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 832–841 (2015).
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J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 051108 (2015).
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R. I. Woodward and E. J. R. Kelleher, “2D saturable absorbers for fibre lasers,” Appl. Sci. 5(4), 1440–1456 (2015).
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G. Sobon, “Mode-locking of fiber lasers using novel two-dimensional nanomaterials: graphene and topological insulators,” Photon. Res. 3(2), A56–A63 (2015).
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K. Park, J. Lee, Y. T. Lee, W. K. Choi, J. H. Lee, and Y. W. Song, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrafast mode-locked pulse laser via evanescent field interaction,” Ann. Phys. (Berlin) 527(11-12), 770–776 (2015).
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J. Wang, Z. Cai, P. Xu, G. Du, F. Wang, S. Ruan, Z. Sun, and T. Hasan, “Pulse dynamics in carbon nanotube mode-locked fiber lasers near zero cavity dispersion,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9947–9958 (2015).
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2014 (8)

F. N. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
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S. S. Huang, Y. G. Wang, P. G. Yan, G. L. Zhang, J. Q. Zhao, H. Q. Li, and R. Y. Lin, “High order harmonic mode-locking in an all-normal-dispersion Yb-doped fiber laser with a graphene oxide saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. 24(1), 015001 (2014).
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S. Q. Chen, C. J. Zhao, Y. Li, H. H. Huang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(4), 587–596 (2014).
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J. Lee, J. Koo, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse erbium fiber laser incorporating a saturable absorber based on bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(5), 6165–6173 (2014).
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M. Liu, X. W. Zheng, Y. L. Qi, H. Liu, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber for 2.5 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22841–22846 (2014).
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Y. Huang, Z. Luo, Y. Li, M. Zhong, B. Xu, K. Che, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Widely-tunable, passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25258–25266 (2014).
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H. Liu, A. P. Luo, F. Z. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4591–4594 (2014).
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J. Zheng, H. Zhang, S. Dong, Y. Liu, C. T. Nai, H. S. Shin, H. Y. Jeong, B. Liu, and K. P. Loh, “High yield exfoliation of two-dimensional chalcogenides using sodium naphthalenide,” Nat. Commun. 5, 2995 (2014).
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2013 (6)

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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H. R. Gutiérrez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. López-Urías, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary room-temperature photoluminescence in triangular WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
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M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser at 2500 nm,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 341–343 (2013).
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S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi2Se3,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
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S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
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M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 868–874 (2013).
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2012 (3)

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
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C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
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J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2 μm passive mode-locking Tm:YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 15–19 (2012).
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2010 (5)

A. A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. Calvez, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, M. D. Dawson, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Femtosecond pulse operation of a Tm,Ho-codoped crystalline laser near 2 microm,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 172–174 (2010).
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F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
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W. D. Tan, C. Y. Su, R. J. Knize, G. Q. Xie, L. J. Li, and D. Y. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd: yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031106 (2010).
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D. Ma, Y. Cai, C. Zhou, W. Zong, L. Chen, and Z. Zhang, “37.4 fs pulse generation in an Er:fiber laser at a 225 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2858–2860 (2010).
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K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS2: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136805 (2010).
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2009 (3)

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
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Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
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2007 (1)

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

Z. W. Pan, Z. R. Dai, and Z. L. Wang, “Nanobelts of semiconducting oxides,” Science 291(5510), 1947–1949 (2001).
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1999 (1)

G. L. Frey, R. Tenne, M. J. Matthews, M. S. Dresselhaus, and G. Dresselhaus, “Raman and resonance Raman investigation of MoS2 nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 60(4), 2883–2892 (1999).
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1997 (1)

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
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1996 (1)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

Abramski, K. M.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(5), 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Boguslawski, J. Sotor, G. Sobon, R. Kozinski, K. Librant, M. Aksienionek, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Graphene oxide paper as a saturable absorber for Er- and Tm-doped fiber lasers,” Photon. Res. 3(4), 119–124 (2015).
[Crossref]

Aksienionek, M.

Aus der Au, J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
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Bae, S.

Bao, Q. L.

H. R. Mu, Z. T. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Y. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. C. Song, Y. S. Wang, Y. Z. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 832–841 (2015).
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Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berkdemir, A.

H. R. Gutiérrez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. López-Urías, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary room-temperature photoluminescence in triangular WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berner, N. C.

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
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Blau, W. J.

G. Z. Wang, S. F. Zhang, X. Y. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. Cheng, D. Fox, H. Z. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Tunable nonlinear refractive index of two-dimensional MoS2, WS2, and MoSe2 nanosheet dispersions,” Photon. Res. 3(2), A51–A55 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boguslawski, J.

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Brown, C. T. A.

Butler, S. Z.

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, Y.

Cai, Z.

Calvez, S.

Cao, G. Z.

Cao, L.

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cava, R. J.

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Che, K.

Chen, B.

Chen, C. Y.

H. R. Mu, Z. T. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Y. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. C. Song, Y. S. Wang, Y. Z. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

W. Liu, L. Pang, H. Han, W. Tian, H. Chen, M. Lei, P. Yan, and Z. Wei, “70-fs mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser with topological insulator,” Sci. Rep. 5, 19997 (2016).
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P. G. Yan, H. Chen, K. Y. Li, C. Y. Guo, S. C. Ruan, J. Z. Wang, J. F. Ding, X. J. Zhang, and T. Guo, “Q-switched fiber laser using a fiber-tip-integrated TI saturable absorption mirror,” IEEE Photonics J. 8, 1500506 (2016).

H. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Yin, X. Zhang, T. Guo, and P. Yan, “High-damage-resistant tungsten disulfide saturable absorber mirror for passively Q-switched fiber laser,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16287–16296 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Yan, R. Lin, S. Ruan, A. Liu, and H. Chen, “A 2.95 GHz, femtosecond passive harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on evanescent field interaction with topological insulator film,” Opt. Express 23(1), 154–164 (2015).
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P. G. Yan, A. J. Liu, Y. S. Chen, H. Chen, S. C. Ruan, C. Y. Guo, S. F. Chen, I. L. Li, H. P. Yang, J. G. Hu, and G. Z. Cao, “Microfiber-based WS2-film saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(3), 479–489 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Yan, A. Liu, Y. Chen, J. Wang, S. Ruan, H. Chen, and J. Ding, “Passively mode-locked fiber laser by a cell-type WS2 nanosheets saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12587 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

Chen, L.

Chen, S.

Chen, S. F.

Chen, S. Q.

Chen, Y.

H. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Yin, X. Zhang, T. Guo, and P. Yan, “High-damage-resistant tungsten disulfide saturable absorber mirror for passively Q-switched fiber laser,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16287–16296 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Yan, A. Liu, Y. Chen, J. Wang, S. Ruan, H. Chen, and J. Ding, “Passively mode-locked fiber laser by a cell-type WS2 nanosheets saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12587 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Mu, Z. T. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Y. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. C. Song, Y. S. Wang, Y. Z. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. R. Mu, Z. T. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Y. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. C. Song, Y. S. Wang, Y. Z. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi2Se3,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. S.

Chen, Z.

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, H.

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12(11), 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.

Choi, W. K.

K. Park, J. Lee, Y. T. Lee, W. K. Choi, J. H. Lee, and Y. W. Song, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrafast mode-locked pulse laser via evanescent field interaction,” Ann. Phys. (Berlin) 527(11-12), 770–776 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cizmeciyan, M. N.

Coleman, J. N.

G. Z. Wang, S. F. Zhang, X. Y. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. Cheng, D. Fox, H. Z. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Tunable nonlinear refractive index of two-dimensional MoS2, WS2, and MoSe2 nanosheet dispersions,” Photon. Res. 3(2), A51–A55 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colombo, L.

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crespi, V. H.

H. R. Gutiérrez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. López-Urías, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary room-temperature photoluminescence in triangular WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, X.

D. Mao, X. She, B. Du, D. Yang, W. Zhang, K. Song, X. Cui, B. Jiang, T. Peng, and J. Zhao, “Erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked with few-layer WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23583 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, Y.

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, X.

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dai, Z. R.

Z. W. Pan, Z. R. Dai, and Z. L. Wang, “Nanobelts of semiconducting oxides,” Science 291(5510), 1947–1949 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dawson, M. D.

Ding, J.

P. Yan, A. Liu, Y. Chen, J. Wang, S. Ruan, H. Chen, and J. Ding, “Passively mode-locked fiber laser by a cell-type WS2 nanosheets saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12587 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, J. F.

P. G. Yan, H. Chen, K. Y. Li, C. Y. Guo, S. C. Ruan, J. Z. Wang, J. F. Ding, X. J. Zhang, and T. Guo, “Q-switched fiber laser using a fiber-tip-integrated TI saturable absorption mirror,” IEEE Photonics J. 8, 1500506 (2016).

Dong, N.

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, S.

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D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12(11), 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, H. P.

Yao, Y.

B. Guo, Y. Yao, P. G. Yan, K. Xu, J. J. Liu, S. G. Wang, and Y. Li, “Dual-wavelength soliton mode-locked fiber laser with a WS2-based fiber taper,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(3), 323–326 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yim, C.

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, J.

Yu, Z. H.

K. X. Li, Y. R. Song, Z. H. Yu, R. Q. Xu, Z. Y. Dou, and J. R. Tian, “L-band femtosecond fibre laser based on Bi2Se3 topological insulator,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(10), 105103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yuan, J.

H. R. Mu, Z. T. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Y. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. C. Song, Y. S. Wang, Y. Z. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zeng, H.

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12(11), 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, G. L.

S. S. Huang, Y. G. Wang, P. G. Yan, G. L. Zhang, J. Q. Zhao, H. Q. Li, and R. Y. Lin, “High order harmonic mode-locking in an all-normal-dispersion Yb-doped fiber laser with a graphene oxide saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. 24(1), 015001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1066–1072 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Mu, Z. T. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Y. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. C. Song, Y. S. Wang, Y. Z. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Zheng, H. Zhang, S. Dong, Y. Liu, C. T. Nai, H. S. Shin, H. Y. Jeong, B. Liu, and K. P. Loh, “High yield exfoliation of two-dimensional chalcogenides using sodium naphthalenide,” Nat. Commun. 5, 2995 (2014).
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S. Q. Chen, C. J. Zhao, Y. Li, H. H. Huang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(4), 587–596 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, X. W. Zheng, Y. L. Qi, H. Liu, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber for 2.5 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22841–22846 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, A. P. Luo, F. Z. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4591–4594 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi2Se3,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H. Z.

Zhang, L.

G. Z. Wang, S. F. Zhang, X. Y. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. Cheng, D. Fox, H. Z. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Tunable nonlinear refractive index of two-dimensional MoS2, WS2, and MoSe2 nanosheet dispersions,” Photon. Res. 3(2), A51–A55 (2015).
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S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12(11), 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S. C.

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S. F.

Zhang, W.

D. Mao, X. She, B. Du, D. Yang, W. Zhang, K. Song, X. Cui, B. Jiang, T. Peng, and J. Zhao, “Erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked with few-layer WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23583 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12(11), 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

H. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Yin, X. Zhang, T. Guo, and P. Yan, “High-damage-resistant tungsten disulfide saturable absorber mirror for passively Q-switched fiber laser,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16287–16296 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Wu, H. Wang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “Q-switched fiber laser based on transition metal dichalcogenides MoS(2), MoSe(2), WS(2), and WSe(2).,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26723–26737 (2015).
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K. Wu, X. Zhang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “463-MHz fundamental mode-locked fiber laser based on few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 40(7), 1374–1377 (2015).
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K. Wu, X. Zhang, J. Wang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “WS2 as a saturable absorber for ultrafast photonic applications of mode-locked and Q-switched lasers,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11453–11461 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, X. F. Qiao, W. Shi, J. B. Wu, D. S. Jiang, and P. H. Tan, “Phonon and Raman scattering of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides from monolayer, multilayer to bulk material,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(9), 2757–2785 (2015).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. J.

P. G. Yan, H. Chen, K. Y. Li, C. Y. Guo, S. C. Ruan, J. Z. Wang, J. F. Ding, X. J. Zhang, and T. Guo, “Q-switched fiber laser using a fiber-tip-integrated TI saturable absorption mirror,” IEEE Photonics J. 8, 1500506 (2016).

Zhang, X. Y.

Zhang, Y.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
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Zhang, Z.

Zhao, C.

Zhao, C. J.

Zhao, J.

D. Mao, X. She, B. Du, D. Yang, W. Zhang, K. Song, X. Cui, B. Jiang, T. Peng, and J. Zhao, “Erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked with few-layer WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23583 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12(11), 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J. Q.

S. S. Huang, Y. G. Wang, P. G. Yan, G. L. Zhang, J. Q. Zhao, H. Q. Li, and R. Y. Lin, “High order harmonic mode-locking in an all-normal-dispersion Yb-doped fiber laser with a graphene oxide saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. 24(1), 015001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L. M.

Zhao, Q.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, J.

J. Zheng, H. Zhang, S. Dong, Y. Liu, C. T. Nai, H. S. Shin, H. Y. Jeong, B. Liu, and K. P. Loh, “High yield exfoliation of two-dimensional chalcogenides using sodium naphthalenide,” Nat. Commun. 5, 2995 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, L. H.

J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2 μm passive mode-locking Tm:YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 15–19 (2012).
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Zheng, X. W.

Zhong, M.

Zhou, C.

Zhu, C.

Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1066–1072 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, T.

L. Gao, T. Zhu, Y. J. Li, W. Huang, and M. Liu, “Watt-level ultrafast fiber laser based on weak evanescent interaction with reduced graphene oxide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(11), 1245–1248 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zong, W.

Zou, Y.

ACS Nano (3)

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation in WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
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ACS Photonics (1)

H. R. Mu, Z. T. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Y. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. C. Song, Y. S. Wang, Y. Z. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 832–841 (2015).
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Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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L. Gao, T. Zhu, Y. J. Li, W. Huang, and M. Liu, “Watt-level ultrafast fiber laser based on weak evanescent interaction with reduced graphene oxide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(11), 1245–1248 (2016).
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B. Guo, Y. Yao, P. G. Yan, K. Xu, J. J. Liu, S. G. Wang, and Y. Li, “Dual-wavelength soliton mode-locked fiber laser with a WS2-based fiber taper,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(3), 323–326 (2016).
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Laser Phys. (1)

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J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2 μm passive mode-locking Tm:YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 15–19 (2012).
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K. X. Li, Y. R. Song, Z. H. Yu, R. Q. Xu, Z. Y. Dou, and J. R. Tian, “L-band femtosecond fibre laser based on Bi2Se3 topological insulator,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(10), 105103 (2015).
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H. R. Gutiérrez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. López-Urías, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary room-temperature photoluminescence in triangular WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

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Opt. Express (11)

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S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi2Se3,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
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H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
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H. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Yin, X. Zhang, T. Guo, and P. Yan, “High-damage-resistant tungsten disulfide saturable absorber mirror for passively Q-switched fiber laser,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16287–16296 (2016).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The SEM image for the taper waist of the WS2 SA. The waist diameter is 12 μm, and the effective length of the fused zone is 3 mm. (b) Film surface of the WS2 SA.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Raman spectrum of the WS2 on the fiber-taper SA. Two optical phonon modes are at 355.8 cm−1 and 418 cm−1, respectively. The typical longitudinal acoustic mode is at 350 cm−1. (b) Nonlinear saturable absorption of the WS2 SA. The modulation depth is 35.1%, the saturation intensity is 19.8 MW/cm2, and the non-saturable loss is 59.5%.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Standard two-arm transmission setup.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Configuration of the passively mode-locked EDF laser with the fiber-taper WS2 SA. LD is the laser diode, WDM is the wavelength-division multiplexer, SMF is the signal mode fiber, Col. is the collimator, QWP is the quarter wave plate, HWP is the half wave plate, PBS is the polarization beam splitter, ISO is the polarization-dependent isolator, and EDF is the erbium-doped fiber.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Experimental results of the passively mode-locked EDF laser with the fiber-taper WS2 SA. (a) Optical spectrum of the generated pulses. The 3 dB spectral width is 114 nm at 1540 nm. (b) Intensity autocorrelation trace with 67 fs pulse duration. (c) Radio frequency (RF) spectrum with 93 dB SNR measured with 10 kHz RBW. (d) Phase noise measurement at 135 MHz, and the timing jitter is about 290 fs.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Experimental results of the passively mode-locked EDF laser with the SMF in the same length. The difference with Fig. 4 is that the fiber-taper WS2 SA is replaced with the SMF. (a) The 3 dB spectral width is 82 nm at 1549 nm. (b) Intensity autocorrelation trace with 95 fs pulse duration. (c) RF spectrum with 85 dB SNR measured with 10 kHz RBW. (d) Phase noise measurement at 135 MHz, and the timing jitter is about 0.95 ps.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Experimental results of the passively mode-locked EDF laser with the tapered fiber. The difference with Fig. 4 is that the fiber-taper WS2 SA is replaced with the tapered fiber. (a) The 3 dB spectral width is 44 nm at 1537 nm. (b) Intensity autocorrelation trace with 108 fs pulse duration. (c) RF spectrum with 80 dB SNR measured with 10 kHz RBW. (d) Phase noise measurement at 135 MHz, and the timing jitter is about 15 ps.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Summary of the parameters among mode-locked EDF lasers.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of mode-locked EDF lasers with SAs based on different materials. GO is the graphene oxide.

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